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construction of the names. He produces a passage from Pindar, Olymp. 13, where they can be understood in no other sense; the words of the poet, in English, are these. Here Eunomia dwells with Jier sisters, Dica the safe foundations of cities, and Irana endowed with the fame manners, with the other, the disposers of riches to men, the golden daughters of Themis good in counsel. We are to observe the difference of the names in Hesiod and Pindar is only from a change of the dialect in the latter. Mombritius has taken the hours in the fame sense:

Dein horas Themis ediderat, Jovis altera conjux, Justitiam, legemque bonam pacemque virentem.

The poet before makes the Fates spring from Night; a mistake therefore must be in one place; Le Clerc supposes it here. Mr. Robinson, to avoid the contradiction which is made by the common interpretation of M»i{«{, &c. here places Mmfmi after *§mm*i. in the construction, and not after mip; which gives it a better sense; however, afiim Moijof, with their names as they stand here, will not well admit of this construction which Mr. Robinson makes, "bonje leges, justitia, et pax, ■* humanam fortem pulchram et selicem reddunt." I am inclined to think the three verses here concerning the fates spurious: I am sure they are absurd.

Ver. 1151. Aglaia from a-yXtus, splendid; Euphrosyne signifies joy; Thalia from Sstiuaw, banquets.

Ver. 115 7. Persephone, by the Latins called Proserpina, Le Clerc derives from the Phœnician word pcrifapbrntn, in English hidden fruit, which means the fruit committed to the earth; Jove, therefore, whether we understand him as the Supreme Being, or physically the air, is properly called the father of Persephone, and Ceres her mother. Pluto is the heat in the earth which contributes towards maturing the fruits. Besides this interpretation, a story is told of Ceres, a queen of Sicily, whase daughter was forced away by Pluto.

Ver. 1164. Grævius makes one inference from the Muses having diadems of gold on their heads, which is that luxury in dress which prevailed among the ancients. On this occasion he uses the words as Ælian from his Various History, book 1. chap. 18. " Who can deny that the women among M the ancients abounded in luxury?"

Ver. 1267. Le Clerc fays Phœbus Apollo comes from the Hebrew pbc-fo-tapollm, having a wonderful mouth; but we must take notice that the poet calls him only Apollo here. Artemis, whom the Latins call Diana, the fame critic derives from the Phœnician words bar, a mountain, nodlbanub, admired.

Ver. 1*71. The poet means by this, that Juno was the last of goddesses whom he took to his bed, and whom he made his wife; the rest were only concubines. The word ajturit, a wife, our author uses to non,e but Juno.

Hebe, the goddess of youth is derived from the Hebrew word ct, to Sourish; Afis, in Latin Mars, from Hari, which signifies a mountain-man: it is wall knows that the feat of Mars was oa th«

mountains of Thrace. Ei>.atvtx, or Lucina, Is from IciliJia, she caused to bring forth; a proper name for a goddess who presides over human birth. Lt Clerr.

The meaning of thin may be, that to the supreme beings, or to earth and air, which are here Jupiter and Juno, we owe our birth, our bloom of youth, and vigour or maturity; which are denoted by Lucina, Hebe, and Mars

Ver. l»8o. The vulgar reading of this passage is this j nor is it in any edition I have seen otherwise.

r«un.

Juno, joining in love, brought forth the renowned Vulcan ; than which reading nothing can he more absurd. This is a flagrant instance of the ignorance of the transcribers; nor indeed are those free from censure who have had the care of the press in the printed editions. The very words which follow point out the mistake of 11 <VA*rw.

Xbli £a/iuiictt xai n^itfu at wogaxufr.

She used her utmost endeavours, and contended
with her husband. For what did she contend
with her husband? To bring forth without his
assistance, as he did without her. Had the poet
intended to make Vulcan the son of Jupiter and
Juno, he would have placed him in the list with
Hebe, Mars, and Lucina; but, instead of that, he
lets the birth of Minerva, though he had given an
account of it before, intervene, that the reason of
the resentment of Juno may immediately appear:"
let us therefore read it » piKornn (uyttta., and the
sense will be this: Juno, without the joys of love,
brought forth the renowned Vulcan, resolving to
revenge herself on her husband. Thus Tzctzes
and Grævius take it j and thus Mombritius has
translated it:

Sic quoque, nullius commixta libidine, Juno
Te Vulcane tulit.

Sic Quojiu is here very proper, because it allude* to the preceding lines of the birth of Minerva. Hpture, I believe, comes from a*/"> to burn, and from aifu, to destroy. I have another reason which may possibly enforce this reading, and which I have never met with. As Vulcan is called the god of artificers, in metals he is rightly the son of Juno only, who i» sometimes physically taken for the earch.

Ver. 1*85. Triton is feigned to be the son of Neptune and Amphitrite, and by later poets made the trumpeter of Ntptune. Le Clerc takes the name from the Chaldian word mat, he stirred up a clamour.

Veit. 1288. This passage, where Terror and Fear are made the sons of Mars, wants no explanation; why Harmonia is the daughter of him and Venus I know not, unless the poet means that beauty is sometimes the reward of courage.

Ver. 1196. Maia is one of the Pleiades; how she may be said to be the daughter of Atlas, see ia the Works and Days, book 2. note I. The Scholiast interpret! Heroics, being the messenger of tite gods, thus; the herald of heaven is that which briogs divine things to light.

Ver. 1300. Bacchus is said to be born of Single, which word Le Clercderivessrorn the Phœnician tfmrUb, which signifies a virgin ripe for man- The Greek name of Bacchus is Ainum, which a literally the sen us Jove; some have a different derivation ; but since this agrees with his birth, according' to the Theunogy, it will be needHi to feck any other. He is the god who presides over the vintage; therefore, as all pleasures are from God, he U justly derived from the fame scarce- See farther in the Discourse at the end.

Ver. 1304. The story of Jupiter possessing Alctneca in the shape of her husband Amphitryon, « wtH known: Hercules physically signifies strength aed courage, which are from Jove.

Ver. 1316 Vulcan and Aglaia are here hufbod and wife; but Venus is made the consort of Vx'can by other authors. Vulcan, the g»d of artzticeri in fire, and Aglaia, one as the Graces, are properly joined, because, by the help of both, all that is ornamental is brought to perfection. Vulcan is called lam*, because fire cannot subsist without faeL These two are brought together, but no children arc born of them, which does not answer the title of the generation of the gods, therefore œpj-operly introduced in a poem under that title, as are the other persons who meet and not propa

Ver. ijia. Hercules is married to Hebe, that is, to carnal youth, the reward of great and glo

Ver. 1318. Circe, as an enchantress, is properly laid to be a daughter of the Sun; and Medea, for the fame reason, is justly derived from the lame source.

Ver. 133 x. We are now come to the last part as the peem, where goddessei submit to the embraces of mortals. How ridiculous would these (tries seem, were they to be understood in the very letter'. Such, therefore, (an observation I hire made before) as remain obscure to UJ, we mast conclude to have lost of their explanation through the length of time in which they have been handed down to us. The meeting of Jason and Ceres in Crete, plainly signifies the land beeg cnltivated by that hero; and Plutus, the god of riches, being the produce of their loves, means the fruit* of his labour and industry.

Ver. 134c. Cadmus and Harmonia have, doubtlets, seme relation to persons in history. Polydore, : Scholiast, fays, was so called, because the gods 1 their gifts at the nuptials of hU parents.

Ver. 1347. These verses ofChrysaor and Cal| lirhoe,are, doubtless, placed here by mistake, since 1 they were introduced before in a more proper ; manner: here they are absurd, because Chrysaor 1 and Callirhoe arc not reckoned mortals. I Ver. 1354. I believe Memnon and Hemathion 'were called by the ancient Greek*, sons of Aurora, j because they were of the orientals which settled in j Greece. Memnon was king of Ethiopia, which country is in the east from Greece. Le Cltrt. Tzetzcs tells us, that Macedon was so called from Hemathion, who was slain by Hercules; but that does not agree with Memnon being slain by Achilles, because the distance of time betwixt Hercules and Achilles was too long , besides Memnon was slain in his youth, which increases the error in point of time. .The reason which Lord Bacon gives for Memnon being the son of Aurora, is, that as he was a youth whose glories were Ihortlived, he is properly said to be the son of the morning, whose beauties soon pass away. The fame remark, perhaps, may be applied to Hemathion and Phaethon.

Ver. 1366. Many passages may be collected, from which the Argonauts will appear to have been Thessalian merchants, who sailed to Colchis; but, since Hesiod intended not to relate the expedition, it would be needless to give the history here. Le Cltrt.

Ver". 1380. JEacnt, Achilles, and Æneas, are names well known in history, and seem to be men. tioned only as the reputed fens of goddesses by mortals without any physical view; which seems to be the end of introducing Agrius, Latinus, and other names.

Ver. 1394. Le Clerc takes Nausinous to be the inclination which Ulysses had to leave Calypso, and Nausithous the (hip in which he sailed from her 1 both words, indeed, are expressive of such meanings, but as many persons hive had names from their dispositions, offices, or some particular circumstance of their lives, or names given them significant of seme quality or employment, yet not applicable to those who arc so named, we are not certain whether these are designed as real names or not.

Ver. 1403. This concludes the Theogony, as the poem now stands, from which it appears, that the poet writ or intended to write, of women of renown; but such a work could not come under the title of the Theogony; of which fee farther in the fifth section of my Discourse on the Writ, ings of HeCod.

A DISCOURSE

ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS.

In the following discourse I shall cor.sine myself so the Theology and Mythology os the ancient precks, showing their rise and progress, with a view only to the Theogony of Hesiud, intending it but a* an nppendix to the notes.

The Greek*, doubtsefs, derived great part of their religion from the Egyptians; and though Hcrodoiu- tells us. in one place, that Hcsiod, with HoniiT, wa» the firil who introduced a Theogony among c!'e Grecians, and the first whu gave names to the god-, yet he contr...:,.' thtt opinion in his second book, where he lays Melampus seems to have learned the stories of Bacchus from Cadmus and other Tyrians, which came with him from Phœnicia to the country now called Bceutia he must therefore mean that Hc-siod and Homer were the first who g?ve the pods a poetical dress, and who used them with more freedom in their writings than preceding authors.

Herodotus Diodorus Siculus, and Pausanias, all mention Cadmus settling in Bceotia, and Egyptian colonies in other parts of Greece; and Herodotus fays aln.oO al! the names of the gc's in Greece were from Egypt: to enforce which, I have translated the following account from Diotserus biculus.

We learn from the Egyptians that many by nature mortal, were honoured with immortality for their wisdom, and inventions which (roved useful to mankind, fume of which were kings of Egypt; and to such they gave the names of the celestial deities. Their first prince was called >iixjc(, from the planet cf that name, the fun. We are told that Hfcuf;,or Vulcan, was the inventor cf file, that in, me tnc of it; for seeing a tree on the mountains blasted from heaven, and the wood turning,be received much comfort fron. the heat, being then winter; from this he fired some combustible matter, and preserved the use os it afterwards to men, fur which reason he was made ruler of the people. After this Chronos, or Saturn reigned, who married his sister Rhea, of whom five deities were born, whose names were Osiris, lsi«, Typhon, Apollo, Aphrodite. Osirisis Bacchus and Hi*, Ceie\ or Demetcr. Isi« was married to Osiris and, after Oic shared the dominion, made many discoveries for the benefit of life; she found the use of corn, which grew before neglected ill the field« like other heibs; and Osiris began to cultivate the fruit-trees. In remembrance of these persons annual rites were decreed, which are now preserved; in the time of harvest they offer the first-fruits of the corn to Ifis, aud invoke her.

Hermes invented letters, and the lyre of three chords , the first instituted divine worship, and ordained facrilices to ihe gods.

The fame historian proceeds to relate the expedition of Osiris, who was accompanied by his brother Apollo, who is said to be the first that pointed out the laurel. Osiris look great delight in mode, for which reason he carried with him a company of musicians, among which were cine yirgins eminent for their skill in sinking, and in other sciences, whom the Greeks call the Muses, and Apollo they style theif president. Osiris at his return was deified, and afterwards murdered by his brother "Typhon, a turbulent and impious mao. lsis and her son revenged themselves oil Typhon and his accomplices.

Thus far Diodorus in his first book; and Plutarch, in his treatise of lsis and Osiris, seems to think the Grecian poet', in their stories of Jupiter and the Titans, and of Bacchus and Ceres, indebted to the Egyptians.

Diodorus in his third book, tells us Cadmus, who was derived from Egypt, breught letter* from Phœnicia, and Linus was the first among the Greeks who invented poetic numbers and melody, and who writ an account of the actions of the first: Bacchus; he had many disciples, the most renowned of which were Hercules, Thamyiis, and Orpheus. We are told by the fame author, that Orpheus, who was let into the theology of the Egyptians, applied the generation of the Osiris of old, to the thtn modern times, and, being gratified by the Cadmeans, instituted new rites Simelc, the daughter of Cadmus, being deflowered, bore a child of the seme likeness, which ihey attributed to Osiris of Egypt; Orpheus, who was admitted into the mysteries ol the religion, endeavotiicd to veil her shame, by giving out that Simrle conceived by Jove, and brought forth Bacchus. Hence men, partly through ignorance, and partly through the honour which they had for Orpheus, aud confidence in him, were deceived.

From these passages we learn that the religion and gods of Egypt were, in part, translated with the colonies into Greece; but they continued not long without innovations and alterations. Linus first fung the exploits of the first Bacchus or Osiris; he, doubtless, took all the poetical liberty that he could with his subject: Urpheus after him banished the first Bacchus from the theology, and introduced the second with a lie to conceal the shame us a polluted woman. In short, all the stories

A DISCOURSE ON THE THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY OF THE ANCIENTS. «J

which were told in honour of those Egyptians, who had deserved well of their country, were, ▼ith their names applied to other persons. Thus, according to tac historian, the divine Orpheus set oat with bribery, flatiery, and delusion.

Heo&d tegins hisThtogony wiih the first principle of toe heathen system, that Chaos war. the pirtet of aE, and Heaven and Earth the parents of all visible things. That Heaven is the father, fays Picurch. in his Inquiry after God, appears from his potir:ij; down the waters which have the fperaratic iaeshy, ancl Earth the mother, because she trap forth. This, according to the opinion of PticarcA, and many more, was the origin of the ma t'-plicity of gods, men esteeming those bodies in the htavens aud on the earth, from which they received benefit, the immediate objects of their g.-atitndi and adoration: the faille were the motives a:t-erwards f.hicb induced them -ro pay divirie hoseurs to mctrtal mm, as we fee iu the acergnf we have /rum Diod;>ru». The design of tie poer was x-"> give a catalogue of those deities v/ho wer^, in any fense, esteemed as such in the nmes is .which h_c lived, whether fabulous, historiciL or physical; but we must take notice that even wove a story had rife from fable, or history, he seems to labour ac reducing it to nature, as in tint of the muses : what was before of mean orisl, from .nine minstrels, stave* to. a prince, is

I great by the genius of the poet. • ! ftui cor.clude, relinking it all that is farther nroSirs to be said, "and particularly on the Mytf.t,';jY, wirh the fallowing -translation from the preface of Lord Bacon to his treatise on the Wisdom or" the Aneienw.

1 am not igi.orant how uncertain fiction it, and hew liable to be wrested to this or that fense, nor how prevalent wit and discourse are, so as ingeniously to apply such meanings as were not thought cf criminally: but let not the follies and license •stew lessen the esteem due to parables; for that ws^y be profane and Hjoij, since religion de'^it5 in such veils and shadows: but. reflecting es human wisdom, I ingeniously confess n-.y real '.piuton it, that mystery and allegory were from tae original intended in many fab)es cf the ancient pnets; this appears apt and conspicuous to me, »r ether ravished with a veneration for antiquity, et because I find such coherence in the similitude wsk the things signified, in the very texture of tfcc fable, and in the propriety of the names which are given to the persons or actors in the faafc; and no man can positively deny that this *a»ttt fense proposed fmm the beginning, and kcuirioLsly vr;Ie<J in this manner. How can the ccc-fs-rrr.ity and judgment of the names be obscure to anv ? Metis being made the wife ot Jove, plainly Cf. rfi'» counsel No one should bi moved if he • me: rne- fnds any addi' tur\ for the sake of hiiury, oy wav < f err.hellishmen;, or if chronolowy ftcrtM harper to he cor-fou.'dpd, or if part of c« sahir stji jia be trin-scrrcd to.another, and a Be* sUegory introduced: for these- were ail necessary wrd to be expected, seeing th-y arc the in■ os men of different ages, and who writ to 5

different ends, some with a view to the nature of things, and other to civil aflairs.

We have another sign, and that no small one, of this hidden fense which we have been speaking of; which is, that some of these fables are iu the narration, that is, in themselves literally understood, so foolisti and absurd, that they seem to proclaim a parable at a distance. Such as are probable may be feigned for amusement, and in imitation of history; but where uo such designs appear, but they seem to he what none would imagine or relate, th?y must be calculated for other uses! What a fiction is this ! Jove took Metis for his wife, und'as soon as he perceived her pregnant, eat her, whence he himself conceived, and brought forth Pallas, armed from his head. Nothing cart appear more monstrous, more like a dream, and more out rf the course of thinking, than this story in itself. What has a great weight with me, is. that many nf these sables seem not to be~invented by those who have related them, Homer, Hesmd, and other writers; for were they the fictions of that age, and of those who delivered them down to u«, nothing .great and exalted, according to my opinion, could be expected from such an origin: but if any one will deliberate on this subject attentively, these will appear to be delivered and related as what were before believed and received, and not as tales thejn first invented and communicated; besides, as they are told in different manners by authors of almost the fame times, they arc easily perceived to be common, .and derived from old memorial tradiiion, and are various only front the additional embellishments which diverse writers haye bestowed on tjiem.

hi old times, when the inventions of men, and the conclusions deduced from .them, were new and uncommon, parables, and similes, pf all kinds ab undid. As hieroglyphics were more ancient than parables, parables were more, ancient than arguments. We shall close what we have here said, with this observation ; the wisdom of the ancients was either great or happy; great if these figures were the fruits of their industry, and happy if they locked no farther, that they have afforded maUcr and pccasi^n so worts.y contemplation.

POSTSCRIPT.

I Cannot take my leave of this work without »xpressing my gratitude to Mr. Theobald for his kind assistance in it. Much may with justice be said to the advantage of that gentleman, but hit own writings will he testimonies of his abilities, when, perhaps, this profession of my friendship for him, and os my zeal for his merit, shall be forgot.

Such remarks as I have received from my friends 1 have distinguished from my own, in justice to those by whom 1 have been so obliged, lest, by a general acknowledgment only, such errors as ( may have p< ssibly committed, should, by the wrong guess of some, be unjustly imputed to them.

FtL jc. 1728. Thomas Cookit,

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