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ripneumons, or inflammation of the lungs, which | The only cause of which was the corruptioed had occasioned a violent cough; and in those the huniours, which had, as I may say, laid e. cases, as Hippocrates says, several times of his own lent hands on nature, and alienated the parts from experience, the matter generally discharges itself their due constitution. It is indeed hard to on the privy parts: therefore it is not ftrange, plain the manner how this comes to pass; tot e that, for fear of death, those wretches suffered is almost generally held, though some few are c an amputation of their pudenda; and, as Lucre- another opinion, that loss of memory proceeda tius lings,
not only from a cold and humid distemperatz Vivebant ferro privati parte virili ;
but from a dry likewise; for Galeo. 3. de loc. af
relates of his own knowledge, that this miferOf which too our traudator is wholly filent. And
tune happened, through dryness, to a certain fut. we may easily believe, that the defluxion of hu
ous, sedentary person, and to a sturdy, labouring mours on those parts, occafioned such a corruption, peasant. The bishop of Rochester, in the folle as reduced physicians to their last remedies, am
ing verses, finely describes these miseries of the putation and fire, since Galen, in his comment on surviving Athenians, who had beco visited wa epidem. 3. firmly avouches, that even where there that fatal pestilence, is no peftilential infection, if an inflammation, or an eryGpelas, seizes on these parts, they very soon
But if through strength, or heat of age, corrupt, and affect the superior parts of the body :
The body overcame its rage; so that we are necesitated, says he, to cut away
The vanquish'd evil cook from them, the putrefaction, and to seer the place, as being who conquer'd it, some part, lome limb: the root of the disease.
Some lost the use of hands, or eyes; Ver. 1171. Galen, in com. epidem. 3. ascribes. Some arms, some legs, some thighs. the cause of this loss of members, only to the pu- 1 Some all their lives before forgot ; trefaction of the humours; the nature of which is Their minds were but one darker blot : to corrupt the parts on which it seizes, Here Those various pidures in the head, Lucretius is carped ac by P. Vidorius, in var.
And all the num'rous shapes were fled : lcction, for not having, as he pretends kept close
And now the ransack'd memory enough to the parration of Thucydides : He is Languih'd in naked poverty, excused, however, by Lambinus, whom Hierony. And loft its mighey treasury: mus Mercurialis, lib. iii. var. lection. cap. 12. ac They pass the Lethe lake, although these cuses of being a plagiary, in the defence he makes not die. for our author.
Plague of Arbens, Seat Ver. 1173. Thucydides in like manner, Tš Ver. 1175. In these twelve verses, the poe δι και λήθη ελάμβανε παρουίκα ανασάνιας (υγιάνας | Γcribes the great corruption that attended to Schol.) Tüy fáviny peoíws, xà Ágvóncav opäs Tu aur's cilence; and which, says he, was so excelles vai à stimoeirs that is to say, and many of them,
even the birds and beasts of prey, but est presently upon their recovery, were taken with the dogs, who had cafted of the dead such an cblivion of all things whatsoever, that they dropt down dead immediacely: Nay, fase neither knew then selves nor their acquaintance.
was the stench of the unburied carcases, & Though the loss of memory be not uncommon in
ther in Athens, nor around the city, woo acute diseases, yet it is frequent in chronical dif
ravenous birds seen by day, not any will be temper's, that are of a long duration. It is related by night. lo like manner Thucydides, Tim of Benedi&us Florettus, a person of univerfalóra xal qilgátode, érre évégére arkru, nie learning, who lived in the last age, that having érápar goyvenímwo, i spornes
, ti ytrágtis iets long struggled with a disease of eight months con
i.c.The birds and beasts, that used to feed en tinuance, he at length overcame his adversary; but in the conflict had entirely forgot the Greek either came not at them, or, if they
man flesh, though many bodies lay abroad usbst. tongue, of which he had been a great master; as
perished. Thus too the bishop of Rochester, likewise the rules of metrical numbers in all lan. the poem above cited, Stanza 18. guages whatsoever. Nor does the memory decay through the means of diseases only, but of old age Scaiter'd in fields the bodies lay : likewise; and sometimes too it is loft even in the The earth call'd to the fowls to take their vigour and full strength of life, either by external away : or internal causes? Well, therefore, may we de. In vain fhc call'd; they came not nigh, claim with Pliny : " Memoria nihil æquè fragile Nor would their food with their own ruin bes: est in honline, morborum, et cafùs injurias, atque But, at full meals, they hunger, pine, and dk; etiam metûs senciens; aliàs particulatim, aliàs uni. The vultures afar off beheld the fealt, verdim," cap. 24. There is nothing, fays be, in Rejoic'd, and call’d their friends to talte: man fo frail as his memory, it being obnoxious to They tally'd up their troops in hafte: the injuries of diftases and accidents, nay, even of Along came mighty droves, fear : Sometimes it is lost in part, fometimes to Forsook their young ones, and their groves; tally. We need not, therefore, be astonished, that Each one his native mountain, and his pek: they, who were visited with the most acute of all | They come ; but all their carcases abhor; diseases, a visulcat plague, lof their memory. And now avoid the dead men mere
i Than weaker birds the living men before : amongst us. But from this passage of our author, - But if some bolder fowl.the flesh effay,
we make two observations: First, That a plague • They were destroy'd by their own prey.
is common to all animals, and propagated from
men into bcasts; and, on the contrary, from Ver. 1178. Thucydides says only that they beasts into men. Secondly, That a pestilential vecame not near the dead bodies, but gives not the reason of it ; that is to say, whether it happened the dead body, though it be not so virulent by
nom does not end with the life, but remains in out of any natural inttind, which is often observ. ed in brutes; or whether any of their senses gave laginous heat has succeeded in the place of the
reason of the want of heat : But when the putri. them notice of the danger. But Lucretius takes natural, it emits a pernicious and fatal infe&ion, away this difficulty, and says, that the wary birds
as may be proved by many experiments. This and beasts of prey were admonished by their smell
is indeed controverted by some, but to no purto keep away from the dead carcales, “ut ar. cem,” says he, “ erirent odorem.” Now, of all pose; for their main argument is, the example the feathered kind, the vulture is said to have theless, they lay, retain no poison after they are
they bring of venomous animals, which, neverthe mof exquilite smell, or even to know before killed but common observation abundantly hand where he shall find his prey. This is con evinces the contrary. firmed beyond all dispute, if we may credit Horus Ægyptius, a very ancient author, who says, thors, that dogs have been first infected with, and
Ver. 1185. It is generally testified by all au. that in time of war, vultures repair, seven days before any other animals, have felt the first fury before, to a place where a battle will be fought; of a coming plague. Thus Homer, in Iliad. H. and even that they haunt chiefly about that part exposes, xúvas ágyòus, the white dogs firit to the of the army where the greatest Naughter will be
infection. And made. But, allowing this to be true, it cannot be ascribed to their imell, or any other of their Strage canum primò, Senses, but rather to a prefaging instinct that na says Ovid, Metam. lib. viii. after whom Silius ture has conferred upon them: a credulity, which Italicus has copied, Plautus long ago derided, when he said,
Vim primi sensêre canes.
Lib. xiv. Quali vulturü, triduò priùs divinabant, quo die esicuri fient.
And the reason why dogs feel the first attacks of
a peftilential contagious disease, according to EuAnd, indeed, who but a superftitious augur can ftathius, is, because of their exquisite fense of smell give credit to fo extravagant a notion, or believe ing; of which Ælian likewise approves. Others that vultures, by their smell, can distinguish be- blame the peftilent exhalations of the earth, to tween bodies that are to die in a few days, or to which, say they, the dogs, by reason of their proslive a longer time. The truth is, that they ge- imity to it, are most obnoxious. But the opinion nerally keep with armies, because they feed on of Thucydides,' which we mentioned before, the garbage and offals of beasts, a great number seems the most plausible. 'O. di xúves, says he, of which are daily flain for the fubitence of fuch μάλλον αίσθησιν σαρείχον τα αποβαίνονος διά το ξυνδιαιa multitude of men.
Tãolan, which Hobbes thus renders. But by the Ver. 1181. Lucretius says,
dogs, because they are familiar with men, this Nec tamen omninò temerè illis folibus ulla event was seen much clearer. For so Hobbes has Comparebat avis :
rendered it: But why may not the side tò ouvdimua
lintas, be rather interpreted, “ ob convictum," This too is confirmed by Thucydides, in these because of their eating of the same sort of food? words : Toxungsor di (viz. modò di&ta vera effe) For it not only indicates the contagion, which is rão feir costwo ópřítwy irisertis raons iyisilo, xzd the most potent propagator of plagues, even inta ex ipürlo šte aanws, óri wigi roostwv eðsve i. c. An men, but a certain, I know not what, fickly pre. argument that what I said, touching the birds, is parative, or analogy, as they call it, proceeding true, was the manifest defect of such fowl, which from a common food with particular men. Nar were not then seen, neither about the carcases dius relates, that he knew a certain prince, who nor any where else.
was taken with a violent vomiting of blood, that Ver. 1182. Lucretius, to augment the horror, was occasioned by an external cause : this prince adds this circumstance, of which Thucydides is was extremely fond of one of his greyhounds; silent, that even the wild beasts hid themselves in who, not long after, of his own accord, and with their dens, where, nevertheless, they died at length out having received the least hurt, vomited blood of the infection : a most certain argument that likewise ; till at length he died, wasted with a the disease overcame the Arength of all mortal long disease, and swelled with a dropsy; all which animals ; and that too not only of the body but accidents had likewise happened to his master : of the mind : insomuch that its rage and cruelty and, what is yet more ftrange, the bowels of both far furmounted all expreffion of words, ás l'huo of them were observed to be tainted with a like cydides observes, and made it appear to be a kind corruption. of sickness which exceeded human nature in the Ver. 1187. Here the poet describes the neglect fierceness with which it handled every one ; and of funeral rites during the time of the plague : likewise to be done of those discases that are bred However, it is most notorious, how much cast
X 3 iij,
and ceremony the ancients, and more particularly i by which mankind is deprived of all the tead: the superstitious Athenians, were wont to bestow resentments and benefits of commiserating bus on the funerals of their dead : Of which we nity. shall have occasion to speak more at large on ver. 1246. Mean while what Lucretius here intimates
Funera deerant is. That no folemn pomp or rites were observed; ! Mortibus, & lacrimæ : fellos defecerat ignis; that no friends or relations attended the dead bo- | Et coacervatis ardebant corpora membris. dies to their funeral piles; but either suffered
Marit. lib. i. ver. 885 them to lie abroad anburied, or cast them care. lessly on the piles that had been prepared for These, therefore, were a fadder kind of feeera others. This tumultuous disorder of their fune. than that which Virgil. Æneid. 11. gives to the rals, is finely described by the Bishop of Ro- slaughtered Latines, for they had yet wood chester,
burn them, Mountains of bones and carcasses The It reets, the market-place possess,
Cætera confusæque ingentem cædis acervum Threat'ning to raise a new Acropolis.
Nec numero, nec honore cremant.-
Upon which last words Gutherius observes; " Ne And that almighty conqu’ror overpuw's.
numero, nec honore combufti dicuntur, qui ce The noble and the common duit
suso lignorum acervo lento dabantur igni. 013 Into each others graves are thrust:
corporibus fimul congeftis." And this, by M No place is sacred, and no comb;
crobius, is called " tumuitarium fuous," and a 'Tis now a privilege to consume :
used in calamitous accidents. In which kinds Their alhes no distinctio had :
promiscuous funerals, it is noted by the farm Too truly all by death are equal made ;
thor, that it was usual, to every ten mens boce And poor mens bones the noble urns invade.
to add one woman's, to make them burn the be Plague of Athens, Stanza 30.
ter. Of which he likewise gives this reakin
" Quod muliebre corpus juvabat ardentes Ver. 1188. Tears and bewailing the dead were
non caloris erat, sed pinguis carnis, & olen * no small part of funeral exequies;
whence Servius lis." "Vide Macrobium, Saturn, lib. vi. cap on Virgil. Æn. 11. says, “Sine filetu non est se. Ver. 1190. In these fix verses, the poet role pultra :" the want of tears being accounted as
that all the remedies of phyfic were appines great a misfortune, 'as even the deprivation of vain : for the medicaments that some found yes funeral itself. Therefore Virgil, in Æn. II. joins by, were fatal, and brought death to others : them as alike calamitous:
like manner too Thucydides. 'Ex pin
ίαμα, ώς είπαν ότι χήν προσφέροντας ωφελίκ' Nos, animæ viles, inhumara, infataque turba : το ξυνενεγκόν άλλον τυτο έβλαπλε, σωματε And Ovid, in Mecam rph. II. introduces the ýoly drepévn aspàs autò. iszúes rapi selatan, drowned Ceyx appearing, and speaking thus to
αλλά πάντα ξυνήρει, και τα πάση διαίτη θεραπεία Halcyone :
Nor was there any, to say certain medias
applied, must have helped them. For, if Surge, age, da lacrymas, lugabriaque indue, nec
good to one, it did hurt to another : 23"
difference of body for strength or weaknch, Indeploratum sub inania Tartara mitte.
was able to relift it; but it carried all away, Which Sandys thus renders ;
phyûc foever was adminiftered. Thus Thucyód
And upon this passage of that historian, the Bla Rife, weep, and put on black; nor undeplor'd, of Rocheller ingeniously paraphrases : For pity, send nic to the Stygian ford. For the ancients believed the dead to be com Physicians now could nonght prevail; forted and delighted with the tears of their fur. They the first (poils to the proud victor fall: viving friends : And this is the reason, that, in Nor would the plague their knowledge trufl. the ancient inscriptions on tombs, we so fre But fear'd their skill, and therefore flew to quently find,
So tyrants, when they would confirm their pek: LACRIMAS POSUIT.
Firli make the chiefeft men to feel the ftrck, CUMLACRIMIS POSUIT. LACRIMIS ET OPOBALSOMO UDUM
The chiefest and the wiselt heads, left they
Should soon It difobey,
Should first rebel, and others learn from them
No aid of herbs, or juices pow'r; and the like; of which Gutherius, de Jure Ma None of Apollo's arts could cure, nium, lib. I. gives many examples. And for But help'd the plague the speedier to devous. this reason too Manilius, speaking of this plague, Phyfic itself was a disease : by the want of so mean and ordinary an obsequy, Physic the fatal tortures did increase: aggravates the miseries of a peftilential mortality, Prescriptions did the pains renew :
And Afculapius to the fick did come,
the various dispositions of the bodies and hu. As afterwards to Rome,
mours; even though it derives its origin from one In form of serpent: and he brought new poisons and the same cause. with him too,
Ver. 1196 In these six verses the poet teaches, Plague of Atbens, Stanza 15. That the greatest calamity of all was; that as foun The natural remedies that are used in as they perceived then felve: seized with the dittinguishing and driving away a peftilential dis
ease, they fell into a despair of recovery, and nesafe, are of two forts : for some are calied com glected to take care of themselves; a neglect chat mon, others particular. The common remedies fometimes is more fatal than the force of the dire ire fires, odours, firing of guns, a ftri& regimen ease. Thus too the hill rian: A exvótulos de auy los of life, and what is more than all the relt, an ήν ή τι αθυμία, οπότε τίς αίσθιο κάμνων, προς γαρ το voiding of the contagion, together with an ex
ανέλπισον ευθύς τράπόμενοι τη γνώμη πολλώ μάλλον ermination and utter destruction of all things I puisslo opas avràs, xzi óx á verzorThucyd. That hat may retain and preserve the infection, as is to lay But the greatest miery of all was the :loches, bedding, and the like: as likewise to ab- dejection of mind, in such as fou'd themselves ent from all company whatever for a certain beginning to fall fick : for they presently fell into ime. And, whatever Lucretius advances to the despair and gave themselves over without making ontrary, Hippocrates is said to have bethought any resistance. Now this confternation and de: imielf of a common remedy for this plague viz je dion of mind was prejudicial to them on a y burning piles of scented wood at the corners of double account : For, besides that it very much he streets. The particular remedies are those impaired their strength, it brought with it this hat are a lapted to the confiitution and habit of additional mischief, thac, defrairing of recovery, ody of each person infected : and these in the they thought it to no purpose to take care of ale of the Athenian plague, as both the historian themselves. And thus the disease raged uncon. nd our poct inform us, were all used in vain trouled, and soon was faral to such as neglected Ied, indeed, in vain hitherto have proved all the che niean- of their own fafety, a d gave themstes and endeavours of men: and the Divine felves over for loft. And here we might take oce rovidence has eluded the attempts of those brag. casion to inquire narrowly into a question, which ng Charlatans, who boast of their panaceas, some have started, viz. . Whether an ablent person Dulets, and infallible remedies against the plague, can catch the plague by the strength of imaginaid often compels them dearly to sue their enor.
tion? The affirmative has many sticklers for it, ous temeri'y : Not that I would be understood as may be feen in Fab Paulinus, lib. I and the
mean, that the care of the fick ought to be negative is no less ftrenuously asserted by others : mmitted to fortune only : for there is an ho. Imagination may indeed operate on our own bour justly due to medicaments that support the dies, by reason of the mutual consent and sympaal faculty, and contain it within its due bounds; thy that each part has to the other. But what there is likewise to topics, when experience has strength can it' have to work on the bodies of ce established and confirmed the usefulness of others ? Whoever yet heard of a pick-pocket. who, em. But what I say is, that the Supreme Wir by the intenseness of his fancy only, could get the m has hitherto denied to mortals, to find out money out of another's purse? Or, of a hungery universal and certain alexicacon for the Itarved wretch, who, by the strerigth of his imagi. ague. And therefore Marthco Villano, Ipeak. nation, could get into his own clutches the bread g of the plague that raged in the year 1348, he saw lying at a distance on a baker's fall? Be.
s, That the physicians, in any part of the world, fides in this case of the Athenian plague, both the uld not, either by gatural philosophy, or by hiftorian and our poet expressly tay, that the difyfic, or by the art of astrology, find (ut any ease preceded the dread and apprehension of it. medy, or certain cure for it: That some of Ver. 1198. This verse our trandacor has added em indeed, out of covetousness, went to visit the to his author. ik, and gave them their remedies; but that by Ver. 1202. Here the poet, in these thirteen jeir own death chey evinced the vainpels of their verses teaches farther, that some, though they t, leaving their lives as a reftitution for the came not to visit their friends and relations, or loney they had unjustly taken. “E i Menici,” says had negleded to tend them, caught nevertheless €, “in car una parte del Mu: do, per philosophia the contagion, and died like infected sheep or arurale, ò per Filica, ò per arte d’Altologia, cattle : and, because they had neglected to take en hebtono Argomento, ne vera (ura. Alquanti care of their friends, they tvo, in their turn, were er guadagnare andarono visitando, e dando loro neglected by them Thus too Thucydides, "E7ipos gomeni, i quali, per loro morte, monftrarono ip' brics Jeputéias úvetipo de pesos ūorled zogjöajo arte esfer ficta, e con vera : affai per Conscierza @dvmorov xzi tòy wiekscy pében roto ive zoiet dll yiee peint aciarono à restiruere i danari, che di ciò have. Jenoney dsdicios da maious az po prévxo, étára.vrlo sonceol, vano presi indebitamente."
και οικίαι κολλαι εκενώθησαν απορί τ8 θεραπεύσανlες. . Ver 1192. From what Lucretiu-, after Thucy- | The wreet Isyy he, like theep, being infected by Jides, says in this and the three tollowing verfos, mutua: vification : And if men, for fear, forbore we may gather this oblervation, that in ta h to visit them, then they died frislorn: so that pague there is not one only manner of corrup mar.y fanulics became empty, for want of such as Rion, but that it differs very much, according to
Would have taken care of them. Thus Thuatlla
THE CHIEF CAUSE OF A PLAGUE.
des : And were there no other teftimony for con- | For, useless to the currier were their hides; tagion to be found, than this of chat historian and Nor could their tainted fell with ocean tides our poet, it would be abundantly fufficient, evi- ! Be free'd from filth : nor could Vulcanian flam: dently to convince their percniproriness, who ob- The stench abolish, or the favour tame: Itinately hold, chat it was unknown to the an Nor safely could they fhear their fleecy store, cients : and them too, who as positively affert, Made drunk with poil nous juice, and life with that the air only is the cause of epidemical dil
gore, eales; and will not admit of contagion, except i Or touch the web: but, if the rest they wear, only when fubiricuted in the place of the air. But Red blisters rising on their paps appear, how much they are mistaken will manifestly ap And faming carbuncles; and noisome sweat, pear by the following animadversion.
And clammy dews, that loathsome lice begee;
Consumes the parching limbs, and makes the life
The ancients therefore knew what contagion is,
though, perhaps, they were pot fully aware of its As the ancients were not ignorant of, so they als great power, nor of the many ways of its impariways apprehended, contagions; whatever come ing, and spreading itself abroad : and this is the modern authors have believed to rise contrary.
reason, that this chief begetter of a plague wa Lucretius , who copies after Thucydides, freely; the latt age, its power was fo manifeftis discord.
then scarce held to be a propagator of it. But is confesses in this place, that the effects of contagion are felt froni far and to hina fubfcribe feve- ed, as to make the modern physicians believe, tiz ral of the ancients, as Livy, lib. iii cap. 25. Dio.
true plagues, or those infe&ions at least, which dorus Siculus, lib. 14. Dionysius Halicarnassus, they call bubonic are diffeminated by contagioa lib 10. and Eskbius, lib 7. but, that they affect, fruits of the earth, the winds, the rains, all come
only. Io Florida, the seasons of the year, ile when near at hand, is alowed by all: for none deny, that to ten ci ard touch the sick, will spread regularly, and a due apd constant times, por is abrúad the discale, and render it epidemical:
there the lealt suspicion there of infectious dampi Hence Virgil in Gcorg. iii.
or exhalations; yet, upon the arrival of an ordi
nary fellow, who brought thither fome inconi. Ne mala vicini pecoris contagia lædant. derable merchandise from an infe&ted place, the
whole country foon caught the contagion, and ei. And our Lucretius, ver. 1241. of this book,
sayed the fury of a pestilential disease, till then
in those parts, unknown before. Contagious dis. Qui fuerant autem prælò, contagibus ibant.
eases, unless a timely llop be put to them, depops. And yet L. Sepeulius, in lib. 2. de Pelle, cap. 8.
late provinces and whole kingdonis, by sweeping tuo confidently affirn, That the third manner of
away their inhabitants. And this obfervation in contagion, which, as we said before, the physicians
one of the reasons, that, though but of late days call per fomitem, was unknown to the ancients, and contagion has been keld to be the chief into never thought of by them. But, among many
mene, in beginning, and propagating a plaça other testinonies that might be alleged, this miss the setting a private and particular cause at the
The ancients indeed could scarce be reconciled og take of his is evident from the following verscs, head of a public and general, or common effea; with which Virgil conciudes his third Georgic:
but this difficulty would not have kartled them, Jamque catervatim dat Atragem, atque aggerat had they refle&ed, that even that cause may be ipfis
said to be common, by whose efficacy a discafe In ftabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo :
becon:es epidemical. Pliny, lib. i6. informs es Donec humo tegere, ac foveis abscundere discunt. that they either banished the lepers, of the Nani neque erae coriis usus; nec viscera quisquam, chem up, and debarred them from all manner Aut undis abolcre poteft, aut vincere fiamma : of conversation, that they mighi not infed the Nec tondere quidem morbo, illuvieque peresa sound; and if, through negligence, this care was Vellera ; nec relas possunt atringere putres: at any time omitted, the whole society was in. Verùm etiam invisos si quis tentârat amidus, fected with that most filthy disease; of which Ardentes papula, atque immundus olentia sudor no common cause could be assigned, besides cara Membra lequebatur: nec longo deinde nioranci tagion. We read, that, in the last age, a secreTempore, contaiłos artus sacer ignis edebat.
tary of the Pope's treasury, being returned from Which is rendered by Dryden, as follows;
Perusa to Rome, brought the itch along with
him; which foul disease, in a few days, by that At length the frikes an universal blow :
means spread itself through the whole city; and To death at once whole herds of cattle go : that, when Lautrecchus belieged Naples
, a small Sheep, oxen, horses fall; and, heap'd on high, nuinber of harlots, that were in the camp, gave The dif'ring species in confusion lie':
the venereal disease, till then unknown in these Till, warn d by frequent ills, the way they found, parts of the world, to his whole army; from To'lodge their loathsome carrion under ground: whence it has lince spread iifelf inco Africa, Alia