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chics ceremony in honour of him j and that they worshipped him likewise on the eighth day of each of their other months. The like testimony of gratitude was shown to the Greeks, who were slain by the MeJu, and buried at Platæa, says Thucydides, lib. iii. in Orat. Plataeen, of which Plutarch, in the life of Aristidcs, gives the following particular account: The Plitæans, fays he, are wont to offer yearly parentations to the Greeks, that fell in the battle, and were buried there, which custom they continue even to this day, in the ensuing manner: On the sixteenth day of the month Maimacterion, which with the Bœotians is Alalcomenus, they make their procession, which, beginning by break of day, is led up by a trumpeter, founding a point of war; then follow certain chariots, loaden with myrtle and garlands: and after them is led a black bull; next come the young men, of free birth, carrying libations of wine and milk in large two eared vessels, and jars of oil and precious ointments; nor is it permitted to any of servile condition, to have the least hand in this ministration; because the men, that were buried there, died in defence of their liberty. After all, comes the chief magistrate of Platæa, who, though it be unlawful for him at other time;., either to wear any manner of arms, or to be clothed in any other coloured garment than white, is at that time, nevertheless, apparelled in a purple robe; and, taking a waterpot out of the ci'y-chamber, proceeds, bearing a sword in his hand, through the middle of the town to the sepulchre; then, drawing water out of a spring, he waflies, and anoints the pillars of the monuments; and, sacrificing the bull upon a pile of wood, and making supplications to Jupiter, and to Mercury of the earth, he invites those valiant men who perilhed in the defence of Greece, to the hanquet and parentations; after this, filling a bnwl with wine, and pouring some of it out by way of libation, he drinks the rest, and fays, | driiik to those persons, who lost their lives for the liberty of Greece. These solemnities, even to this day, do the Platæans observe. Thus far PJ ut arch.
Nor may we in this place omit the great honours that the republic of Syracuse decreed to Tinmleon; whose bier being laid upon the pile, Demetrius, the loudest mouthed of all the criers of those days, recited a written dectec to this purpose: The people of Syracusa have decreed, that this Timoleon, the son os Timodemus of Corinth, shall be buried at the public expence; that two hundred minæ shall be expended on his funeral, and moreover, that he shall !>c for ever honoured , With musical, equestrial, and |-ymnic games and i exercises: because, having pulled down the ty-' rants, overcome the barbarians, rebuilt the large . cities, that were demolished, and rendered them 1 again populous, he restored to the Sicilians their , ancient laws and liberties. We learn from the Scholiast on the Frogs of Aristophanes, that the particular time when these annual solemnities •were performed to the dead, was about noon; but that even then they were scarce safe from the
spectre of Empusa, that by various arts disturb: ^ the ceremonies. The stories, that are told a Procus Lycius, by his flatterer Ccelius Rhodes: nus, lib. vi. cap. 28. are made up of nothing but superstition and hypocrisy: for he tells ui, tk that blessed man, as he calls him, was more faming in, and more zealous observer of, the rito and ceremonies, that arc paid to the dead, that any other man whatever '■ for he never omitted at any time to perform that religions doty; be went yearly on certain days to the sepulchre! of the Attic heroes and philosophers; and of ill others, with whom he had had any friendship Se familiarity and offered the due sacrifices to tfcto, not by the help and ministry of others, but b; himself, and with his own hands. Theo, sire.he had paid these rites to each of them, he west to the Academy, where he appeased, by hefices, the fouls of his ancestors, and of all bis relations, in one place; and in another, he performed the like ceremonies to the fouls of all tit philosophers; and more than all this, that mea religious person sacrificed in a third place to tit souls of all the dead. And these pious oSes arose at length to such a height of superili-ic" that the Athenians, not satisfied with paying ties: honours to such as had deserved well of the republic, recorded their names among the number of their gods, and decreed them divisie hoooert, as we learn from Arillophanes in Equitib. ssi Paiisanias in Atticis. Nay, it escaped very tatrowly, that Alexander was not worshipped * Athens as a god: for we learn from Plutarch, is Ora*. Lycurg. that adulation would have prevailed, and brought that infamous thing to sis had not a prudent person prevented it, by feeding at the populace, and asking them in a jeerisj manner, What a god, said he, will this be, whose temple, whoever goes is polluted, aed •soever comes out needs purgation? Thus Vk fa how much the Athenians departed from their acient rites of funetal, and what corruption t manners crept into the territories and dry el Athens, during the time of this raging pettfleM Ver. 1249. Boccace, that parent of the lkcan eloquence, describes almi-st the like rjev!e£ and disorder, that happened even in a Christ"2 country, in the burial of those that died of the plague at Florence, in the year 1348, and tells res, that few bodies were accompanied to their gntti by more than ten or twelve of their neighbosri; and those too were not of the better sort of citizens, but only a parcel of mob, that for hire, c-'ried the body, not to the church where the dead person, before his death, had desired to bebojW; but, for the most part, to that which was next'-' hand; preceded only by four, or fix priests » most, with few, aud sometimes no lights at ill, and threw it hastily into any grave they food empty, or that had room to receive it. But le* us hear how movingly he describes this cslaa-i'! in his own words. "Et erano radi coloro, i corri dc i quali fosser' piu che da un" dieci, 6 dodici d« fuoi vicini alia chiefa accompagnati, de tjuab ot* gl* horrtvoli, e cari cittadini, ma uaa nusiers i> cctBOrti sopravennta di minuta gcnte, che chilar 1! facevano Becchini, la quale quell i scruigi czzolata faceva, sottentravano alU bara, equella 1 frettolosi pafli, non a quella chiesa, che esso reva anzi la morte difposto, ma alia piu, vicina. pii volte il portavano, dietro a quattro, 6 sei rid coo poco him;, e tal fiata senz' alcuno, li di con 1' aiuCo di detti Becchini, senza fatigarsi troppo lungo usftcio, 6 soleune, in qualunquc ultura disoccupaca trovavano, piu tosto U metano. J. Boccacio, in Proem. Becam. Ver. 125 1. Thus too Ovid, who has most hapr imitated both Thucydidcs and our author:
ite facros vidi projecta cadavera postes; ite ipsas, quo mors foret invidiosior, aras: n animara laqueo daudunt, mortisque timorem one fugant, ultroque vocant venientia fata: irpora missa neci nullo de more feruntur neribus: neque enim capiebant funera portæ; : inhumata premunt terras aut dantur in altos dstata rogot; et jam reverentia nulla est; tque rogis pugnant, alienisque ignibus ardent: ui lacryment desunt, indefletzque vagantur atommque, virumque animæ, juvcnumque senumque:
cc locus in tumulij, nec sufficit arbor in ignes.
Mttam. lib. 8
hich a late ingenious person has thus rendered:
rath stalk'd around with such resistless sway, ~l ie temples of the gods his force obey; ( od suppliants feel his stroke, while yet they C pray. J ■ rest, grown mad, and frantic with despair, rge their own sate, and so prevent the scar: range madness that! when death pursu'd so fast, anticipate the blow with impious haste. ) decent honours to their urns are pay'd; • could the graves receive the num'rous dead: »i or they lay unbury'd on the ground, r, unadnrn'd, a needy fun'ral found: 1 rev'rence pass'd, the fainting wretches sight r fun'ral piles that are another's right: imourn'd they fall; for who surviv'd to mourn? id sires and mothers unlamented burn: rents and sons sustain an equal fate; [meet: id wand'ring ghosts their kindred shadows ie dead a larger space of ground require; >r are the trees sufficient for the sire.
1 which calamities may the Almighty avert far >m us, and not from us only, but from the unirsal society of all mortals; nor let us unchari>ly join in wishes with the heathen poet, who P.
i meliora piis, errorcmque hostibus ilium.
BY WAT Of RECANTULATION, ON THI SIXTH
Rim*. OT LUCRETIUS.
In this book, Lucretius reasons of many thing* excellently well, but has miscarried in his main design, and does not so much as stagger the belief of Divine I'rovidence, which he attacks with his utmost force: for Ut it be granted, that the causes he assigns of meteors are perspicuous and true; that he has rightly explained the reason os thunder, lightning, and earthquakes; in a word, that all things proceed from natural causes, and are continued and carried on by them: yet there is no nature without a Lord, nor does she herself at least reject or disown a ruler. For nature is only that disposition and order of the particles of senseless matter, which is the cause of these effect- we call natural. Now, if that disposition was introduced by chance, it does not confute and overthrow Providence; and if it was the work of reason and wisdom, it consirms it. Therefore these explications may amuse and delight natural philosophers; but they cannot in the least, avail atheists.
No man has more accurately collected, none more ingenioufly explained, the ancient philosophers opinions concerning meteors: the modern, it is true, have added a few things to them ; but not better. And indeed, as this present age does, so many succeeding ages likewise will, seem to dispute, face to face, with Lucretius, concerning meteors. And this is what Vitruvius said long before me.
What he teaches of earthquakes, and of the sea is so rational, that the things themselves approve and confirm his doctrine: only there are some earthquakes that seem to surpass the strength of the causes he assigns them.
Ætna is a noble subject, but difficult: and in this the poet slags a little. But then he reason* of the increase of the Nile, of the Averni, and of the wonderful fountains, as if truth itself were speaking: but it may be observed that he doei not give full satisfaction concerning the fabulous spring of Jupiter Ammon: far Lucretius always explains nature better than sables.
He would have written more at large of the loadstone, and have left us many things that we should read with pleasure, if the wonderful power of that stone had been known in his days. The explication he gives of plagues and diseases is per. tinent and useful: and lastly, he interprets Thucydides in such a manner, that he expresses the energy, and surpasses the majesty, of that historian; nor is the narration of Thucydidcs so dear or set oss with so much brightness or wit.