« EdellinenJatka »
And yet, if ought beyond tbU mouldering clay
Thou liv'st, dear youth! for ever young and gay,
And thou, Catullus! learned gallant mind,
With ivy wreaths thy youthful temples twjn'd,
And Gallua too profuse of life and blood,
Si tamen e nohis a)iquid, nisi nomtn et umbra,
Obvius huic venies hedera juvenilia cinctus
Tti quoque (falsum temerati crimen amici)
Thi glitt'ring ore let other* vainly heap,
With dread of neighb'ring foes forsake their sleep,
Me humbler scenes delight, and calmer days;
A tranquil life fair poverty secure! Then boast, my hearth, a small hut cheerful blaze,
And riches grasp who will, let me be poor.
Nor yet be hope a stranger to my door,
But o'er my roof, bright goddess, still preside! lo
With many a bounteous autumn heap my floor,
My tender vines I'll plant with early care,
Nor blush, a rustic, oft to guide the share,
Let me a simple swain, with honest pride,
Or sportful kid, the little wanderer chide,
Here Pales I bedew with milky show'rs,
Revere eacti antique stone bedeck'd with flow'rs,
My grateful fruits, the earliest of the year,
From Ceres' gifts I'll cull each browner ear,
The ruddy god shall save my fruit from stealth, And far away each little plunderer scare: 30
And you, the guardians once of ampler wealth, My household gods, shall still my offerings share.
My num'rous herd*, that wanton'd o'er the mead,
The choicest fatling then could richly yield; Now scarce I spare a little lamb to bleed
A mighty victim for my scanty field. And yet a lamb shall bleed, while, rang'd around,
The village youths shall stand in order meet, With rustic hymn-, ye god?, your praise resound,
And suture crops and future wines entreat. 40
Then come, ye pow'rs, nor scorn my frugal board,
With these the first of men the gods ador'd,
My little flock, ye wolves, ye robbers, spare,
For wealthier herds the nightly theft prepare;
For treafur'd wealth, nor stores of golden wheat, The hoard of frugal sires, I vainly call; 50
A little farm be mine, a cottage neat
And wonted couch where balmy sleep may fall.
"What joy to hear the tempest howl in vain, "And clasp a fearful mistress to my breast:
"Or lull'd to slumber by the beating rain,
These joys be mine !—O grant me only these,
Whose steely heart can brave the boist'rous seas.
Content with little, I would rather stay
ThaJi spend long months amid the wat'ry waste:
In cooling shades elude the scorching ray
Beside some fountain's gliding waters plac'd.
O perish rather all that's rich and rare,
Than that my absence cost one precious tear,
With glitt'ring spoils, Messala, gild thy dome,
A lovely foe me captive holds at home, 71
Inglorious post !—And yet I heed not fame:
To live with thee I'd bear the coward's name,
Witb thee to live I'd mock the ploughman's toil,
Ac night I'd lay me on the flinty soil,
And happy 'midst thy dear embraces sleep. 80
What drooping lover heeds the Tyrian bed,
Nor softest down with richest carpets spread.
Of threefold iron were his rugged frame,
Who when he might thy yielding heart obtain,
Could yet attend the calls of empty fame,
Unenvy'd let him drive the vanquished host,
Unenvy'd wear the robe with gold imboss'd, 90
O may I view thee with life's parting ray,
Sure thou wilt weep—and on thy lover's clay.
Sure thou wilt weep—and woes unutter'd feel,
For well I know, nor flint, nor ruthless steel,
From the sad pomp, what youth, what pitying
O Delia, spare thy cheeks, thy tresses spare,
But now while smiling hours the fates bestow.
Soon death will come and strike the fatal bow; Unseen his head, and veil'd in shades of night.
Soon creeping age will bew the lover's frame, And tear the myrtle chaplet from his brow:
With hoary locks ill suits the youthful flame, III The soft persuasion, or the ardent vow.
Now the fair queen of gay desire ii ours,
Tis lavish youth's t' enjoy the frolic hours.
Your chief, my friends, and fellow-soldier, I
Far hence ye trumpets found and banners dr: To those who covet wounds and fame Is. gone. ut
And bear them fame and wounds; and riches Ik:-; There are that fame and wouuds aod rida prize.
For me, while I possess one plenteous year, I'll wealth and meagre wane alike despite.
NOTES ON ELEGY I.
In this beautiful elegy, Tibullus prefers the retirements of a country life, with Delia and a moderate income, to all the honours of war and splendors of fortune.
According to Scaligcr, this elegy, though placed the first in the book, was written, in order of time, the last of those inscribed to Delia. The poem itself, however, gives no sanction to this opinion.
Ver. ». There is a great dispute among editors, whether the original of this line should be read,
Et teneat culti jugera multa soli:
Et teneat culti jugera magna soli:
The first, however, is the preferable reading, being best supported by MSS. Besides, had it been destitute of that authority, it would still merit that distinction, as Tibullus must either have been unacquainted with agriculture (every Roman acre being two hundred and forty feet long, and as many broad), had he applied magna to acres; or have used a superfluous epithet. Pulp.
But Broekhufius, although he reads multa, has yet proved, that Tally and Valerius Flaccus have used that adjective at least once in the sense of mag ma<
Ver. 6. The word pauftrtai in the original fig. nifies, a mediocrity of fortune; for so Porphyrio interprets it in his Commentary on Horace, L. ii. Ep. 5. And, indeed, it is evident from Cicero, that this was the meaning imposed upon paupertat in the Augustan age. From this word, then, those who maintain, that our poet had spent his estate, and was obliged to retire to the country, can derive no support; as indeed the whole of this elegy contradicts that assertion.
Almost all the commentators on Tibullus have
observed, that he abounds in alliteration!, a give the original of this line as an instance «; Me mea paupertas, &c.
Nor is Tibullus singular in this; the bed «a and orator 9 of the Augustan age were fondof::=, and hence these gentlemen conclude, contra' the opinion of many of the moderns, distil* rations are beautiful in poetry. A spam; of them, no doubt, adds to the melody of æ bers; accordingly Pope, and the belt Euguft^' practise alliteration.
Though Pontanus and others have wro.-!^ on the subject of alliteration, they hate attempted to give a reason for its pleasing tis* When the fame letters begin succeeding these run more smoothly off the tongue, «" organs of speech are subjected to a smaller cfusr; in pronouncing them. Other causes may p»w be assigned, but this appears to be the prinrisii
Ver. 7. The original of this line is Viriastl read by the annotators.
Dum ra'eus assiduo luceat igne focus
is maintained by Broekhufius, &c. while ScaE;'
and others substitute exigao in the room of rjoit;
both readings are supported by MS. aaibonn.
that, however os Scaliger's is retained as the a^S
Ver. 9. The goddess Hope bad many tosfa and public gardens at Rome, for which the rearf may consult Alexander Donatus, L. t. Rom* C 9. L. a. C. 15. L. 3. C. 13, 18,13.
Boissard has given an elegant figure of the/j' rujlira, T. 4. Ant. P. 139.
Ver. 17. Calphurnius, a Sicilian poet off*: merit, has a good natured precept somewhat Si lar to this thought of our poet's* Te quoque non pudent, cum ferns ovilia nfe, Siquajacebit ovis partu rcsoluta retciiU,
hnc humeris portare tuis, natosque repenti 'erre fiau trcnmlos, et nondum stare paratos.
Eel. v. ver. 39.
Humanity to brute creaturei is the certain indiition of a good mind, bee an excellent paper
11 this subject in the Adventurer. Ver. al. Pales was the goddess of shepherds; ime called her Magna Mater, and othcr» Vesta, he festival instituted in her honour obtained the imc of Palilia, or Parilia, and was celebrated on e eleventh or twclth of the cilend* of May, the ly that Rome was supposed to have been sound1. At this solemnity the shepherd*, leaping o:r bonfires of straw, &c. placed at regular disinces, offered to their goddess milk and cakes of lillet for the health of their 6ock«. This cereiony is thus described by Ovid in that wouder1 effort of poetical genius his Fasti.
istor, oves saturas ad prima crepuscula lustra, Uda priusspargat, virgaque vertat humum. 'ondibus, et Axis decorentur ovilia ramia: Et tci.it oroatas longa corona fores, zralcitiant vivo dc Suphure fumi; Tactaque fumanti sulphurc balet Ovis. lit maris rorcs, txdamque, herbasque sabinai; £t crepet in mediis lautus adusta focis. baque de Milio Milii fiscella sequatur: Kustica præcique quo dea lecta cibo est. Ide dapes, mulctramque sua»: dapibusque resectis
Silvicolam tepido lacte precare palen.
nsnle, die, pecori pariter, pecorisque magislris:
Effugiat stabulis noxa repulsa mcis.
L. iv. v. 735.
Thus we fee that the fumigations used upon • occasion were sovereign for diseases of the
Ver. M. The original of this line has greatly tiled the commentators: some os them underfiding by" Pasiorem meum," Pan, and others, ApoUo nomius." The true interpretation, how:r, seems to be that which is given in the transion. See notes to £1. v. b. 1. Ver. 13. We fee from this passage, that a kind adoration was paid to a stone, or a trunk of a -, which divided the Roman lands. They peried them with essences, crowned them with vers, and sacrificed round them in the month February. They were shaped into odd figures, i called " Panes Agrestes;" as those which nted out the road had the name os" Compitabestowed on them.
she god Terminus of the Latins, or Jim he Greeks, had no animals sacrificed to him; luse, as Plutaich observes in his Vvpuixii, he vented broils, and of course bloodshed, among ghboura.
ly the laws of Nu.ua, if any person drove his Jgh into his neighbour's field, both he and his n were accursed.
According to Arnobius, the Arabians and Pef■ntians paid divine worship to shapeless untied stones; and if Regnard is to be credited, Laplander! at this, day deify any large stone
they meet with, provided it has any thing extraordinary in its figure. These people probably have neither painters nor statuaries among them.
Ver. »6. Commentators are not a little divided in their opinions, who the, " Dcus Agricola" of the original was. According to Broekhusius the poet meant Vertumnus; and, it must b< confessed, the husband of Pomona has a better right to thia place than any other of the sylvan gods, whom the critics have recommended. See a beautiful description of this ancient Tuscan deity in Propertius, Lib. iv. El. 2.
Ver. 29. For Pri;>pus, any of the common books of mythology may be consulted.
Ver. 30. Gebhardu's, on MS. authority, (for what absurdities have not librarians committed reads,
Terreat ut fexvas falce Priapes aves.
Which he interprets by birds of bad omen; not reflecting, that birds of good omen were no less destructive to fine fruit (the keeping of which was the province particularly assigned to Priapus), than his " aves sinistræ."
Ver. 31. The Lares were the offspring of the nymph Lara, whom Mercury ravished as he was conducting her to the Stygian lake, whither Jupiter bad banished her for blabbing his amours.
Fitquc gravis, Geminofque parit qui compita servant,
Et vigiles nostra semper in Æde Lares.
They therefore had worship paid them in the houses, particularly of husbandmen and in the highways; and their festival was called " Compitalitii, Compitalitia," or " >Compitalia." At these, the images of men and women made of wool were suspended, with as many balls also of wool, as there were slaves in the family, and as many " simulacra perfecta" as there were children. By this hanging in effigy, the ancients imagined, the Lares would be bribed (so true is it, that tear ia the parent of Polytheism) to spare the living.
These deities were made of wood, stone, or marble, according to the wealth or superstition of the votary; and were either public or private. The former were those that watched over the safety of the whole, while the private only superintended a family. Both were clothed in a dog's skin, and sometimes had the head of a dog clapped upon human shoulders. Their common figure, however, was a grotesque " caricatura" of a man's countenance. Vid. Boxhorn's Quest. Romans, P. 31. The place where the household gods stood was called Lararium. At first the only offerings made them were fruits, wine, and frankincense, but in time both lambs and hogs were sacrificed to them. They generally wore a chaplet of Sowers; and when young gentlemen put on the "toga virilis" they dedicated to them their "bullx;"
Bullaque fuccinctis laribus donata pependit.
Ver. 41. This simplicity in the worship of the gods, which Numa introduced, and which suited the poverty of the primæval times, continued in practice till Paganism was lost in Christianity.
Vid. Valcr. JVfaxim. L. iv. C. 4. at the end. Ver. 51 Scaliger reads,
et solo membra levare toro.
Supposing that our poet had only one bed lest him, fc Solum sibi superesse torum." But however exactly this circumstance may correspond with many of the modern inhabitants of Parnassus, yet the whole of this elegy shows, that our Roman knight was by no means io reduced; and indeed, as Brockhusius remarks, all the MSS. and bell editions, read,
Solito membra levare toro.
Not a casual bed. such as campaigners must often put up with, but an accustomed fixed place of rest; such as the poet of Verona describes in the following beautiful lines, addressed, upon his return from Bithynia, to the Peninsula Sirmio, on which he bad a villa.
O quid solutis est heatius curls?
Quum mens onus repunit, ac peregrino
Lahore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum,
Desideratoque adquiesetmus leclo.
Hoc est, quod unum est,.quo laborious tantise.
Cut. Carm, 29.
Those only can perct ive the full force of this observation who have experienced it. Ovid, in his banishment, knew and lamented the want os a " conluetuslcctus."
Non hie in nostris, ut quondam scribimns hortis, Ncc consucte meum lectule corpus habes.
Tri/I. L. i. El. 10.
Tarn procul ignotis igitur moriemur in oris,
Et sient ipso trillia fata loco?
Depositum ncc me, qui fleat, u lus erit >
Tri/1. L. iii. El. 3. BrottbusuU.
Quam yuvat, IsV] The translate r finding this paslage so well rendered by the late Mr. Hammond, has taken the liberty to adopt it. The commentators fay, that Tibullus borrowed this thought of rain assisting dumber from Sophocles; but could not our poet have observed, that rain, falling on the roof of a house, would compose to sleep, without having been obliged to that tragic poet for the observation? Antonius Musa, who did such honour to physic at Rome, cured Mæcenas of a three years watchfulness by the falling of water; and physicians at this day experience the soporific qualities of such a device; or of the sea breaking at a distance upon the shoreVer. 60. After the original of this line, Scaliger and Broekbusius place,
Quern labor assiduus vicino terreat hoste:
Which they explain by the extraordinary duties, especially in the night time, that soldiers undergo
in the neighbourhood of an enemy. It molt V owned, that these lines fall in here very D«ir„ ly ; yet, as most editions rank them immcdii:-: after,
Et teneat culti jugera multa soli. lit:
my friend has translated them in that place.
Ver. 6t. The original of this line greatly p<* plexed the critics, till Joannes Brodæus fittt s;» that a second " non" before u contentu*" wanting. Manmius, in his commentary on C> eero's Familiar Epistles, and Muritos, in his US Var. lj, 10. produce many instances of this of writing from the best antiquity. &afcl
Ver. 63. In this, and some of the follova stanzas, Tibullus represents that secure met;-. i ty of a country life, which innocence of miedt):stows only on those, who live according folk laws of nature. " Neque enimfaeiie " adds Brat hufius, 11 impurus quivis folitudini fe commit', sub arborum umbra somnulum captures in imj grai-iinc. Hxrct intus fempiterna sceicrum c" • mala conscientia.
Non siculse dapes
Oulccm elaborabunt seporem, &c.
Nor dainties force his pall'd desire,
To him can steep afford;
And shady river-, fair;
And fan the buxom air. fmi
"Ut praeclarc Horatius nosier, ille opuasii certifsimus vivendi magister. Hanc sibi t&Tf vendi rationem sequendam Tibullus props!, iquiflimo animo relinquens beatz fumum ettpi strepitumqtie Romx, qua quidem vita tikis* venientius sepientix studiosis, et muserum uco* tibus, bonxque mentis candidatis." Butties nion of Uroekhusius may be disputed; for,tW a country solitude is necessary for the perftfei works of genius, yet the town is the bed ferns' for those who would excel in description) oi 'b> man life.
Ver. 69. Mtjula.] This great soldier, patriot i'J critic (of whom so much has been said in Tik-» lus's Life) was in a hijrh degree of favour »'■■ Tully; and though Mæcenas has been w" praised by the poets than Messala, the historic show us, that our poet's friend was both a gru'3 and better man than the favourite of Augut* See the notes to El. 3. and El. 8. of the first boi
If the authority of Virgil is to be depend upon, the Romans derived the custom of si*5, ing their houscs'with hostile spoils from tit » motest antiquity. Æn. 7. ver. 183. And faded': is natural to imagine, where the tradition ii& chief spring from which the first unlettered tions drew their knowledge of past events, & these marks of conquest were the bell aothoril for the oral historian.