Sivut kuvina

the poverty of the primæval times, continued in practice till Paganism was lost in Christianity.

Vid. Valcr. JVfaxim. L. iv. C. 4. at the end. Ver. 51 Scaliger reads,

et solo membra levare toro.

Supposing that our poet had only one bed lest him, fc Solum sibi superesse torum." But however exactly this circumstance may correspond with many of the modern inhabitants of Parnassus, yet the whole of this elegy shows, that our Roman knight was by no means io reduced; and indeed, as Brockhusius remarks, all the MSS. and bell editions, read,

Solito membra levare toro.

Not a casual bed. such as campaigners must often put up with, but an accustomed fixed place of rest; such as the poet of Verona describes in the following beautiful lines, addressed, upon his return from Bithynia, to the Peninsula Sirmio, on which he bad a villa.

O quid solutis est heatius curls?

Quum mens onus repunit, ac peregrino

Lahore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum,

Desideratoque adquiesetmus leclo.

Hoc est, quod unum est,.quo laborious tantise.

Cut. Carm, 29.

Those only can perct ive the full force of this observation who have experienced it. Ovid, in his banishment, knew and lamented the want os a " conluetuslcctus."

Non hie in nostris, ut quondam scribimns hortis, Ncc consucte meum lectule corpus habes.

Tri/I. L. i. El. 10.

And again,

Tarn procul ignotis igitur moriemur in oris,

Et sient ipso trillia fata loco?
Nec mta consucto langucscent corpora locto?

Depositum ncc me, qui fleat, u lus erit >

Tri/1. L. iii. El. 3. BrottbusuU.

Quam yuvat, IsV] The translate r finding this paslage so well rendered by the late Mr. Hammond, has taken the liberty to adopt it. The commentators fay, that Tibullus borrowed this thought of rain assisting dumber from Sophocles; but could not our poet have observed, that rain, falling on the roof of a house, would compose to sleep, without having been obliged to that tragic poet for the observation? Antonius Musa, who did such honour to physic at Rome, cured Mæcenas of a three years watchfulness by the falling of water; and physicians at this day experience the soporific qualities of such a device; or of the sea breaking at a distance upon the shoreVer. 60. After the original of this line, Scaliger and Broekbusius place,

Quern labor assiduus vicino terreat hoste:
Martia cui somnos classica pulse fugent.

Which they explain by the extraordinary duties, especially in the night time, that soldiers undergo

in the neighbourhood of an enemy. It molt V owned, that these lines fall in here very D«ir„ ly ; yet, as most editions rank them immcdii:-: after,

Et teneat culti jugera multa soli. lit:

my friend has translated them in that place.

Ver. 6t. The original of this line greatly p<* plexed the critics, till Joannes Brodæus fittt s;» that a second " non" before u contentu*" wanting. Manmius, in his commentary on C> eero's Familiar Epistles, and Muritos, in his US Var. lj, 10. produce many instances of this of writing from the best antiquity. &afcl

Ver. 63. In this, and some of the follova stanzas, Tibullus represents that secure met;-. i ty of a country life, which innocence of miedt):stows only on those, who live according folk laws of nature. " Neque enimfaeiie " adds Brat hufius, 11 impurus quivis folitudini fe commit', sub arborum umbra somnulum captures in imj grai-iinc. Hxrct intus fempiterna sceicrum c" • mala conscientia.

Non siculse dapes

Oulccm elaborabunt seporem, &c.


Nor dainties force his pall'd desire,
Nor chant of birds, nor vocal lyre,

To him can steep afford;
Heart soothing sleep, which not disdains
The rural lot, or humbler swains,

And shady river-, fair;
Or Tenipe's ever-blooming spring,
Where zephyrs wave the balmy wing,

And fan the buxom air. fmi

"Ut praeclarc Horatius nosier, ille opuasii certifsimus vivendi magister. Hanc sibi t&Tf vendi rationem sequendam Tibullus props!, iquiflimo animo relinquens beatz fumum ettpi strepitumqtie Romx, qua quidem vita tikis* venientius sepientix studiosis, et muserum uco* tibus, bonxque mentis candidatis." Butties nion of Uroekhusius may be disputed; for,tW a country solitude is necessary for the perftfei works of genius, yet the town is the bed ferns' for those who would excel in description) oi 'b> man life.

Ver. 69. Mtjula.] This great soldier, patriot i'J critic (of whom so much has been said in Tik-» lus's Life) was in a hijrh degree of favour »'■■ Tully; and though Mæcenas has been w" praised by the poets than Messala, the historic show us, that our poet's friend was both a gru'3 and better man than the favourite of Augut* See the notes to El. 3. and El. 8. of the first boi

If the authority of Virgil is to be depend upon, the Romans derived the custom of si*5, ing their houscs'with hostile spoils from tit » motest antiquity. Æn. 7. ver. 183. And faded': is natural to imagine, where the tradition ii& chief spring from which the first unlettered tions drew their knowledge of past events, & these marks of conquest were the bell aothoril for the oral historian.

When a Roman sold a house adorned with

istilr spoils, cither won by himself or his ancesr», the purchaser was not permitted to avail mself nf the honour they bestowed, but obliged take tfii.M down.

Ver. Si. The person allu'cd to in thi< passage Li C. S sius, who being Prætor when the civil it broke out, was afterwards sent by M Anitiy tn command in Syria and Cilicia, when he ft subdued the Aradians; and then Antigonus, ring formerly butchered a Roman garrison fl; d, L'r his defeat, to Jerusalem, which Sofius s on tr took; and using the Jews with no les- cruelty in avarice, he bellowed their kingdom on He1 of Astalon Neither did Antigonus escape the iqucror, who not only whipped, but crucified i beheaded him. These act ons nf barbarity, hou^h they dilgrace vict'>ry, yet procure Sosius : honour of a triumph at Rome, A. II C. 719.


Ver. 89. We fee, from this instance and many hoccur in our noct), that elegy, as well as ci»:dy, sometimes ruses her vjice ; and if Tibullus's nepyric had not come down to us, critics, no cbt,would have hence coi j-cturtd, that his geis was no less suited to the lofty than the tender 'jrcK of poesy

Ver 93. This pathetic circumstance Ovid has died to Nemesis in his sine elegy on the death 3ur poet.

Per. 98 For the funerals of the ancients, fee cs to ill ii. book 3

Df all the methods practised by different nations their dilpr.fal of the dead, the custom of the Caan Indians, as Herodotus relates it. is the most raordinary. Darius, fays that elegant historian, ring one day asked some of hn Grecian subjects, at sum would induce them to eat their deceased Cms {revs wurtfmt tttTohtyfxwemt %t\tmftttuhii\i 7 instantly rep lied, that no biihe should ever ke (.hem do so horrid an actii n. Upon this, the oe monarch, in the presence of the Greeks too, landing, by an interpreter of some Calatian Lians, how much money they would take not tat, for that was their custom 1 & Toi/j yormi I'lmn), but to burn their dead parents; he

was entreated, with loud and earnest exclamations not to compel them to do a deed which for ever must destroy their peace of mind! So justly, adds the historian, does Pindar call custom the sovereign of all. no/in Tf&vruv ZxstXt*. Herod. Thai. C. 38.

Vtr. 103. Those who indulged an immoderate grief for their deceased friends, were supposed by the ancients to injure their manes, and therefore Cornelia entreats her husband, Paulus the censor,

Define, Pauli, meum lacrymis urgere jepuicnim.

Propert. L.^ E ll.

And I.ucian, in his excellent discourse on mourning (sriM mint), makes a departed youth thus answer the frantic sorrowings of his father, a; xauKtbaifjLn Avifuni rl xlxfKyeis* &C. Unhappy mortal why do y< u thus lament aioud? Why da you cause me so much pain ? Cease to tear your hair and W"Und your face, I am far more fortunate than you. Why then do you call me name , and term me wretched?

Ver. 104. Turnebus was the first who explained this rtaflage. The poet, though an enemy to ex ravagam grief, expected that Delia would show a tender concern when he died. breckhuftut.

Ver. III. That pleasant versifier Malherbe, thus address** the mules,

Qnand le Sang bomilant en mes veines
Me donnt-it de j< uncs desires
Tantot vous soup riez mes peines
Tantoi vnuschariticz mes plaifirs:
Mais aujrmrahui que mes aimers
Vers ltur fin s'en vont ternui.trs,
Sercit il bien a mes ecrits
D' Ennuyer les races futures
Des ridicules avantures
D'un Amcureux en cheveux gris?

The reader may fee the miseries of an old man's falling in love well described in the elegies commanly imputed to Virgil's friend, the famous Cornelius Gallus. These elegies are a modern comp Gtion, the work of one Longinus Maximiaa a physician.


^itb wine, more wine, my recent pains deceive, II creeping slumber fend a soft reprieve: lcep, take heed Do whisper stirs the air, r wak'd, my boy, 1 wake to heart-felt care. >w is my Delia watch'd by ruthless spies, id the gate, bolted, all access denies, 'lemless gate! may storms of wind and rain, ith mingled violence avenge my pain \

May forky thunders, hurl'd by Jove's red hand,
3urst every bolt, and shatter every band! If
Ah no! rage turns my brain; the curse rtcal;
On me, devoted, let the thunder fall!
Then recollect my many wreaths of yore,
How oft you've seen me weep, insensate door |
No longer then our interview delay,
And as you open let 00 noise betray.

In va!n I plead !—Dare then my Delia rife!
Love aids the dauntless, and will blind your spies!
Those who the godhead's soft behests obey,
Steal from the pillows unobserv'd away; 30

On tiptoe traverse unobserv'd the floor;
The key turn noiseless, and unfold the door:
In vain the jealous each precaution take,
Their speaking fingers assignations make.
Nor will the god impart to all his aid;
Love hates the fearful, hates the lazy maid;
But through sly windings, and unpractis'd ways,
His bold night-errants to their wish conveys:
For those whom he with expectation fires,
No ambush frightens, and no labour tires; 30
Sacred the dangers of the dark they dare,
No robbers stop them, and no bravocs scare.
Though wint'ry tempests howl, by love secure,
The howling tempest I with ease endure:
No watching hurts me, if my Delia smile,
Soft turn the gate, and beckon me the while.

She's mine. Be blind, yc ramblers of the night,
Lest angry Venus snatch your guilty sight:
The goddess bids her votaries joys to be
From every casual interruption free: 40

With prying steps alarm us not, retire,
Nor glare your torches, nor our names inquire:
Or if ye know, deny, by Heaven above,
Nor dare divulge the privacies of love.
From blood and seas vindictive Venus sprung,
And sure destruction waits the blabbing tongue!


Tax foregoing poem was written by Tibullus upon his being disappointed in getting admittance to the apartments of Delia.

Ver. 7. It was customary with the Roman lovers to address the gates of their mistresses: Many instances of this occur in the elegiac poets.

Ver. 13. This kind of gallantry was much practised by the Romans.

At lacrimans exdusus amator limina sepe
Floribus, et sertis operit, postesque superbus
Ungit amaracyno. Lucrtt.

Meantime excluded, and expos'd to cold,
The whining lover stands before the gates,
And there with humble adoration waits;
Crowning with flow'rs the threshold and the floor,
And printing kisses on th' obdurate door.


The Romans decked their doors with garlands upon many public and private occasions.

Ver. 24. The best comment on all this passage, is that elegy of Ovid's which begins

Me specta, nutusque meos, &c.

Ver. 31. The civil wars, as they introduced a general dissoluteness of manners, so they also in

Nay, should they prate, you, Delia, need not fcr Your lord (a sorceress swore), should give sou By potent spells she cleaves the sacred ground And shuddering spectres wildly roam around; I've seen her tear the planets from the Iky! Seen lightning backward at her bidding 8t '. She calls! from blazing pyres the cork e

feends, And, re-enliven'd, clasps his wondering fries j The fiends she gathers with a magic yell, Then with aspersions frights them back to beL She wills,—glad summer gilds the frozen pi' She wills,—in summer wint'ry tempests roll She knows ('tis true), Medea's awful spell! She knows to vanquish the fierce guards of be£ 1 To me she gave a charm for lover? meet, (" Spit tkrice, my fair, and thrice the clint

peat-") Us, in soft dalliance should your lord surpr&; By this impos'd on he'd renounce his eyes: But bless no rival, or th' affair is knows; This incantation me befriends alone. Nor stopp'd she here; but swore, if Vi ijie, By charms or herbs, to set thy lover free. With dire lustrations she began the rile! (Serenely shone the planet os the night) The magic gods she call'd with hellish f«i

A sable sacrifice disdain'd the ground

I stopp'd the spell: I must not, cannot pir 1 begg'd her aid to gain a mutual heart.

creased the number of robbers; and wea* sical authority for asserting, that Rnt>^ age of Cxsar, was as much infested «it» a*" as modern Italy. Propertius has tkut Bf"* upon this passage of our author:

Nee tamen est quisquam sacros qui Ixdrt'SScyronis media fie licet ire Via:

Quisquia Amator erit, Scythicis licet amta**-Nemo adeo ut noceat, barbarm else pnet.

Luna ministrat iter, demonstrant Astra salcsr* Ipse Amor accenfas percutit ante frees.

LH. a. £'

Yet, after all, the thoughts of Tibulnss if more just. Mr. Prior has given us the ssBK*" timent, but in a different manner, v£"f "■' logy with more address than even moc <•' ancients.

For love, fantastic power, that i« afraid
To stir abroad till watchfulness be laid;
Undaunted then through cliff, and tiBfT*5rr
And leads his votaries safe through pathlefc *J?
Not Argus with his hundred eyes thill bl
Where Cupid goes, though he, poor *"•*'

Ver. 36. Broekhufius's note on the original of lii passage i> so curious, that the reader (hall ive it in hu own words: "Minus recte Tur;bus (rum et Turncbus homo suit) hanc digitom concrepationem exponit de re, quam facile ilioque negotio adfequimur, et levi quodam velut no et nutu jubemua et obtinemus." Adv. lib. ). This explanation, adds our commentator, jrnebas confirms by a quotation from Martial, 'lich, however, as Broekhusius sagaciously obves, only intimates the gesture of a person, matulam poscentis." He then interprets the Sage, and his interpretation the translator has opted.

Ver. 38. This was a punishment supposed to : inflicted on those who beheld, though without sign, any deity. The old priestess of the " bot Dea," in Propertius, thus addresses Alcides:

iree oculis, hospes, lucoque age sede verendo, Cede agedum, et tuta, limina linque, suga.

Lii. iv. El. 9.

Venu«, in the end os the hymn ascribed to Holer, threatens Anchises, if he blabbed their in:r«nirse, to stride him with thunder. The youth, aving disregarded this warning, was thus deriired of one of his eyes. See Cailimachus' poem rituled the Bath of Diana. Ver. 49. The first description of a witch to be mud in any Latin poet, is that which Virgil has iven in his eighth eclogue. Those critics who e fond of tracing resemblances among poets, ould be apt to assert, that our author had that iflage in his eye; and yet, if it is considered, ut popular prejudice imputed those very effects 1 witchcraft, there is no occasion for supposing lit Maro's Mæris assisted Tibullus in his dcription of his " Saga Verax." However dissoint to found fense and philosophy magical deriptions may be, yet they have an excellent efs4 in poetry, where admiration is to be excited.

According to Marcellas, " saga," in its primira meaning, signified " turpis amorum concilia'h;" and as such bawds used spells and drugs 1 effectuate their illicit purposes, it came afterards to be applied to a witch.

The Romans, according to Broekhusius, held agic in the utmost abhorrence Would the ader view the full force ascribed by the ancients ) witchcraft, let him turn to Horace's fifth and venteenth Epodes. Ovid's Epistle to Hypsipyle, er. 83. and Jfcl. viii. lib. I. and Metamorp. lib. ii. ver. 179. lib. xiv. ver. 43. Propertius, lib. iv. L v. Seneca's Medea, ver. 675. and his Hercus Œta, ver. 454. Lucan, lib. vi. ver. 431. Apu:ius, lib. i. ii. iii. of his Metamorphosis. Petroitu. Claudian, lib. i. in Rufin. ver. I46. Silius, b. viii. ver. 496. Valerius Flaccus, lib. vi. ver. 39. and Nemesianus's fourth Eclogue. But Vir. U's description (lib. iv. Æn. 487.) of a witch, hough comprised in five lines only, is, by Broekusius, preferred to all the rest.

However the moderns may be obligeJ in other efpects, to yield the poetical palm to the ancients, et the most bigotted to classical superiority must

confess, that the ancients themselves have been surpassed by us in the poetry of magic. Who, for instance, of the Greek or Roman poets, can be compared with our Shakspeare in this particular i Nay, they might be challenged to produce any magical rites equal in propriety and terror to those we find in Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess; a poem from which, if Shakspeare did not transplant many a beauty, Milton certainly did.

Ver. 50. It was believed by the ancient*, that magic could raise the manes of the dead, and that those ghosts could certainly inform inquirers concerning future events. Vid. Homer's Odyssey, lib. xi. Virgil's Æn. vi. Seneca's Œdip. Statins, lib. iv. Silius ltalicus, lib. xiii. and Valerius Flaccus, lib. i. Nor did the Romans regard necromancy as an infamous or abominable art.

One of the usages practised to make the manes appear, was to (hed human blood; and, if Cicero may be credited, (vid. tuterrogat. Vatin.) the entrails of boys particularly were, on such occasions, offered up.

Ver. j». Some editors read " fluminis;" and the reading is supported by MS. authority.

Ver. 55. These thoughts are thus assumed by Hammond.

A wizard dame, thy lover's ancient friend,
With magic charms has deaft thy husband's

At her csxnmaod I saw the stars descend,
And winged lightnings stop in mid career.

I saw her stamp and cleave the solid ground,
While ghastly spectres round us wildly roam;

I saw them hearken to her potent sound, Till scarr'd at day they sought their dreary home.

At her command, the vigorous summer pines,
And wint'ry clouds obscure the hopeful year!

At her strong bidding gloomy winter shines,
And vernal roses on the snows appear.

She gave these charms, which I on thee bestow:
They dim the eye, and dull the jealous mind;

For me they make a husband nothing know;
For me, and only me, they make him blind.

SI. T.

The whole of this fifth elegy of Hammond's is indeed a beautiful imitation of this second of Tibullus.

Ver. J 4. The aspersion used to send those " infern* catervas" back to hell was milk; and, if the translator is not mistaken, this is the only passage in the ancient poets where milk is taken notice of as used for this purpose. See note on the second elegy of the third book, for the use of milk at funerals; and elegy sixth of the fame book, for its virtue in dispelling diseases, when offered along with blood and wine to the infernal gods.

Ver. 60. The unusual hissing in the original of this line

Sola seros Hecates perdumuissc canes,

was probably meant to give the reader a more

terrible idea of those fierce attendants of Hecate;

and hence the alteration of

Sola ferot Hecatæ, &c.

offered by Brotkhusius, seems improper.

Ver. 62. The reader who wants to be informcd of the many u/es made of spittle in medicine, in magic, in expiations, in averting witchcraft, in omens, and in conciliating love, may consult Pliny the elder, and those commentators whom Broekhusius has quoted. We (hall only observe, that the belief of its being a preservative against fascination is very ancient, for Theocritus makes Damxtas thus express himself in the sixth Idyl.

Sis p-x £*rxoti$u }i, Tfiif vraufx f/f ifin jeiAsroy.

Nor did only the shepherds of Sicily look upon spittle in this light, the Romans believed the fame of it. Accordingly, on the day when an infant was named (which for girls was on the eighth, for boys on the ninth, after birth), the grandmother or aunt, moving round in a circle, rubbed, with her middle finger, the child's forehead with spittle, which was hence called " Luttralis Saliva."

The number three was of great import in almost all the religious and magical ceremonies of antiquity; forthough.asVirgilexpresses it,the gods were supposed to be pleased with all odd numbers, yet three was deemed the most pleasing to them. The number four was also of some estimation, as Macrobius, in his Commentary on the Somn. Scipion. informs us. Vid. cap. 5, 6. Our pact also uses the number fear in one of his elegies.

Ver. 63. Ovid, who, without any eeremony, adopts our poet's sentiments, whenever they suit his purpose, has made use of the fame argument to au over-vigilant keeper.

Viderit ipse licet, credet tamen'ille neganti
Damnabit oculos, et sibi verba dabit.

Although it is with great reluctance that men credit any report injurious to the fame of one they love, yet nothing less than a spell was necessary to make a husband deny the testimony of his own senses.

Ver. 69. The lustration mentioned in the original was a torch of pine-tree; to which were added sulphur and bitumen, and, as Brockhusius conjectures, blood. A solemn washing, and the sacrifice of a black lamb, preceded the use of the torch. These ceremonies were also performed on a clear night, " nocte screna." The ancients thought them equally powerful either to bind the lover, or free him from the influence of love.

Pontanus and Amaltheus among the moderns, not to mention others, have given us an ample detail of the ceremonies practised on these occasions: but as most of them are unadapted to modern superstition, their accounts show some learning, but little judgment. Ovid laughs at all these ceremonies in his Remedy of Love.

Ver. 71. The best list of these deities is to be found in the seventh book of Ovid's Metamor

phosis, ver. 191. and in the two Spmifli po Seneca, Mcd. ver. 140. and Lucid,<: 730. Bntx

Ver. 74. Though this be evidently the coru(ion us the elegy, yet some editors have iuiz-. tacked to it,

Ferreus ille suit,

and the thirteen following lines, which Vtlra; the first elegy. Nor content with this, the; Uforced

Num veneris niagnæ,

and the seven succeeding verse*, from their erv ral place in the fifth elegy of this book, and km added them to the other transposition. Mr. sic followed one of these editions.

May it not have been this inaccuracy efti tors which induced that great poet, u vela critic, Mr. Dryden, to assert, that TibaCis it composing, seldom looked farther than the es line; that he rambles from his subject, ai eludes with something which is not of t:' with the beginning. Although it is grantrf,"no man understood the beauties of anciestxe" and of course could draw the characters of es poets, better than Mr. Dryden; yet it ii ess that his sentiments on these subjects weref ways the result of mature deliberation. \"?general preface to the volume from wt£~ above censure on our author is taken, Mr.ft* complains of his want of leisure ; and, tsi. this is too evident in the quotation above aue arguments to TibulLus'a elegies will uW < ginning, a middle, and a conclusion, era**" than can be sound in Propertius, whoytt,t=* ing to that critic, had always a plan win** down to write.

Let not, however, the reader imagine*"' is meant as a censure on Mr. Dryden;!** mortal genius had not time ro correct to": But what shall we say of the age which i£~ its first pen to be hackneyed through aectfe''

However, if Dryden's cucumstaoco ■" ■■' apology for his little incorrectnesses, Raftf^' be pardoned on the fame account: aodjrtt* critic, who often characterizes books be a*" read, makes the following observation:

"Je fcai, qu' il y a des onvrages qui dat* par la qualite de leur charactere iire etnas' 3 air libre fans autre desscin, que eclui A'*z<:* vete naturelle, et fans contrainte, tclsqaeuC* hymnes d' Orphic- d' Homcre, de Callus*-' tels que font certaines Odes de Pindare, «" A* creon, et d' Horace, qui n' ont de regie 4>'' * thousiafme, tels que font aufli la plupaitdai* gies de Tibulle et Properce; mais il faat sr*1 que ce ne font pas les plus belies, et quaod ec Reflexions aux Elegies d' Ovide on y trua*."* jours un tour secret qui en fait le denes)." *'•* shall one fay to all this critical jargon, bat the

Ten censure wrong, for one who writes «t» Jo. Antonius Vulpius, a lawyer of Betyv who published an edition of Catallsa, Tibiw

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