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Hence those soldiers, who by infirmity were disabled from campaigning, were called " causarii milites," and their dismission " causaria missio."

When the superstitious among the Athenians, saw a mad or epileptic person, they, shuddering, spit into their bosom to avert the mischief Aud, indeed, while those disorders were reputed judgments of Heaven upon the persons affected, no wonder the poor sufferers were hated and shunned ; but a founder philosopher has taught us that 'such objects always deserve our pity, and have a right to all the relief human skill can procure them.

Ver. 70. AttitbM I he.ir her.'] J. Secundus has finely imitated this thought.

Dumque ego blanditeasquc tuas, et roscida mend
Oicula praecipio multiplicisque viceis,

Dum vacuam faisis complexibus aera capto,
Dum mea in abfenteis porrigo colla minus,

y.i quern cumque movet strepttum lcvis aura per aedes

Dilecto* dominæ suspicor esse pedes.

El. ii. B. %.

Tint Broekhtifius very justly prefers a description c>f the same kind in the seventh canto of the Orlando Furioso, (Stanz. 24. & 2j.)

Ver. 71. In rujsct iveeJi.'] Mattaire and others have injudiciously inserted the original of this line, and the two following ones, at the end of the third elegy of the second hook.

When that part of the Roman gown, which was commonly tucked under the right arm, and secured by the " umbo" on the left shoulder, was allowed to flow about the wearer; the " toga" was then said to be " laxa." This the Romans reputed a sign of effeminacy. Hence it is not surprising that Mecænas dressed in this manner; but that Julius Clsar should do so, is more unaccountable. And although many instances occur

in a neighbouring kingdom, sufficient to convbus, that the fop and the brave soldier ate us wholly incompatible; " Vx tamen iftis!" Ver. 88. All the ancient editions read,

Ni definis esse superba.

Although this may appear odd, fays Broekiksius, to those who have ears like King Midas, c is, nevertheless, the genuine reading.

The following quotation from Ariotto it: maskable:

Penso Rinaldo alquanto, e poi rispose:
Una donzelia dunque dc morire
Pcrche lafeios sugar nc 1'amorofe
Sue Braccia al sno amator tanto desire!
Sia maledetta chi tal puo patire.
Debitamenre muore una crndclc
Non chi da vita al suo amator fedele.

* Cant. iv. Si.

Aster alt, if Pholoe could find no lovewr.tj qualities in Marathus, it was ungenerous in c~' poet to insult her with such a prognostic. Lint is the child of obsequiousness, and not the aspring of menace; accordingly, the fair Egyptian (in Prior) says, if not poetically, at k*! truly,

Soft love, spontaneous tree, its parted root Must from two hearts with equal vigour shoot; Whilst each delighted, and delighting, gives The pleasing ecstacy, which each receive*. Cherilh'd with hope, and fed with joy, it] grows; I Its cheerful buds their opening bloom disdoM And round the happy foil diffusive odour fcfij If angry fate that mutual care denies, ) The fading plant bewails its due supplies; ■ Wild with despair, or sick with grief, it da )

ELEGY X.

Wnv did you swear by all the powers above F
Yet never meant to crown my longing love.
"Wretch, though at first the perjur'd deed you hide,
Wrath com es with certain,though with tardy stride;
Yet, yet, offended gods, my charmer spare!
Yet pardon the first fault of one lo fair!

For gold the careful farmer ploughs the plain,
Aud joins his oxen to the cumbrous wain;
For gord, through seas that stormy winds obey,
By stars, the sailor steers his watery way. 10
Yet, gracious gods, this gold from man remove,
That wicked metal brib'd the fair 1 love.

Soon shall you suffer greatly for your crime, A weary wanderer in a foreign clime;

Your hair sliail change, and boasted bloom dea*. By wintery tempests, and the solar ray.

"Beware of gold, how oft did I advise? "From tempting gold what mighty misehiefsrifc' "Love's generous power, I laid, witb teased "pain

M The wretch will rack, who fells her chaw "for gain. •* "Let torture all her cruelties exert, "Torture is pastime to a venal heart.

*' Nor idly dream your gallantries to hide, "The gods are ever on the sufferer's side. "With sleep or wine o'ercome, so fate ordjia, "You'll blab the secret os your impious gauss."

Thus oft I wirn'd you; this augments my

flume;

ily filths, team, homage, henceforth I disclaim.

"No wealth shall bribe my constancy, you "swore, 19

Be mine the bard, you sigh'd, I crave no more:

Not all Campania shall my heart entice,

For thee Campania's autumns I despise.

Let Bacchus in Falcrnian vineyards stray,

Not Bacchus' vineyards shall my faith betray."

Such strong professions, in so soft a strain, light well deceive a captivated swain; ich strong profession* might aversion charm, nw doubt determine, and indifference warm, ay more, you wept, unpracti&'d to betray, kisi'd your cheek|, and wip'd she tears away. 40

But if I tempting gold unjustly blame,
nd you have left me for another flame;

... he, like you, seem kind, like you deceive,
»1 O may ysu, like cheated me, believe.
Oft 1 by night the torch myself would bear,
)at none our tender converse might o'erhear;
hen least eapected, oft some youth I led,

jcuth all beauty, to the genial bed,
nd tutor'd him your conquest to complete,
( soft enticements, and a fond deceit. 5c
By these I foolifli hop'd to gain your love!
ho than Tibullus could mote cautious piove?
'd with uncommon powers I swept the lyre,
id sent you melting strains of soft desire:
e thought o'erspreads my face with conscious
fliame,

om, doom them victims to the seas or flame, verse be their's, who love's soft fires profane, d fell inestimable joys for gain. But you who first the lovely maid decoy'd, each adulterer be your wife enjoy'd. 60

And when each youth has rifled all her charms, May bed-gowns guard her from your lothcd arms!

May she, O may she like your sister prove,
As sam'd for drinking, far more fam'd for love!
'I"is true, the bottle is her chief delight,
She knows no better way to pass the night;
Your wife more knowing can the night improve,
To joys of Bacchus joins the joys of love.

Think'st thou for thee, the toilette is her care? 69 For thee, that fillets hind her well-dress'd hair? For thee, that T yrian robes her charms enfold' For thee, her arms arc deck'd with buruisti'd gold >

By these, some youth the wanton would entice,
For him she dresses, and for him she sighs;
To him slie prostitutes, unaw'd by fliame,
Your house, your pocket, and your injur'd fame:
Nor blame her conduct, say, ye young, what
charms

Can beauty taste in gout and age's arms?

Less nice my fair tine, she for money can Caress a gouty impotent old man; O thou by generous love, too justly blam'd I 79 All, all that love could give, my passion claim'j. Yet since thou couldst so mercenary prove, The more deserving shall engross my love; Then thou wilt weep when these adorY. you sc: Weep on, thy tears will transport give to mr To Venus I'll suspend a golden shield, With this inscription grav'd upon the field:

"Tibullus, freed at last from amorous woes, "This offering, queen of bliss, on thee bestows: "And humbly begs, that henceforth thou wilt "guard

"From such a passion, thy devoted bard," 9c

NOTES ON ELEGY X,

"hi translator has been obliged 10 use pretty ch the same freedom with this elegy as he i with the fourth. Had the other elegies of ullus been like these two, he had never taken trouble of translating them. But, as both in version are new-modelled, it is hoped that her of them can shock the most delicate chaser. 3. Although the justness of these moral actions is not always discoverable on this side grave, we have all reason to think that the jured will meet with a deserved punishment mother state. Horace makes a remark, DO just than moral:

10 antecedentem feels! um
leruit petna pede claudn.

>en Jove in anger strikes the blow,
•111 with, the bad, the righteous bleed,

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Ver. 15. The delicate among the ancienti, who had tine hair, were at great pains to prevent it from becoming red (rusui); an effect which they imagined the heat of the fun might occasion. Vid. Dissert, de Color. Com. c. 3. p. 57.

Ver. 13. Almost all the old edition* read,

Nec tibj celanti fas fit peccare paranti.

To find out the meaning of which long exercised the ingenuity of the learned; and no wonder, for if it is not nonsense, it is something very like it. At last, however, Scaliger restoi,d the text; which, though supported by'MS. authority, has been censured by some malevolent critics as an intrusion of his own. Bracibuf. Ver. 16. In the original,

u

Ipfc Deus tacito permifit vela miniflro
Ederet ut mulu libera verba mcro.

For this reading we are also indebted to Seali-
ger; yet the passage is far from being void of ob-
scurity. Accordingly, the commentators, since
his time, have all of them differed in their expla-
nations of i*. And ahhough none of their expo-
sitions are satisfactory, yet that of Brockhusius is
the least liable to objections. He fays, that the
"Tacitus Dei" minister, is the deceitful wine, by
the vtpours of which, drunkenness creeping on,
obscures the mind, as with a veil; "tanquam
velo quodam, aciem mentis obnubit fubrepens
frnsim ebrietas" This, it must be owned, con
vcys some meaning; yet the idea conveyed by it
appears to be faithcr fetched than those of Ti
bullus commonly are. Something like this is re
tainrd in the version.

Ver. 31. Campania was so called from its being a champaigne fiamptjlr'uj country. It belongs to the kingdom of Naples, and lies south of Abruz z 1. It was formerly so fertile, that Pliny and Florus elegantly call it, " Liberi Cererifqje cer tarnen." Its present name is " Terra de Lav> ro." It is still beautiful, though it has lost much of its classic amenity.

Ver. 34. Falernus was one of the most fruitful districts in Campania. Its wines were the most celebrated of 3ny in Italy; Dart alleges, that i received its name from one Faiernus, a huibind man, who rt seems first cultivated the vine there. It was anciently called Amincum ; and hence the epithet " aminea" was a] plied to wines of that country. and not as Servius imagines, because there was no minium in them.

Ver. 3j. '1 hough the images in the original, are natural and obvious, yet as they are not appropriated to amorous compositions, the translator has ventured to insert others, which to him appeared to have a better title to the place. Donee erunt ignes arcufque, cupidinis arma,

of Ovid, would have been more adapted to the subject, from whence the image* ought ever to spring; and indeed no poet of ant'quity has more exactly observed this rule than Ovid hath done, in the elegy from which the above line is taken, and in this view cannot be too carefully perused.

Pastoral poets frequently err, and even Virrri
himself is not entirely blameless in this paitia
Mr. Pope in this, and in most other cafes, warn
correctness of judgment is requisite, has beenk'-
passed by none. How excellent, lor instance, ar:
these lines in his Rape of the Lock!
This day black omens threat the brightest fair,
That e'er dclcrv'd a watchful spirit's care;
borne dire disaster, or by force, or flight:
But what, or where, the fates have wrapt in rijfc
Whether the Dymph ftull break Diana's Uw,
Or some frail china jar receive a flaw;
Or stain her honour, or her new brocade,
Forget her prayers, or miss a masquerade j •
Or lose her heart, or necklace at a ball.
Or whether heaven has doom'd that Shock Did? U

Cast. I

Ver. 49. This elegy abounds in difnralt p» sages; nor is the original of this passige the Id obicure: should therefore the translator en K the critical reader will the more easily pardonr,^ He had, however, in hia eye, the followi-{ f gain lines of Horace.

Nunc et latentis proditor intimo
Gratus puillæ lilus ah anguio,
Pignul've dereptum lacertis,
Aut digito male pertinaci.
The laugh which from the comer flies,
To tell you where the fair one lies;
A ring or bracelet fnatch'd away,

The sportive pledge of suture joy;
When she with amorous dczr delat,
Shall struggling yield the willing tr;

Afer all, the sentiment, as it appears is I* lus. can boast of no delicacy.

Ver. 62. May Lidgouns guard Ærr.j Fra" wish, and some others in Tibullus, map*1' have conjectured that our post's talent Wju'^ suited to the satiric, than to the elefrwsi The translator, however, would have bett kf" pleased, had his author given 110 proof* of in that disagreeable species of writing rk'" therefore been less solicitous in rendering i' force of the original.

Ver. 63. May fit, 0 may fit Hit ytmffr /•>-
Ai famd for Ji inking^ 6tX \
The Romans entertained so great an aMurr."-
of drunkenness in a woman, that the lam *
twelve tables permitted the husband to puna*"
wife with death, is sound guilty cf that crinx
Ver. 8,5. " Faciunt hoc homines," say**
ral Cicero, " quos, in sumnia neqtiitia, noci"13
libido et v.iluptas, verum etimi if-fias of81
fama delcctit; ut mult(« in locis, noras at RA"
fcelerum fuorum relinqui velint-" Bat VJp'
thinks, that the poet did n it mean a flncli
hand (palma); which he proves the aacietir)~'
sometimes to hang up in their temples, tor*1
that it was now freed from the fetters clow*"
love. If this is the interpretation, it mayk1*4
translated:

To love I'll dedicate a hand of goW.
And this inscription shall the cause uaW

ELEGY XI.

Who was the first that sorg'd the deadly blade?
Of rugged steel his savage soul was made;
By him, his bloody flag ambition wav'd;
And grisly carnage through the battle rav'd:
Yet wherefore blame him '. we're ourselves to
blame;

Arms first were sorg'd to kill the savage game:
Death-dealing battlrs were unknown of old;
Death-dealing battles took their rife from gold:
When beachen bowls on oaken tables stood,
When tempe'ate acornt were our fathers food; to
The swain slept peaceful with his flocks around,
No trench was open'd, and no fortress frown'd.

0 had I liv'd in gentle days like these, To love devoted, and to home-felt case; Compell'd I had not been those arms to wear, Nor had the trumpet sore'd me from the fair: But now I'm dragg'd to war, perhaps my foe £'en n»w prepares th' inevitable blew! [known

Come then, paternal gods, whose help I've From birth to manhood, still protect your own, io Nor blush, my gods, though carv'd of ancient wood,

So carv'd in our forefathers times you stood;
And though in no proud te-^ples you weie praia'd,
Nor foreign incense on your alters bUz'd .
Yet white-rob'd faith conducted every swai.i;
Yet metk-ey'd piety sertn'd the plain j
While clustering grapes, or wheat-wreaths round
your hair,

Appeas'd your anger, and engag'd your care;
Or dulcet cakes himself the farmer paid.
When crown'd hia wishes by your pow rful
aid; 30
While his fair daughter brought with her from
The luscious offering of a hour y-comb: home,
snow you'il aid me in the hour of need,
Your care I'll recompence—a boar shall bleed,
n white array'd, I'll myrtle baskets bear,
\ai myrtle foliage round my temples wear:
In arms redoubtable let others shine,
iy Mars protected mow the martial line;
You let me please, my head with roses crown,
\r\A every care in flowing goblets drown , 40
Then when I'm joyous, let the soldier tell,
tVnat foes were captur'd, and what leaden sell;
3r on the board describe with flowing wine,
she furious onset, and the flying lme.
For realon whilpcrs. Why will short liv'd man,
l>}' war contract liu too contracted span?

Yet when he leaves the cheerful realms of light,
No laughing bowls, no harvests cheer the sight;
But howl the damn'd, the triple mould r roars,
And Charon grumble" on the Srygian shores: 50
By fiery lakes the blasted phantoms yell,
Or Ihrowd their anguish in the depths of hell.

In a thatch'd cottage happier he by far.
Who never hears of arms, of gold, or war.
His chaste embrace a numerous offspring crown,
He courts not fortune's smile, nor dreads her
frown;

While lenient baths at home his wife [
He, and his sons, attend their fleecy cares,
As old, as poor, as peaceful may I he,
So guard my stocks, and iuch an offspring fee. 6a>
Meantime, soft peace, descend, O! bliss our
plains!

Soft peace to plough with oxen 'aught the swains.
Peace plants the orchard, and matures ihe vine,
And first gay laughing prest the ruddy wine;
t he father quaffs, deep quaff his joyous friends,
Ver to his loo a well-ftr.r'd vault descends.

Bright shine the plough-share, our support and
j"T

But rusl, deep rust, 'he veteran's amis destroy! l'he villager . hi- sacred offerings paid

In the dirk 1 rove, and r msec ated shade), 70

His witc a ,d sons, now darkness p^rts the throng, Dnvt s home, and whistles, as he reels along.

Then triumph* Venn*; then love-feuds prevail;

The youth all jealous then the laii assail:
D or-, window fly. no deference tiny pay,

l*ne chastest suffer in th' uogentic !ray: [tears;

I'hcie beat their bread , j:id melt in moving

The lover weep*, and biames Ids rajre and stars;
Love fits betw..111, unni. v'd with retrs anil sie.hs,
And with incentives fly ihe feud supplies. 80
Ye you hs, though stung witli taunts, of blows
beware;

They they are impious, who can beat the fair;
If luuch provok'd, or rend their fnk-n zone,
Or on their tress..* be you* anger shown
But if nor this your past] n can appease,
Until the charmer weep, the charmer teaze!
Bicst anger, it the fair disso.vcs in tears!
Blest youth, her fondness undisguU'd appears!
But crush the wretch, C) war, w.th all thy woes,
Who CO rough usage adds the crime t blows 90
Bland peace, descend, with I'leoty on ou. p ains.
And bless with cafe and I tubbing sport the swains.
1 B Uij

NOTES ON

There are very few of our poet's elegies, which surpass the following. By the words,

Nunc ad hella trahor,.

it would seem that Tibullus was about to depart on some military expedition; Broekhnsiu$ conjectures, that it was written soon after his being appointed to follow Messala to Syria: and of course that it ought to take place of the third elegy os this book. But the translator cannot help differing from that learned commentator; for when the third elegy was composed, it is known, that Tibullus had been for some time in love With Delia; and yet in the following poem he makes nb mention of Delia: besides Pucchi informs us, that in some of his old MSS. thi» elegy began the second book, and was intitled I)e Am- ribns Ni . mesis. But be that as it'will, the elegy itself is truly worthy of our poet, and contains a vast deal of the real Tibullus. In the beginning, he draws a fine parallel between the guilty horrors of war, and the innocent pleasures of a country retirement. His invocation to his household godsto preserve his life, in the dangerous employment he was forced into, is no less pious and pathetic, than his reflections on ambition, and its fatal consequences are just and moral. • From the whole of this elegy, it may reasonably be questioned, whether Tibullus was an academic philosopher, as Mr. Francis supposes, er rather whether he was not, at least in practice, if not in theory, of the sect of Epicurus. The cheerful enjoyment of the present hour was their fundamental maxim. ■ •

Ver. I. Who tvai 'le Jtrfl that /erg'J] Authors differ greatly in their opinions about this matter. Aristotle asserts, that one Lydus of Siythia first showed the method of tempering and working in brass: Theophrastus ascribes this discovery to Dela a Phrygian. Callimachus, orr the other hand, curses- the Chalybes as the inventors of iron, and thus addresses Jove to destroy them,

Ziv fang v; %a\v£vr -rcti araXeiro yttot'

While Hcfiod lays this to the charge of the Dactyli Idei in Crete; as others fay, that the Cyclops were the first who worked in that metal. The l.emnians, on the fame account, are branded by many; and hence the proverbial expressions of Xt/tutt xax«, Xtpviet and Atjutfsv CAlTtoi.

Bacchus is also said by ft me, to have invented the weapons of war; tut Diodorns Siculns imputes their discovery to Isis and Osiris. But the true Author was probably Jubal Cain.

ELEGY XI.

Ver. 6. Armi Jirfi were forg'J.] This, in fict, 3 not true, ambition first tsught man the use r{ arms. Pliny tells us, that Prxtus and AcrifiE, when at war with one another, invented tk shield; and that Midias the M'ssaniao invetrtl a coat of mail; and that the Lvicedemoniaoi invented the helmet, sword and spear. Lib 7. c 56.

Ver-8 Poets have generally given foil krjt to their 'ii.'ignation, when speaking of gold: ther have looked upon it 10 be, what it indeed toeofta is, the destroyer of love, rbe support of unjust *ebition, and the parent of luxury.

* QiXeXpifiovurn flirts, &c.
The worst of ills from fordid avarice flow;
And gold is but the glittering bait of woe.
Nefarious gold, with virtue's bane replete:
Oh! that thy fatal poison were less sweet!
Of thee are born war*, murders, and alarms,
Paternal curses, and fraternal arms.

Although it must be confessed, thataUdfi mischiefs have, on some occasions, arisen fra gold; yet he is but little acquainted with tin 1* lory of human nature, who docs Dot knowtta almost .ill the great passions to which mao »tcjrct, have at one time or another occasioned tie very mischiefs.

Ver. 9. No poet, except Homer, abousai much as Tibullus, in description* of primiticix rural simplicity of manners. To an unprejstiii mind, these are entertaining, ami asserd nuœc curious speculation. Although our author, bye* birth and abilities, might have shone in cues, and the polite scenes of active life, his good sea, poetical turn, and aversion to the villanieiessisice, led him to prefer the country : accordafif he never appears to more advantage, than describing its pleasures, and the plain but bead devotion of its inhabitants.

Ver. 15. Almost all the old editions read,

Tune mihi vita sot et, vulgi nec trisiia nossin Arnia.

This perplexed the commentators, who kissing, that the commons'of Rome, in times of pens, or when acting in their civil capacity, neitts wore arms themselves, nor had them to in, much less to dispose of (for the armsoi trit people, as well as their military clothing, were placrf in the custody of the supreme magistrates, vrte, from the' public armories occasionally itStaii them out); at last thus happily restored the piSij?,

Tune mihi vita foret dulcis: nec trisiia ncftai. An emendation which Brockhusius approves e£

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