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NOTES ON

There are very few of our poet's elegies, which surpass the following. By the words,

Nunc ad hella trahor,.

it would seem that Tibullus was about to depart on some military expedition; Broekhnsiu$ conjectures, that it was written soon after his being appointed to follow Messala to Syria: and of course that it ought to take place of the third elegy os this book. But the translator cannot help differing from that learned commentator; for when the third elegy was composed, it is known, that Tibullus had been for some time in love With Delia; and yet in the following poem he makes nb mention of Delia: besides Pucchi informs us, that in some of his old MSS. thi» elegy began the second book, and was intitled I)e Am- ribns Ni . mesis. But be that as it'will, the elegy itself is truly worthy of our poet, and contains a vast deal of the real Tibullus. In the beginning, he draws a fine parallel between the guilty horrors of war, and the innocent pleasures of a country retirement. His invocation to his household godsto preserve his life, in the dangerous employment he was forced into, is no less pious and pathetic, than his reflections on ambition, and its fatal consequences are just and moral. • From the whole of this elegy, it may reasonably be questioned, whether Tibullus was an academic philosopher, as Mr. Francis supposes, er rather whether he was not, at least in practice, if not in theory, of the sect of Epicurus. The cheerful enjoyment of the present hour was their fundamental maxim. ■ •

Ver. I. Who tvai 'le Jtrfl that /erg'J] Authors differ greatly in their opinions about this matter. Aristotle asserts, that one Lydus of Siythia first showed the method of tempering and working in brass: Theophrastus ascribes this discovery to Dela a Phrygian. Callimachus, orr the other hand, curses- the Chalybes as the inventors of iron, and thus addresses Jove to destroy them,

Ziv fang v; %a\v£vr -rcti araXeiro yttot'

While Hcfiod lays this to the charge of the Dactyli Idei in Crete; as others fay, that the Cyclops were the first who worked in that metal. The l.emnians, on the fame account, are branded by many; and hence the proverbial expressions of Xt/tutt xax«, Xtpviet and Atjutfsv CAlTtoi.

Bacchus is also said by ft me, to have invented the weapons of war; tut Diodorns Siculns imputes their discovery to Isis and Osiris. But the true Author was probably Jubal Cain.

ELEGY XI.

Ver. 6. Armi Jirfi were forg'J.] This, in fict, 3 not true, ambition first tsught man the use r{ arms. Pliny tells us, that Prxtus and AcrifiE, when at war with one another, invented tk shield; and that Midias the M'ssaniao invetrtl a coat of mail; and that the Lvicedemoniaoi invented the helmet, sword and spear. Lib 7. c 56.

Ver-8 Poets have generally given foil krjt to their 'ii.'ignation, when speaking of gold: ther have looked upon it 10 be, what it indeed toeofta is, the destroyer of love, rbe support of unjust *ebition, and the parent of luxury.

* QiXeXpifiovurn flirts, &c.
The worst of ills from fordid avarice flow;
And gold is but the glittering bait of woe.
Nefarious gold, with virtue's bane replete:
Oh! that thy fatal poison were less sweet!
Of thee are born war*, murders, and alarms,
Paternal curses, and fraternal arms.

Although it must be confessed, thataUdfi mischiefs have, on some occasions, arisen fra gold; yet he is but little acquainted with tin 1* lory of human nature, who docs Dot knowtta almost .ill the great passions to which mao »tcjrct, have at one time or another occasioned tie very mischiefs.

Ver. 9. No poet, except Homer, abousai much as Tibullus, in description* of primiticix rural simplicity of manners. To an unprejstiii mind, these are entertaining, ami asserd nuœc curious speculation. Although our author, bye* birth and abilities, might have shone in cues, and the polite scenes of active life, his good sea, poetical turn, and aversion to the villanieiessisice, led him to prefer the country : accordafif he never appears to more advantage, than describing its pleasures, and the plain but bead devotion of its inhabitants.

Ver. 15. Almost all the old editions read,

Tune mihi vita sot et, vulgi nec trisiia nossin Arnia.

This perplexed the commentators, who kissing, that the commons'of Rome, in times of pens, or when acting in their civil capacity, neitts wore arms themselves, nor had them to in, much less to dispose of (for the armsoi trit people, as well as their military clothing, were placrf in the custody of the supreme magistrates, vrte, from the' public armories occasionally itStaii them out); at last thus happily restored the piSij?,

Tune mihi vita foret dulcis: nec trisiia ncftai. An emendation which Brockhusius approves e£

Ahsrstallbleed] The whole of thi

Idress to hii household gods is pathetic and aniated. This line has been strangely corrupted the original; the true reading however is,

Hostia erit plena rustica porcus hara.

many from the old reading

Hostia c plena, &c.

posed something wanting, Pontamus thus boldly favoured to supply the deficiency;

nobis xrata laret denellite trla;

Jcc petal hostili missa sagitta manu;

1 glidio celerinstet cques; prosint mihi ad araa

Jiiique tuli supplex munera quieque feram;

.re pio callantoue foci, pinguisque trahatur

lia de plena mystica porens hara.

lat the Word " trahatur," as Brorkhumis obes, betray* the forgery; for victims were not rged, hut led to the altar. Should not the ena hara," in the original, have convinced e authors, who affect to represent Tibullus as r.O.at his circumstances were far otherwise? he ritual compiled by Numa, prescribed not 'the ceremonies to be used, but the sacrifices c c ssered, in the worship of each deity. The urn, however, when they became more pow. and wealthy, added not only to the number ctims originally required, but enlarged also pecies, or kinds of offering". Whence this ice arose Is not difficult to determine; yet, it« of pontifical juggle, the Roman devotion vs retained much of its primitive simplicity. x. 35. Scrvius informs u«, that the Roman is always put on the white linen garment, red with purple, when they were about to ice. It was called pure and unpolluted, acng to the fame author," Quancio non obstita, /ulgurita, non funesla, ncque maculam ha,*. K. homine mortuo." r. 36. Hence says Brockhufius, we may re, that myrtle was no less acceptable to the 1 than to Venus herself; and Horace informs at they were often crowned with this pleavergreeo.

Te nihil attinet

Tentare multa ca?de bidentium,
:'arvos coronantem marino
<.ore Deo* fragilique myrto, &C.

B. 3. /. «3.

e little pod* around thy sacred fire,

1st profusion of the victims gore,

: pliant myrtle-wreaths alone require,

ragrant herbs the pious rural store, frateful cake when in the hallow'd shrine, d by bands that know no guilty stain, reconcile ih" offended powers divine,

bleed* the pompous hecatomb in vain.

Francis.

-. ,jj. There is a fine and elegant improveof thi» thought, in Mr. Tickle's poem on ice of, V'-recht,

See the fond wife, in tears of transport drown'd.
Hugs her rough lord, and weeps o'er every wound.
Hangs on the lips that fields of death relate,
And smiles and trembles at his various fate:
Near the full bowl he draws the fancy'd line,
And marks feign'd trenches in the flowing wine,
Then sets th' invested fort before her eyes.
And mines that whirl'd battalions to the skies,
His little listening progeny look pale.
And beg again to hear the dreadful tale.

There are also some beautiful strokes of the fame nature in Mr. Addism's Latin poem, intituled Pax Gulielmi Auspiciis huropx Rtddita. Mus. Ang. Tom. 2.

Ovid has inserted this thought of Tibullus, in several parts of his writings, particularly in Penelope's letter to Ulysses.

At aliquis posita monstrat sera prxlia mensa,'
Pingit et exiguo, pergama tota, mcro.

See also his Metam. Lib. 9. at the beginning, book xii. ver. J si- Ars Ani.mil. book ii. ver. 117.

Ver. 48. No laughing bmlt.] The author of the Hercules Furens, has stretched this single thought into ten long lines ver. 698. Not so that excellent poet of Italy Sannazario.

Post obitum non ulla mihi carchesia ponet
Æacus, infernis non virct ova jugis.

Ep. Lib. I. Brack.

Are we then to place the chief joys of life in eating and drinking? Ought not our poet rather to have expatiated on the pleasures of learned society, or the charms of friendship, and the bliss of love > yet, after all, as the poet was only describing the happiness of rural life, these additional images were the less necessary.

Ver. 49. The " ustl capilli et exesæ genx" of the original, are far from being terrifying images. "Omncs imagines niortuorum calvx finguntur, enmis igne rogi cnnlumptis." Vid. Luc. in Dialog. Nir. Diogen. et Thers.

Ver. 57. Wbili lenient lathe.} Shall we suppose that our poet had Ariadne's sine exclamation to Theseus in his thoughts.

Qua tibi jucundo famularer serva labore?
Candida permulcens liquidis vestigia lymphis.

CatmU.

Claude Lorraine himself could not draw a finer picture of a village-family, than our poet has given us ia this place. There is another pleasing representation of the same sort in the Gentle Shepherd; a dramatic poem, which the tranflator is persuaded, every judge of poetry and nature will greatly prefer to the frigid Arcadian Favole Boscorcchie nf Italy.

This practice however of preparing warm baths, to ease the limbs of the fatigued husband, was not peculiar to the rural dame. Homer informs us, that Andromache commanded her maids to place on the fire, a large vessel full of water, to bathe her lord in, when he should return from the battle; she in the meaa while, employing herself,

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BOOK II.—ELEGY t

ADVERTISEMENT.

is bo.ik, though shorter than the former, is not inferior to it in point of poetical fancv and amo•ous tenderness; the numbers flow with the fame easy correctness, and peihaps the (cutimenu are more delicate; for, being wholly dedicated lo rural devotion, friendship, and love, (he reader will meet with nothing in it, offensive to the strictest chastity.

the version os the following book* of Tibullus should be found les. liable to censure, than that of the Former, it is chiefly to be imputed to the kind observations of a friend, who also obliged the trauihv[or with the elegant notes marked B.

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Ttind I and favour! as our sires ordain; ic fields we luftxate, and the rising grain i mie, Bacchus, and thy horn, with grapes furround;

>me, Ceres, with thy wheaten garland crown'd; lishallow'd day suspend each twain his toil, est let the plough, and rest th' uncultur'd foil: nyokc the fleer, his racks heap high with hay, nd deck with wreaths his honest front to-daj. : all your thoughts to this grand work apply'd! 3d lay, ye thrifty fair, your wool aside! 10 :ncc 1 command you mortals from the rite, ho spent in amorou- blandishment the n iie vernal powers in chastity delight, :t come, ye pure, in spotless garbs array'd! >r you the solemn festival i* made! mie! follow thrice the victim round the lands! running water purify your hands! t t! to the flames the willing victim come '. c swains with olive crown'd, be dumb! be dumb!

From ills, O sylvan gods, our limits shield, ao
To-day we purge the farmer and the field;

0 let no weeds destroy the rising grain;
By no fell prowler be the lambkin slain;
So shall the hind dread penury no more;
But gaily smiling o'er his plenteous store,
With liberal hand shall larger billets bring,
Heap the broad hearth, and hail the genial

"spring.

His numerous bond.slaves all in goodly rows,
With wicker huts your altars (hall enclose.
That done, they'll cheerly laugh, and dance,
"and play, 30
And ptaise y.ur goodness in their uncouth lay."

1 he gods assent! see ! tec I those entrails show,
hat heaven approves of what 1* done below \
ow quaff Falcrnun, let my Chian wine.

our'd from the calk in m issy gohlets shine!

rink deep, my friends all all, be madly gay, I were irreligion not to reel to-day! lealth to Mrffila, every peas*. -.. .oast, >nd not a letter of his name be I'l'!

0 Come, my friend, wh'mi Gallic triumph* gface, 40

nou noblest splendour of '0 aneient race;

Uu whom the arts ail . • 1. ..Cv cro vn, word of the state, and h«< -.ur ut tut gown;

My theme is gratitude, inspire my lays!
O be my gruius! while I strive to praise
l'he rural deities the rural plain,
The use of foodful corn they taught the swain.
They taught man first the social hut to raise,
And thatch it o'er with turf, or leafy sprays:
They first to tame the fariousbull essay'd,
And on rude wheels the rolling carriage laid. 5*
Man left his savage ways; the garden glow'd, "J
Fruits not their own admiring trees bestow'd, f
While through the thirsty ground mcandringl*
runnels flow'd. J
There bees of sweets despoil the breathing spring.
And to their cells the dulcet plunder bring.
The ploughman first to tooth the toilsome day,
Chanted in measur'd feet his sylvan lay s
And, seed-time o'er, he first in bli'hsonie vein,
l'ip'd to his household gods the hymning strain.
Then first the press with purple wine o'er-ran,
A:-l cooling water made it fit for man. ft
The village-lad first made a wreath of flowers
To deck in spring the tutelary powers:
Blest be the country, yearly there the plain
Yields, when the dog-liar burns, the golden grain:
Thence too thy chorus, Bacchus, first began,
The pain ed clown first laid the tragic plan.
A goat, the loader of the (baggy throng,
The village sent it, recompene'd the song. C"S»
i here too the sheep hi> woolly treasure wears;
There too the swain his woolly treasure (heart;
This to the thrifty dame long work supplies;
The distaff hence, and basket took their rise.
Hrnce too the various labours nf the loom,
Thj vraise, Minerva, and Atachne'» doom!
Mid mountain herds love first drew vital air.
Unknown to man, and man had nought o fear;
'Gainst herd*, his bow th' unskilful archer drew;
Ah my piere'd heart, an archer now too true '.
Now herds may roam untonch'd, 'ti- Cupid'*

The brave to vanquish, and to fix the coy.
The y -uth whose heart trie soft rm linn tt ela.
Nor sighs for wealth, DOi waits at grandcur'r

heels;

\gt fir'd by love is toach'd by shame no more,
But blabs its follies at the fair one's door!
Led by lost l-rvr th< end^r ireir.Minp fair
Steals to her swain, and cheats laloiciou'i care.

With out flretch'd arms fhf wins her darkling way,

And tiptoe listen", that no noise betray!

Ah! wretched those, on whom dread Cupid frowns! 90, How happy they, whose mutual choice he crowns! Will love partake the banquet of the day .' O come—but throw thy burning lhafts away. .

Ye swains, begin to mighty lovr rhe song, Your songs, ye swains, to mighty love belong!

Breathe out aloud your wishes for my fold. Your own soft vovvsin whispers may be told. But hark ! loud mirth and music fire the crowd— Ye now may venture to request aloud!

Pursue your sports; night mounts her curtain: wane; 13* The dancing stars compose her filial train; Black muffled sleep steals on with silent pace, And dreams flit last, imaginations race!

NOTES ON ELEGY I.

We may, without hesitation, embrace the opinion of Muretus, that this elegy is a description of the Ambarvalia, a festival instituted by Acca Laurcutia, and honoured with a solemn sacrifice, for procuring a blessing on the fields. We may even, with great probability, supp-.fe this poem to make a very interesting part oi the festal entertainments. But it appears from it, that the Romans, in Tibullus's time, had added many a refilled improvement froai the Grecian ritual, to the plain institution of the go.id old nurse of Romulus; since we find our poet alluding to all the remarkable customs of the festal sacrifices of Greece. First the sacred silence i» proclaimed, the E^frfisin of the Greeks? which restrains the worshippers from the use of words of unlucky import. Next follows an addref-a to the deities, to whose honour the festival is dedicated. The holiday being then proclaimed, and a strict rest enjoined, there follows the eitclusion of all those, who had contracted any pollution, and an invitation of the pure to come with dean hanJs and vestments to join in the sacrifice. The victim is then introduced, going without any force to the altar, attended by a crowd os worshippers crowned with garlands, from the tree sacred to the rural deities. After fhi?,is the prayer for blessings on the countryman and his fields, and prosperity to the growing crop. The offering up the victim succeeds, and,lucky omens appearing, the worshippers are encouraged to indulge themselves in joy and festivity. The sacred hymn closes the whole, celebrating the Vigours of the rural deities recounting their vai "C.-s gifts, and the blessings which they have poured out upon the country. Whoever will look into the collectors of antiquities will find that these are the very particulars of rhe ritual of refined Greece. We may observe, that the processions, lustrations, as well as the business of the "fratres arvtiles," whose office it was, upon this occasion, to settle boundaries, have found their way into a religion which in its original institution, was little concerned wirh pomp and ceremony, but has been forced to receive many a scenical foolery from pagan Rome. BVer. I. Attend: and favour ■'] The Roman pocti also exprese thia by

Dicamus bona verba.

Both these forms of speech intimate a desire,en the part of those who prayed at the festival, tai: all who were present would sincerely join wits them in putting up the same petition.

The mythology of the ancients hat been aŒpied as one of the causes which have contributed :o render their poetical compositions superior to uWr of the modern.

And no doubt, that enthusiasm, which if so atural to every true artist in the poetical way, *u considerably inflamed by the whole turn of tltir religious doctrines. When all nature was suppered to swarm with genii, and every oak aniil'ovttain was regarded as the haunt of seme preside; deity; what wonder if the poet was animated the imagined influence of such exalted socictr, and found himself, as a late writer elegantrjcpresses it, hurried beyond the ordinary lires* sober humanity. Hence arose the prosooW, which, as it is one of the boldest, so it it «t« the most pleasing figures in poetry. But mars* the Omuiprelence of the one true God afford tfet Christian poet a more exalted assistance? Wfett true genius is sired with devotion, poesy taea shines out in all her splendour.

Ver. 2. Tie fields tee lujlmlc] Maerofeitis informs us, that the verb " lestrare" signifies top round; especially on a religious or mystical itcount. The ceremony here alluded to, as hashed) said, was the " sacrum ambervale," which in sf«* old MSS. is placed as a title 10 this elegy. Tts most solemn of the rural ceremonies had the mating and forenoon allotted for its celebration. C> to, de R. R. cap. 141. and Virgil, have partieslarly described it. And as it may not be unpi«sing to most of our readers, to compare the diftrent manners of Maro and Tibullus, io repressesing the same objects we (hall here place before them the picture of this rural ceremony, aidn« by the great Mantuan.

Imprimis venerare Deos, atqne annua magus .Sacra refer ccreri, Ixtis oper^tus in herhis, Extrcmie sub casum hiemis, jam vere screno, Turn agni p'rem :s, et turn »v>ollifTima vina: Turn somni dulcet, tUnfcquc in njontibus umltrr.

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