Sivut kuvina

Thus oft I wirn'd you; this augments my


ily filths, team, homage, henceforth I disclaim.

"No wealth shall bribe my constancy, you "swore, 19

Be mine the bard, you sigh'd, I crave no more:

Not all Campania shall my heart entice,

For thee Campania's autumns I despise.

Let Bacchus in Falcrnian vineyards stray,

Not Bacchus' vineyards shall my faith betray."

Such strong professions, in so soft a strain, light well deceive a captivated swain; ich strong profession* might aversion charm, nw doubt determine, and indifference warm, ay more, you wept, unpracti&'d to betray, kisi'd your cheek|, and wip'd she tears away. 40

But if I tempting gold unjustly blame,
nd you have left me for another flame;

... he, like you, seem kind, like you deceive,
»1 O may ysu, like cheated me, believe.
Oft 1 by night the torch myself would bear,
)at none our tender converse might o'erhear;
hen least eapected, oft some youth I led,

jcuth all beauty, to the genial bed,
nd tutor'd him your conquest to complete,
( soft enticements, and a fond deceit. 5c
By these I foolifli hop'd to gain your love!
ho than Tibullus could mote cautious piove?
'd with uncommon powers I swept the lyre,
id sent you melting strains of soft desire:
e thought o'erspreads my face with conscious

om, doom them victims to the seas or flame, verse be their's, who love's soft fires profane, d fell inestimable joys for gain. But you who first the lovely maid decoy'd, each adulterer be your wife enjoy'd. 60

And when each youth has rifled all her charms, May bed-gowns guard her from your lothcd arms!

May she, O may she like your sister prove,
As sam'd for drinking, far more fam'd for love!
'I"is true, the bottle is her chief delight,
She knows no better way to pass the night;
Your wife more knowing can the night improve,
To joys of Bacchus joins the joys of love.

Think'st thou for thee, the toilette is her care? 69 For thee, that fillets hind her well-dress'd hair? For thee, that T yrian robes her charms enfold' For thee, her arms arc deck'd with buruisti'd gold >

By these, some youth the wanton would entice,
For him she dresses, and for him she sighs;
To him slie prostitutes, unaw'd by fliame,
Your house, your pocket, and your injur'd fame:
Nor blame her conduct, say, ye young, what

Can beauty taste in gout and age's arms?

Less nice my fair tine, she for money can Caress a gouty impotent old man; O thou by generous love, too justly blam'd I 79 All, all that love could give, my passion claim'j. Yet since thou couldst so mercenary prove, The more deserving shall engross my love; Then thou wilt weep when these adorY. you sc: Weep on, thy tears will transport give to mr To Venus I'll suspend a golden shield, With this inscription grav'd upon the field:

"Tibullus, freed at last from amorous woes, "This offering, queen of bliss, on thee bestows: "And humbly begs, that henceforth thou wilt "guard

"From such a passion, thy devoted bard," 9c


"hi translator has been obliged 10 use pretty ch the same freedom with this elegy as he i with the fourth. Had the other elegies of ullus been like these two, he had never taken trouble of translating them. But, as both in version are new-modelled, it is hoped that her of them can shock the most delicate chaser. 3. Although the justness of these moral actions is not always discoverable on this side grave, we have all reason to think that the jured will meet with a deserved punishment mother state. Horace makes a remark, DO just than moral:

10 antecedentem feels! um
leruit petna pede claudn.

>en Jove in anger strikes the blow,
•111 with, the bad, the righteous bleed,

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Ver. 15. The delicate among the ancienti, who had tine hair, were at great pains to prevent it from becoming red (rusui); an effect which they imagined the heat of the fun might occasion. Vid. Dissert, de Color. Com. c. 3. p. 57.

Ver. 13. Almost all the old edition* read,

Nec tibj celanti fas fit peccare paranti.

To find out the meaning of which long exercised the ingenuity of the learned; and no wonder, for if it is not nonsense, it is something very like it. At last, however, Scaliger restoi,d the text; which, though supported by'MS. authority, has been censured by some malevolent critics as an intrusion of his own. Bracibuf. Ver. 16. In the original,


Ipfc Deus tacito permifit vela miniflro
Ederet ut mulu libera verba mcro.

For this reading we are also indebted to Seali-
ger; yet the passage is far from being void of ob-
scurity. Accordingly, the commentators, since
his time, have all of them differed in their expla-
nations of i*. And ahhough none of their expo-
sitions are satisfactory, yet that of Brockhusius is
the least liable to objections. He fays, that the
"Tacitus Dei" minister, is the deceitful wine, by
the vtpours of which, drunkenness creeping on,
obscures the mind, as with a veil; "tanquam
velo quodam, aciem mentis obnubit fubrepens
frnsim ebrietas" This, it must be owned, con
vcys some meaning; yet the idea conveyed by it
appears to be faithcr fetched than those of Ti
bullus commonly are. Something like this is re
tainrd in the version.

Ver. 31. Campania was so called from its being a champaigne fiamptjlr'uj country. It belongs to the kingdom of Naples, and lies south of Abruz z 1. It was formerly so fertile, that Pliny and Florus elegantly call it, " Liberi Cererifqje cer tarnen." Its present name is " Terra de Lav> ro." It is still beautiful, though it has lost much of its classic amenity.

Ver. 34. Falernus was one of the most fruitful districts in Campania. Its wines were the most celebrated of 3ny in Italy; Dart alleges, that i received its name from one Faiernus, a huibind man, who rt seems first cultivated the vine there. It was anciently called Amincum ; and hence the epithet " aminea" was a] plied to wines of that country. and not as Servius imagines, because there was no minium in them.

Ver. 3j. '1 hough the images in the original, are natural and obvious, yet as they are not appropriated to amorous compositions, the translator has ventured to insert others, which to him appeared to have a better title to the place. Donee erunt ignes arcufque, cupidinis arma,

of Ovid, would have been more adapted to the subject, from whence the image* ought ever to spring; and indeed no poet of ant'quity has more exactly observed this rule than Ovid hath done, in the elegy from which the above line is taken, and in this view cannot be too carefully perused.

Pastoral poets frequently err, and even Virrri
himself is not entirely blameless in this paitia
Mr. Pope in this, and in most other cafes, warn
correctness of judgment is requisite, has beenk'-
passed by none. How excellent, lor instance, ar:
these lines in his Rape of the Lock!
This day black omens threat the brightest fair,
That e'er dclcrv'd a watchful spirit's care;
borne dire disaster, or by force, or flight:
But what, or where, the fates have wrapt in rijfc
Whether the Dymph ftull break Diana's Uw,
Or some frail china jar receive a flaw;
Or stain her honour, or her new brocade,
Forget her prayers, or miss a masquerade j •
Or lose her heart, or necklace at a ball.
Or whether heaven has doom'd that Shock Did? U

Cast. I

Ver. 49. This elegy abounds in difnralt p» sages; nor is the original of this passige the Id obicure: should therefore the translator en K the critical reader will the more easily pardonr,^ He had, however, in hia eye, the followi-{ f gain lines of Horace.

Nunc et latentis proditor intimo
Gratus puillæ lilus ah anguio,
Pignul've dereptum lacertis,
Aut digito male pertinaci.
The laugh which from the comer flies,
To tell you where the fair one lies;
A ring or bracelet fnatch'd away,

The sportive pledge of suture joy;
When she with amorous dczr delat,
Shall struggling yield the willing tr;

Afer all, the sentiment, as it appears is I* lus. can boast of no delicacy.

Ver. 62. May Lidgouns guard Ærr.j Fra" wish, and some others in Tibullus, map*1' have conjectured that our post's talent Wju'^ suited to the satiric, than to the elefrwsi The translator, however, would have bett kf" pleased, had his author given 110 proof* of in that disagreeable species of writing rk'" therefore been less solicitous in rendering i' force of the original.

Ver. 63. May fit, 0 may fit Hit ytmffr /•>-
Ai famd for Ji inking^ 6tX \
The Romans entertained so great an aMurr."-
of drunkenness in a woman, that the lam *
twelve tables permitted the husband to puna*"
wife with death, is sound guilty cf that crinx
Ver. 8,5. " Faciunt hoc homines," say**
ral Cicero, " quos, in sumnia neqtiitia, noci"13
libido et v.iluptas, verum etimi if-fias of81
fama delcctit; ut mult(« in locis, noras at RA"
fcelerum fuorum relinqui velint-" Bat VJp'
thinks, that the poet did n it mean a flncli
hand (palma); which he proves the aacietir)~'
sometimes to hang up in their temples, tor*1
that it was now freed from the fetters clow*"
love. If this is the interpretation, it mayk1*4

To love I'll dedicate a hand of goW.
And this inscription shall the cause uaW


Who was the first that sorg'd the deadly blade?
Of rugged steel his savage soul was made;
By him, his bloody flag ambition wav'd;
And grisly carnage through the battle rav'd:
Yet wherefore blame him '. we're ourselves to

Arms first were sorg'd to kill the savage game:
Death-dealing battlrs were unknown of old;
Death-dealing battles took their rife from gold:
When beachen bowls on oaken tables stood,
When tempe'ate acornt were our fathers food; to
The swain slept peaceful with his flocks around,
No trench was open'd, and no fortress frown'd.

0 had I liv'd in gentle days like these, To love devoted, and to home-felt case; Compell'd I had not been those arms to wear, Nor had the trumpet sore'd me from the fair: But now I'm dragg'd to war, perhaps my foe £'en n»w prepares th' inevitable blew! [known

Come then, paternal gods, whose help I've From birth to manhood, still protect your own, io Nor blush, my gods, though carv'd of ancient wood,

So carv'd in our forefathers times you stood;
And though in no proud te-^ples you weie praia'd,
Nor foreign incense on your alters bUz'd .
Yet white-rob'd faith conducted every swai.i;
Yet metk-ey'd piety sertn'd the plain j
While clustering grapes, or wheat-wreaths round
your hair,

Appeas'd your anger, and engag'd your care;
Or dulcet cakes himself the farmer paid.
When crown'd hia wishes by your pow rful
aid; 30
While his fair daughter brought with her from
The luscious offering of a hour y-comb: home,
snow you'il aid me in the hour of need,
Your care I'll recompence—a boar shall bleed,
n white array'd, I'll myrtle baskets bear,
\ai myrtle foliage round my temples wear:
In arms redoubtable let others shine,
iy Mars protected mow the martial line;
You let me please, my head with roses crown,
\r\A every care in flowing goblets drown , 40
Then when I'm joyous, let the soldier tell,
tVnat foes were captur'd, and what leaden sell;
3r on the board describe with flowing wine,
she furious onset, and the flying lme.
For realon whilpcrs. Why will short liv'd man,
l>}' war contract liu too contracted span?

Yet when he leaves the cheerful realms of light,
No laughing bowls, no harvests cheer the sight;
But howl the damn'd, the triple mould r roars,
And Charon grumble" on the Srygian shores: 50
By fiery lakes the blasted phantoms yell,
Or Ihrowd their anguish in the depths of hell.

In a thatch'd cottage happier he by far.
Who never hears of arms, of gold, or war.
His chaste embrace a numerous offspring crown,
He courts not fortune's smile, nor dreads her

While lenient baths at home his wife [
He, and his sons, attend their fleecy cares,
As old, as poor, as peaceful may I he,
So guard my stocks, and iuch an offspring fee. 6a>
Meantime, soft peace, descend, O! bliss our

Soft peace to plough with oxen 'aught the swains.
Peace plants the orchard, and matures ihe vine,
And first gay laughing prest the ruddy wine;
t he father quaffs, deep quaff his joyous friends,
Ver to his loo a well-ftr.r'd vault descends.

Bright shine the plough-share, our support and

But rusl, deep rust, 'he veteran's amis destroy! l'he villager . hi- sacred offerings paid

In the dirk 1 rove, and r msec ated shade), 70

His witc a ,d sons, now darkness p^rts the throng, Dnvt s home, and whistles, as he reels along.

Then triumph* Venn*; then love-feuds prevail;

The youth all jealous then the laii assail:
D or-, window fly. no deference tiny pay,

l*ne chastest suffer in th' uogentic !ray: [tears;

I'hcie beat their bread , j:id melt in moving

The lover weep*, and biames Ids rajre and stars;
Love fits betw..111, unni. v'd with retrs anil sie.hs,
And with incentives fly ihe feud supplies. 80
Ye you hs, though stung witli taunts, of blows

They they are impious, who can beat the fair;
If luuch provok'd, or rend their fnk-n zone,
Or on their tress..* be you* anger shown
But if nor this your past] n can appease,
Until the charmer weep, the charmer teaze!
Bicst anger, it the fair disso.vcs in tears!
Blest youth, her fondness undisguU'd appears!
But crush the wretch, C) war, all thy woes,
Who CO rough usage adds the crime t blows 90
Bland peace, descend, with I'leoty on ou. p ains.
And bless with cafe and I tubbing sport the swains.
1 B Uij


There are very few of our poet's elegies, which surpass the following. By the words,

Nunc ad hella trahor,.

it would seem that Tibullus was about to depart on some military expedition; Broekhnsiu$ conjectures, that it was written soon after his being appointed to follow Messala to Syria: and of course that it ought to take place of the third elegy os this book. But the translator cannot help differing from that learned commentator; for when the third elegy was composed, it is known, that Tibullus had been for some time in love With Delia; and yet in the following poem he makes nb mention of Delia: besides Pucchi informs us, that in some of his old MSS. thi» elegy began the second book, and was intitled I)e Am- ribns Ni . mesis. But be that as it'will, the elegy itself is truly worthy of our poet, and contains a vast deal of the real Tibullus. In the beginning, he draws a fine parallel between the guilty horrors of war, and the innocent pleasures of a country retirement. His invocation to his household godsto preserve his life, in the dangerous employment he was forced into, is no less pious and pathetic, than his reflections on ambition, and its fatal consequences are just and moral. • From the whole of this elegy, it may reasonably be questioned, whether Tibullus was an academic philosopher, as Mr. Francis supposes, er rather whether he was not, at least in practice, if not in theory, of the sect of Epicurus. The cheerful enjoyment of the present hour was their fundamental maxim. ■ •

Ver. I. Who tvai 'le Jtrfl that /erg'J] Authors differ greatly in their opinions about this matter. Aristotle asserts, that one Lydus of Siythia first showed the method of tempering and working in brass: Theophrastus ascribes this discovery to Dela a Phrygian. Callimachus, orr the other hand, curses- the Chalybes as the inventors of iron, and thus addresses Jove to destroy them,

Ziv fang v; %a\v£vr -rcti araXeiro yttot'

While Hcfiod lays this to the charge of the Dactyli Idei in Crete; as others fay, that the Cyclops were the first who worked in that metal. The l.emnians, on the fame account, are branded by many; and hence the proverbial expressions of Xt/tutt xax«, Xtpviet and Atjutfsv CAlTtoi.

Bacchus is also said by ft me, to have invented the weapons of war; tut Diodorns Siculns imputes their discovery to Isis and Osiris. But the true Author was probably Jubal Cain.


Ver. 6. Armi Jirfi were forg'J.] This, in fict, 3 not true, ambition first tsught man the use r{ arms. Pliny tells us, that Prxtus and AcrifiE, when at war with one another, invented tk shield; and that Midias the M'ssaniao invetrtl a coat of mail; and that the Lvicedemoniaoi invented the helmet, sword and spear. Lib 7. c 56.

Ver-8 Poets have generally given foil krjt to their 'ii.'ignation, when speaking of gold: ther have looked upon it 10 be, what it indeed toeofta is, the destroyer of love, rbe support of unjust *ebition, and the parent of luxury.

* QiXeXpifiovurn flirts, &c.
The worst of ills from fordid avarice flow;
And gold is but the glittering bait of woe.
Nefarious gold, with virtue's bane replete:
Oh! that thy fatal poison were less sweet!
Of thee are born war*, murders, and alarms,
Paternal curses, and fraternal arms.

Although it must be confessed, thataUdfi mischiefs have, on some occasions, arisen fra gold; yet he is but little acquainted with tin 1* lory of human nature, who docs Dot knowtta almost .ill the great passions to which mao »tcjrct, have at one time or another occasioned tie very mischiefs.

Ver. 9. No poet, except Homer, abousai much as Tibullus, in description* of primiticix rural simplicity of manners. To an unprejstiii mind, these are entertaining, ami asserd nuœc curious speculation. Although our author, bye* birth and abilities, might have shone in cues, and the polite scenes of active life, his good sea, poetical turn, and aversion to the villanieiessisice, led him to prefer the country : accordafif he never appears to more advantage, than describing its pleasures, and the plain but bead devotion of its inhabitants.

Ver. 15. Almost all the old editions read,

Tune mihi vita sot et, vulgi nec trisiia nossin Arnia.

This perplexed the commentators, who kissing, that the commons'of Rome, in times of pens, or when acting in their civil capacity, neitts wore arms themselves, nor had them to in, much less to dispose of (for the armsoi trit people, as well as their military clothing, were placrf in the custody of the supreme magistrates, vrte, from the' public armories occasionally itStaii them out); at last thus happily restored the piSij?,

Tune mihi vita foret dulcis: nec trisiia ncftai. An emendation which Brockhusius approves e£ A bear stall bleed] The whole of thi

Jdrcss to his household gods is pathetic and anilatcd. This line has been strangely corrupted i the original; the true reading however is,

Hostia erit plena rustica porcus hara.

s many from the old reading

Hostia e plena, &c.

pposcd something wanting, Pontamus thus boldly ideavoured to supply the deficiency;

t nobU strata laret dencllite tela; Ncc petat hostili misla sagitta manu; im gladio celerinstet cques; prusint mihi ad aras Quæque tuli supplex munera quzeque seram; hure pio callantque foci, pinguisque trahatur ostia de plena mystica porcus hara.

But the Word " trahatur," as Broekhumis obrves, betrays the forgery; for victims were not agged, hut led to the altar. Should not the plena hara," in the original, have convinced lose authors, who affect to represent Tibullus as oor, that his circumstances were far otherwise i The ritual compiled by Numa, prescribed not nly the ceremonies to be used, but the sacrifices i be offered, in the worship of each deity. The omans, however, when they became more powful and wealthy, added not only to the number : victims originally required, but enlarged also ic species, or kinds of offering*. Whence this ractice arose Is not difficult to determine; yet, i spile of pontifical juggle, the Roman devotion ways retained much of its primitive simplicity. Ver. 35. Servius informs us, that the Roman riells always put on the white linen garment, ordered with purple, when they were about to icrifice. It was called pure and unpolluted, acarding to the fame author," Quanoo nou obstita, on fulgurita, non funefta, ncque tnaculam ha*. K. homine mortuo."

Ver. 36. Hence fays Broekhusius, we may reiark, that myrtle was no less acceptable to the .ares than to Venus herself; and Horace informs

that they were often crowned with this pleauu evergreen.

Te nihil attinet

Tentare multa cæde bidentium,
Parvos coronantem marino
Rore Deos fxagilique niyrto, &c.

B. 3.1. 13.

The little gods around thy sacred fire, In vast profusion of the victims gore,

But pliant myrtle-wreaths alone require, Ind fragrant herbs the pious rural store.

A grateful cake when on the hallow'd shrine, •ffer'd by hands that know no guilty stain, "all reconcile th' offended powers divine, Vhcn bleeds the pompous hecatomb in vain.


Ver. 43. There is a fine and elegant improve«nt of this thought, in Mr. Tickle's poem on ie ,eace o£ Utrecht,

See the fond wife, in tears of transport drown'd,
Hugs her rough lord, and weeps o'er every wound,
Hangs on the lips that fields of death relate,
And smiles and trembles at his various fate:
Near the full bowl he draws the fancy'd line,
And marks feign'd trenches in the flowing wine,
Then sets th' invested fort before her eyes.
And mines that whirl'd battalions to the ikies,
His little listening progeny look pale,
And beg again to hear the dreadful tale.

There are also some beautiful strokes of the, fame nature in Mr. Addifon's Latin poem, intituled Pax Gulielmi Aufpiciis tnropæ Reddita. Mus. Ang. Tom. 2.

Ovid has inserted this thought of Tibullus, in several parts of his writings, particularly in Penelope's letter to Ulyffes.

At aliquis posita monstrat sera prælia menfa,'
Pingit et exiguo, pergama tota, mero.

See also his Metam. Lib. 9. at the beginning, book xii. ver. 155. Ars Amand. book ii. ver. 127.

Ver. 48. No langbing Imwh.') The author of the Hercules Furens, has stretched this single thought into ten long lines, ver. 698. Not so that excellent poet of Italy Sannazario.

Post obitum non ulla mihi carchesia ponet
Æacus, infernis non viret ova jugis.

Ef. Lib. I. Brock.

Are we then to place the chief joys of life in. eating and drinking? Ought not our poet rather to have expatiated on the pleasures of learned society, or the charms of friendship, and the blisa of love? yet, after all, as the poet was only describing the happiness of rural life, these additional images were the less necessary.

Ver. 49. The '* usll capilli et exesæ genx" of the original, are far from being terrifying images. "Omnes imagines nmrtuorum calvz finguntur, comis igne rogi conlumptis." Vid. Luc. in Dialog. Nir. Oiogcn. et Thers.

Ver. J 7. IVbilc lenient balbt.] Shall we suppose that our poet had Ariadne's fine exclamation to Theseus in his thoughts.

Quæ tibi jucundo famularer serva labore?
Candida permulcens liquidis vestigia lymphis.


Claude Lorraine himself could not draw a finer picture of a village-family, than our poet has given us in this place. There is another pleasing representation of the fame sort in the Gentle Shepherd; a dramatic poem, which the translator is persuaded, every judge of poetry and nature will greatly prefer to the frigid Arcadian Favole Boscorechie of Italy.

This practice however of preparing warm batba, to ease the limbs of the fatigued husband, was not peculiar to the rural dame. Homer informs us, that Andromache commanded her maids to place on the fire, a large vessel full of water, to bathe her lord in, when he should return from the battle; flic in the mean while, employing herself,

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