« EdellinenJatka »
Ac Egyptian* and Sicilians. In beautifying the prowi of their ships, the ancients made use of several colours, which were not barely varnished over with them, but very often annealed by wax incited in the 6re, sd as neither the fun, winds, nor water were able to deface them: the art of dmc? this was called from the wax Knpy»zfix. See rYtter'a Ant. and Vitruvius, I. 7 cap. 9.
Ver. 35- This is a very striking description of those large pastoral cups which the ancient fhepfcerdj occasionally filled with wine, milk, &c. We may guess at the capaciousness of this cup from the multiplicity of subjects which are carved upon it. Virgil imitates this passage.
Fag-na. cje'arum divini opus Alcimedontis; l^enti qoibos torno facili superaildita vitis I> rsj!v» hedera vesta pallcnte corymbos.
Ed. 3. 36.
And I this bowl where wanton ivy twines,
Post. Pjji. I.
Ver. 36 Here arc three forts of ivy mentioned, urns, iXt-r^vae;, and t\t\. Pliny and Theophrastus fay, that xiecet is a kind of ivy that grows alone without a support: tXi^uras is probably the poetical ivy which Virgil mentions, E:L 8. li. "hanc sine tempora circum inter viitrices hrderam tibi serpere lauros:" it has pslozn or saffron-coloured berries, and is styled * Hedera baccis aureis, and chryfocarpum 1" the eZ-~ bears no fruit at all, but has white twigs, and souii. angular, reddish leaves, which arc more neat than the other forts. Mavtyn.
Nonnus in his Dionysiacs, B 19. has elegantly imitated this and many other passages of Theocritus.
Ver. 37. Creech has thus translated this passage. With crocus tnix'd, where seem the Hit to brouse, The berries crop, and wanton in the boughs—• On which Dr. Martyn observes, " it i» hardly possible for a translation to be more erroneous: xxgT> « signifies a fruit of a yellow or saffron
colour, which Creech has rendered crocus; but crocus or saffron is a Sower, not a fruit. 1 was a long time puzzled to discover where he sound the ki& • but suppose it must be from mistaking the sense of the word tki*; it signifies thole Icnirili which sustain the vine in climbing: the Romans call it cjprcdut, hence the translator finding ti«J to be ruprevlui in Latin, which also signifies a Hi, took it in the latter sense: but he ought 'o bare known, that though tlfrnlui is used both for a IU and a UtirU, yet Ixi| signifies only the latter.'* There is a translation of this Idyllitim in the second volume of Wlialey's Poems which retains the fame absurdity, Aroaad its lips the circling ivy strays, And a young kU in wanton gambols plays, Ver. 39,
Orpheaque in medio posuit, sylvafque scquen.tes.
Ed. 3 46.
Fert ingens toto connexus corpore sitxum.
Mn. 10. 1 j 7,
Ver. j 1.
Plenis tumuerunt guttura venis—
Ovid Met. 3. 73. Ver. 53. This is similar to an image in Homer's Iliad, B. 18. thus translated by Mr. Pope.
Next ripe in yellow gold, a vineyard shines,
Ver. j 6. Foxes are observed by many authors to be fond of grapes, and to make great havoc in vineyards; Aristophanes in his Equites compares soldiers to foxes who spoil whole countrie*, as the other do vineyards: Galen, in his book of Aliments, tells us, that hunters do not scruple to eat the flesti of foxes in autumn, when they were grown fat with feeding on grapes. In the Song of Solomon, chap. ii. ver. 15. we read, " rake us the foxes, the little foxes that spoil the vines" Sec. And agreeably to this, Nicander in Alexiph. v. 185. assures us that foj.es will spoil the vines, n<< &/im)» x. r. A ————
Cum pinguinocuit vulpes versuta racemo—
gracli fiscellam texit hibisco. Fir. Ed. 10. 17.
molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho.
Ed. 3. 4j.
Ver. 67. Though Homer, in his Catalogue* of the Ships, reckons Calydon among the Ætoli^n cities, yet it is certain that formerly it nor only belonged to the Æolians, but was likewise called Æolis: Thucydides fays in his third history *f*%ugtrKV it Tjjv AioXiix Tr,y tuy xKXuftlvny K«?.yo'a/va- Ciisdubon*
Necdum illii iabra admovi, fed condita servo.
Ed. 3 47.
Homer mentions the not having been used as a commendation of a cup in the 16th tliad. From thence he took a bowl of antique frame, Which never man had stained with ruddy wine—■
Ver. 71. The Greek is rst iji/Hm u/ijn, and is generally reckoned" amahile carmen :" thus Horace, Epist. 3. B. 1. ver. 24 "feu condis amabile carmen:" but the correction which Heinsius makes is undoubtedly genuine; he reads rrt tip' Iftiax vpvof, the Hymn of Himera, a ri* ver in Sicily, the banks of which were the scene of the loves of Daphois, as is evident from a passage in the 7th Idyllium, ver. in the Greek 73, &c-—Besides-we have the indisputable authority of Ælian, wiio, speaking of Daphnis and tiiis Hymn, fays it is that which the goatherd calls, To* t$' l/ii^x lyssfis, and that Stesichorus the Hime-* rajan bard first fung this celebrated Hymn.
Ver. 7 j.
Nan equidem invideo. Ed. I. II,
Incipe I.Iæ'ialios mccuni, mea tibi versus.
Ed.. 8. Ji.
Ver. 77. 6>y*if/f flS' t*\ Aicva;, xtti 0: _'r,*xiiet ^»»«, I'liyrii- .: ti ,cbs hie ell, el hxc est '1 hyifidia cantilena; Hcinliui observes this is the title or prelude to the hymn, very agittable to the manlier of the ancient"; thus Herodotus—" Hcrodoti Halicarnessensis hxc est' Hiftoria; he mentions his name, his country, and writings, exactly in the
fame manner as Thyrsis
Ver. 79. Virgil, Milton, Mr. Pope and Lord
I.yttleton have imitated this passage—
Qjiæ neniora,aut qui vos faltushabucre, puellx
Eel 10, 9.
Where were ye, nymphs, when the remorseless
Clos'd o'er the head of your lov'd Lycidas?
Where stray ye. Muses, in what lawn or grove,
Where were ye, muses. Sec. See Lord JLyttletou'« beautiful Monody—
The 10th Eclogue of Virgil is indeed only a fort of parody on this first tdyllium of Theocritus.
Daphni, tuum Pcenos etiam ingemnisselconea lnteritum, montelque feii sylvxque loquuntur.
Ed. 5. 27.
Stant et oves circum— Eel. 10 16.
Pan, deua Areadix vetiit— Ed. 10. 26.
Fratcr Megillx, quo beatus
Vulr.ere qua percat fagitti. Hor. L. I. Od. 27.
Vcnitet upilio; tardi venere babulci;
Eel. la. 19.
Ver. 107. The Greek Scholiast supposes this verse, and as far as to the n 6;h vrrle inclusive, to be the speech of Priapuscomsorting Daphnis; whereas it i» undoubtedly that of the nymph Echenais, the mistress of Daphnis, upbraiding him for hi< incontinent passion ; for he had been guilty of a breach of promise to her, and had nffjndcd her by following othe women; taken in this lijjhr, the whole passage is beautiful, duple, and easy; ' Daphnis,'
fays flu , 1 you was used to be styled a cowherd, a man of continency, but, behold! you have adopted the manners of a goatherd, who when he observes the lascivioufnefs of his stock, wishes himself a goat:' Heinsmt. Virgil alludes to this place, "Novimus et qui te tranfveifa tuentibus hircis." Eel. 3.
T**it*i tfimX/uit is a very strong expression, and emphatically denotes the effect which is produced in the eyes of any person who vehemently longs after an object which he can never attain. Horace has a similar expression,
Cum femel fixic cibo
lntabuissent pupulæ. EfioJe 5. 39.
premit altum corde dolorem—
Fir;. Æn. B. 4.
Ver. 129. That is, he foresaw his death; that he should no more behold the light of the son: an expression usual to the ancient poets; thus in Homer's Odyssey, B. 20. when the prophet Thetdymenus foresaw the death of the suitors, he faysr n> ,c; « Oij.u, 4»t.> The fun has pcrtfucA from heaven. Mr. Pope renders it,
Nor gives the fun his golden orb to roll,
Hie virides tenera pretexit arundine ripai
Eel. 7. IS.
Ver. 137. The Greek versa is very expressive of the fense: we hear the humming and buzzing of bees.
Hit xetXor frpufitvrri xtrt tfieeneri fukirfaee—
Et formoius oves ad fiumina pavit Adonis—
Eel. IO. 18.
Adonis was the son os Cynara*, king of Cyprus, by his own daughter Myrrha—he was the great favourite of Venus, and has been abundantly celebrated by the Greek poets. Afurtjm. Ver. 140.
Auritosque sequi lepores, turn figere damas.
Gear. I. 308.
Daphnis ego in fylvis, hinc usque ad siJera notus, f utmost pecoris custos— £el. 5. 43.
Here Virgil excreds Theocritus, who only mentions the rural employments of Daphnis, whereas Virgil represents his Daphnis as a person whose same had reached up to heaven. Marty*. Ver. 159.
Ipse nemus linquens patrium, saltiisqne Lycsei,
Cjw. X. I. v. it. IDYLLIUM II.
Ver. 173. Virgil and Pope have imitated thia passage—
Nunc et oves ultro fugiat lupus; aurea dura:
Eel. 8. 51.
Let opening roses knotted oaks adorn,
Pope, Pjj!. 3.
Cum cambus timidi venient ad pocula damæ.
Eel. 8. »8.
Certent er eyenis ululx— E:l. 8. 55.
Ver. 18 J.
Pirese tila legunt Æn. L. 10. 8x4.
Carmina tiim melius, cum venerit ipse, canemus.
Ed. y. 67.
Ver. 197. Kicrxifa, 'he name of the goat, from xunt, ivy, and t»lm, bright or shining.
SfMTSEA is here introduced complaining of Delphis, who had debauched and forsaken her; flic aakes use os several incantations in order to regain his affection; and discovers all the variety of pai&ons that are incident to a neglected lover.
Whx« are my laurels, and my philtres where?
Pale moan, assist me with refulgent light;
Delphis inflames my bosom with desire; For him I burn this laurel in the fire: Aud as it fumes and crackles in the blaze, And without ashes instantly decays, 30 So may the flesh of Delphis burn—My charms, Restore the perjur'd Delphis to my arm».
'As. melts this waxen form, by fire defae'd, So in love's flames may Myndian Delphis waste: And as this brazen wheel, though quick roll'd round,
Returns, and in its orbit still is found,
So may his love return—restore my charms,
The ling'ring Delphis to my longing arms.
I'll strew the bran: Diana's power can bow Rough Rhadamanth.and all that's stern below. 40 Hark! hark! the village dogs! the goddess soon Will come—the dogs terrific bay the moon— Strike, strike the sounding brass—Restore my charms.
Restore false Delphis to my longing arms.
Calm is the ocean, silent is tbe wind, But grief's black tempest rages in my mind. I burn for him whose perfidy berray'd My innocence; and me, ah, thoughtless maid! Robb'd of my richest gem—Restore my charms, False Delphis to my long.deluded arms. Jjj
I pour libations thrice, and thrice I pray; O shine, great goddess, with auspicious iivl JJihj
Whoe'er she be, blest nymph! that now detains
. Hippomanes, a plant Arcadia hears, Makes the colu mad, and stimulates the mares, 60 O'er hills, through streams they rage: O, could I fee
Young Delphis thus run madding after me,
This garment's fringe, which Delphis wont to
A lizard bruis'd shall make a potent bowl, And charm to-morrow his obdurate foul; Meanwhile this potion on his threshold spill, "Where, though despis'd, my soul inhabits still; No kindness he nor pity will repay; Spit on the threshold, Thestyhs, and fay, [charms, *' Thus Delphis' bones 1 strew"—Restore my The dear, deluding Delphis to my arms.
She's gone, and now, alas! I'm left alone!
When lair Anaxa at Diana's fane
Whence rose my passion, sacred Phcebe, say— Thcucarila's kind nurse, who lately died, 91 iegg'd I would go, and stie would be my guide; Alas! their importunity prcvail'd, And my kind stars and better genius fail'd; ] went adorn'd in Clearista's clothe?—
Say, sacred Phcebe, whence my flame arose— Koon as where Lyco's mansion stands I came, Delphis the lovely author of my flame I law with Eudamippus, from the crowd Distinguish'd, for like helichrysus glow d IOC The gold down on their chins, their bosoms far Outshone the moon, and every splendid star; Tor lately had they left the field of lame—
Say, sacred Phcebe, whence arose my fiamc-r O, how 1 gaz'd 1 what ecstasies begun To sire my foul? 1 sigh'd, and was undone: The pompous show no longer should surprise, No longer beauty sparkled in my eyes: Home 1 ret urn'd, but knew not how (came: My head diforder'd, and my heart on flame: IIO Ten tedious clays and nights fore sick I lay—
Whence rose my pastion, sacred Phcebe, saySoon from my cheeks the crimson colour sled, And my fair tresies perish'd on my head: Frrlorn 1 liv'd, of body quite bereft, Os bones and ikin were ail that 1 had lest i
All charms I try'd, to each enchantress round I sought; alas! no remedy I found: Time wing'd his way, but not to sooth my woesSay, sacred Phcebe whence my flame arose— Till to toy maid, opprest with fear and shame, HE I told tlie lecut of my grow ing flame; ! Dear ['hcltylis, thy healing-,id impart— 1 he love of Delphis has en rofs'd my heart. 'He in die school us exercise delights, 'Athletic labours, and heroic sights; 'And oft he enters on the lists of fame'—
Say, sacred Phcehe, whence arose my flame— 'Haste thither and the hint in private give, 1 1 Say rhat I sent you—tell him where 1 live.' I JO 1 She heard, she slew, she sound the youth I fought,
And all in secret to my arm> she broughr.
Whence rose my passion, sacred Phœbe, say —
mothers call. Senseless 1 stood, nor could my mind disclose— Say, sacred Phœbe, whence my flame arose— My strange surprise he sasv,then prest the bed, Fix'd on the ground his eyes, and thus he said; 'Me, dear Simxtha, you have much surpast, 'As when I ran with young Philinus last 'I far out-stript him, though he bravely strove; 'But you have all prevented me with love; ij'O 'Welcome as day your kind appointmentcame'—
Say, sacred Phœbe, when arose my flame— 'Yes, I had come, by all the powers above, 'Or, rather let me swear by mighty love, 'Unsent for 1 had come, to Vetiua true, 'This night attended by a chosen few, 'With tipples to present you, and my brows 'Adorn'd like Hercules, with poplar boughs, 'Wove in a wreathe with purple ribbands gay'— Whence role my passion, sacred Phœbe, fay— 'Had you receiv'd me, all had then been well, 161 1 For 1 in swiftness and in form excel; 'And should have deem'd it no ignoble bliss 1 The roses of your balmy lips to kiss: 'Had you rcfu~'d me, and your doors been barr'J 'With axe and torch 1 should have come pre> 'par'd,
'Rcfjlv'd with force resistance to oppose'—
Say, sacred Phœbe, whence my flame arose— 'And first to beauty's queen my thanks are due, 'Next, dear Sini.tttha, I'm in debt to you, 17c * Who by your maid, love's gentle herald, prove 'My fair deliverer from the fires of love: 'More raging fires than Ætna's waste my frame'—
Say, sacred Phœbe, whence arose my flame— 'Love from their beds enraptur'd virgins charm! 'And wives new-married from their husbands 'arms.'
He said, (alas what frenzy sciz'd my rxiind !) Soft preft my hand, and on tfee couch retJin'd:
Love kindled wsrir.th as close embrae'd we lay.
• That Delphi* lov'd, but whom she could not tell: 'The marks are plain,he drinks hisfavouritc toast,
• Then hies him to the maid h< values moll:
• Be&de* with garlands gay his house is crowti'd:' AU this She told me, which too true 1 found.
He oft would fee me twice or thrice a day,
NOTES ON IDYLLIUM II.
Ver. I. This whole Idyllium, as Heinfius observe*, seems to have been pronounced with great gesticulation, as is evident from the exordium, n« ft* ?u Ai^mi ; **k 3i r« ftkTgK; which is a direct imitation of the beginning of an ancient song, that used to be frequently rehearsed in the streets, and was called ai^iua, n* fiot ret £o3« ; Tv /mi ret iat j Where are my roses; where are my violets? Ver. 3. It is uncertain what fort of vessel the *o3u-« wi5. Nicandcr uses the word in his Thetssas.icd there it signifies a mortar in which any rhirg i* pounded. Casaubon thinks it may be taken in tie fame fense here. It is worth observation, tea; though Virgil has studiously imitated this whole Idyllium, he chose not to mention any sort of vessel, but fays, " moll icinge hæcalteria vitta."
Ed. 8. 64.
Coojugi, ut magicis sanns avertere sacris
Expcriar sensus Eel. 8. 66.
Ver. 9. The place for wrestling, and other exercises.
Ver. 11. Sorcerers addressed their prayers to the Moon and to Night, the witnesses of their abominations.—Thus Medea in Ovid, Met. B. vii.
Noz, ait, arcanis fidissima— [nostris
Canidia addresses the fame powers—O rebus meis
Non icfideles arbitral,
Arcana cum siunt sacra;
Ver. 19. The Greek is \vyv\ a bird which maetciass made use of in their incant jtions, supposed to be the wry neck—Virgil has " D.icitc ab urbe Comaœ, mea Carolina, ducitt Daphnim."
Ed. 8. 68.
Ver. M. Ah, Corydon, Corydon, quse te dewata cipit?
Ver. 18. Fragiles incende bitumine Iauros. Daphnis me maulus urit, ego hanc in Daphnida, Iaurum. Eel. 8. 8a.
The laurel was burnt in order to consume the flesh os the person, on whose account the magical rites were performed. It was thought, according to Pliny, B. 16. chap, last, by its crackling noise, to express a detestation of fire. Mr. Gay has finely imitated this passage, in his fourth Pastoral.
Two hazel nuts I threw into the flame,
Ver. 33. It was customary to melt wax, thereby to nullify the heart of the person beloved; the sorceress in Virgil, Eel. 8. makes use of two images, one of mud and the other of wax.
Limus ut hie durescit, & hæc ut cera liquescit Ur.o eodemque igni: sic nostro Daphnis amore.
Ver. 35. It was also usual to imitate all the actions they wished the loved person to perform: thus Simæthe rolls a brazen wheel, believing that the motion of this magic machine had the virtue to inspire her lover with those passions which she willed. Canidia makes use os this wheel. Sec hor. Epoie 17. 6, 7.
Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris,
Ver. 41. Hylax in limine lattat—
Kirg. Ed. 8. 107.
visæquæ canes ululare per umbram.
Adventantc Dei— Æn. i. 257.
The reason why Hecate was placed in the public ways, was because she presided over piacular pollutions: every new moon there was a public supper provided at the charge os the richer sort in, a place where three ways met; hence she was cal