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Quinetiam rutis cultus, * legesque rogavit, | had that part of Hesiod's system in view where Militiamque Soli, quos colles Bacchus amaret, he makes matter precede all things, and even the Quos fæcunda Ceres campos, quod † Bacchus v. gods themselves ; for by div’um parentes the Latin tramque,
poet means chaos, heaven, earth, &c. which the Atque arbuita vagis essent quod adultera pomis, Greek poet makes the parents of the gods. HeSylvarumque deos, facrataque numina nymphas ; fiod tells us, verle 116, chaos brought forth the Pacis opus, magnos naturæ condit in ufus, earth her first offspring ; to which the second line
here quoted has a plain reference ; and orbemque Thus translated by Mr. Creech :
fub illo infantem, which Mr. Creech has omitted,
may either mean the world in general, or, by sub Hefiod sings the gods immortal race ;
illo being annexed, hell, which, according to our He sings how chaos bore the earthy mass; How light from darkness struck did beams display, titubantia fidera, corpus, which is here rendered, and
poet, was made a subterranean world. Primum And infant-Nars first stagger'd in their way;
infant-fars forf Jagger'd in their way, are the sun How name of brother veil'd an husband's love,
and moon; our poet calls them Hidsov toys yay, And Juno bore unaided by her Jove, (thigh, How twice-born Bacchus burit the thund'rer's namoro TS osasunu, the great fun, and the brighe
moo!; the Roman calls them the wandering plaAnd all che gods that wander through the sky :
nets, the chief bodies in the firmanient, not the Hence he to fields descends, manures the soil,
first works of heaven, as is interpreted in the DayInstructs the plowman, and rewards his toil;
phine's edition of Manilius. The fourth verse, He sings how corn in plains, how vine in bills,
which refers to the birth of Jove, and the wars of Delight, how both with vast increase the olive fills, How foreign grafts th'adult'rous stock receives,
the giants and the gods, one of the greatest lubBears stranger fruit, and wonders at her leaves;
jects of the Theogony, the English translator has
lefe untouched. An useful work when peace and plenty reign,
am not ignorant of a various
reading of this passage, viz. And art joins nature to improve the plain.
“ Titanasque juviffe fenis cunabula magni," The observation which Mr. Kennet makes on
which has a fronger allusion to the battle of the these lines is, " that those fine things which the gods than the other reading, fenis cunabula magai, “ Latin poet recounts about the birth of the gods, meaning the second childhood or old age of Se. " and the making the world, are not so nearly al The next verle, which is beautilully cs“ lied to any passage in the present Theogony as pressed in these two lines,
to justify the allulion." An author, who was giv- How name of brother veil'd an husband's love, ing an account of an ancient poet, ought to have
And Juno bore unaided by her Jove, been more careful than this biographer was in his judgment of these verses; becaule ruch as read him, plainiy direas to Jupiter taking his sister Juno to and are at the same time unlearned in the language
wife, and Juno bearing Vulcan, PinoTnTi, poz!156, of the poet, are to forn their notions from his ten by which Hefiod means without the mutual joys timents. Mr. Kennet is so very wrong in his remark
of love. The succeeding line has a reference to here, that in all the seven lines which contain the
the birth of Bacchus, ard the seventh to the whole encomium on the Theogony, I cannot see one ex
poem ; so that he may be said to begin and end pression that has not an allusion, and a strong one,
his panegyric on the Theogony, with a general co some particular passage in that poem. I am
ailution to the whole. The Latin poet, in his fixs afraid this gentleman's modesty made him diftrust
veries on the Works and Days, begins as on the himself
, and too servilely follow this translation, Theogony, with a general obfervation on the which he quotes in his life of Hefiod, where he
Hefiod,” says he, “ inquired into seems to lay great dress on the judgment of the
" the tillage and manageniert of ihe country, and translator. Mr. Creech has in these few lines fo
“ into the laws or rules of agriculture :" I do not unhappily mistook his author, that in some places question but Manilius, in legfque rogavit, had his he adds what the poet never thought of, leaves eye on these words of our poet ovrch so wiowe whole verses untranslated, and in other places gives the Roman there says of Bagchus loving hills
WaiTai vo peo;, this is the law of the fields. What a sense quite different to what the poct designed. ] fhall now proceed to point out these paffages to
of grafting, has no allusion to any part of the prewhich Manilius particularly alludes. His first line
sent Works and Days; but we are not to inter Telates to the poem in general, the Generation of
from thence that this is not the poem alluded to, the Gods; though we must take notice that lic
but that those pallages are loft; of which I have
not the least doubt, when I consider of some parts * For legefque rogavit Dr. Bentley gives legef- connected as I wish they were.
of the Works and Days which are not so well
I think it is in que novandi, on ibe auiberity of no copy, but from a difike to ibe expresion of rogavit cultus and rogavit disputable that Heliod writ more of the vintage miliciam; but, as the old reading rogavit is agreeable laid down rules for the care of trees : this will
than we have now extant, and that he likewise to my confirullion of it, I om for keeping it in. † For Bacchus utrumque Dr. Bentley gives Pallas
appear more clearly, if we observe in what manutrumque; and in that sense Mr. Greecb bas translated
ner Virgil introduces this line, it ; wlich would be the more eligile reading, if Hefied
“ Afcraumque cano, Romana per oppida,carmen.” bad torted of Olives. Bacchus utrunque is a fuolfs This is in the second book of the Georgics; the refetition, as Dr. Beniley obferves
chief subjects of which book are the diflerent nic
whole poem :
theis of producing trees, of transplanting, graft- | which Suidas mentions, the Catalogue of Heroic jog, of the various kinds of trees, the proper foil Women, in five books: that he composed such a for each kind, and of the care of vines and olives; work, is probable, from the two lalt verses of the and he has in that book the very expression Ma- Theogony, and is being often mentioned by annilius applies to Hesiod. Bacchus amat colles, says cient writers : we have an account of another Virgil; rogavit quos celles Baccbus amaret, says the poem, under the title of How zoud, the Generation other of our poet, he inquired after what hills of Heroes. The favourer of the Shield of Hercu. Beceits lored.
les would have that poem received as a fragment I fould not have ubed Mr. Creech and Mr. of one of these; and all that Le Clerc says in deKeanet sich so much freedom as I have, had not fence of it, is, fince Hercules was the most famous she tranflation of the one, and the remark of the of heroes, it is not absurd to imagine the Shield to other, so nearly concerned our poet; but I hope be a part of the Hpasyeva, though it is handed down the clearing a difficult and remarkable passage in to us as a distinct work; and yet it is but a fraga clalie, will, in some measure, atone for the li. ment of it. Thus we lee all their arguments, both berties I have took with those gentlemen. for it being genuine, and a fragment of another
pocm, are but conjectures. I think they nghe 5. Tbe Sbield of Hercules,
not to susped it a part of another work, unlels We have now ascribed to Hefiod a poem under they could tell when, where, or by whom, the tithe title of Acris Hpax7.585, the Shield of Hercules; de was changed. It is certainly a very ancient which Aritophanes the gramnarian supposes to be piece, and well worth the notice of men of genius. spurious, and that it is an imitation of the Shield oi Achiles in Homer., Lilius Gyraldus, and Fa
6. Poems wbicb are loft. bricius, bring all the teilimonies they can for it Besides the pieces just nentioned, we find the being writ by Hefiod; but none of them amount following catálogue in Fabricius attributed to Heto a proof. Fabricius gives us the opinion of Ta- | liod, but now loit. baqail Faber, in these wirds: I am much fur. Παραινεσις, οι Υποθηκοι χειρωνες. This was conprised that this should formerly have been, and is cerning the education of Achilles under Chir n; now, a n-atter of dispute; those who suppose the which Aristophanes, in one of his comedics, banShield co: to be of Hefiod, have a very fiender ters as the work of Hefiod. krowledge of the Greek poetry. This is only the Μελαμπόδια, or εις τον Μαντιν Μελάμποδα: a pojurgment of one man against a number, and that em on divination. The title is suppoled to be took founded on
Do authority. I know not what from Melamipus, an ancient physician, said to be could induce Tanaquil Faber so confidently to ai skilled in divination by birds. Part of this work fere chis, which looks, if I may use the expreflion, is commended by Athenæus, hook 13. like a sort of bullying a person into his opinion, by As gevojice Meyain, or Aspirn bied.es: a treatise of furcing him into the dreadsul apprehenlion of be astronomy. Pliny says, according to Heliod, in ir thought to judge of Greek poetry, if he will whose name we have a book of attrology extant, Dot core in: I say, I know not what could in the early setting of the Pleiades is about the end duce him to assert this, for there is no manner of of the autumn equinox. Norwithsianding this fimilitude to the other works of our poet: and here quotation, Fabricius calls us, that Athenæus and Inutt call in question the judgment of Ariftopha- | Pliny, in some other place, have given us reason Ers, and of such as have followed him, for lup- to belicve they thought the poem of altronomy ping it to be an imitation of the Shield of Achild supposititious. le Stewhole poem confitts of four hundred and Επικήδειος εις Βατραχυν. This is mentioned by frur score verses; of which the description of the Suidas, with the audi:ion of face ipwpessor auto, a Shield is but one hundred and four score: in this funeral song on Batrachus, whom he loved. Ceieription are some similar passages to that of Περι Ιδαίων Δακτυλων. This was of the Idæi Achilies, but not fufficient to justify that opinion : | Dactyli, who, täys Pling, in his feveath book, are there are likewise a few lines the same in both; recorded by Heliod as discoverers of iron in Crete. tue after a strict examination, they may pullibly This is likewise in the catalogue of Suidas. xat as much to the disadvantage of Homer, as Exif 2.2 iesas Ilsàtws xan Osiridas: an cithalami& the author of this poem. The other parts have um on the marriage of Pucus and Tnetis; two 1.0 afinirs to any bouk in the two poenis of Ho. veries of which are in the Prolegonena of líuac 1.st. The poet begins with a beautiful descrip Tzetzes te Lycophron. 21451 o! the person of Alcmena, her love to .Amphi Ims whicons. This book of geography is menFjCD, and her amour with Jupiter; from thence tioned by Surabo. te proceeds to the characters of Hercules and Avyspetas: a poeni on one #gimus. This, AtteIgua and goes on regularly to the death of cæu, tenis us, was writ by Huriod or Cecropa; a Criss, which concludes the poeni; with many wretch, whose name is nou remembered only for other particulars, which, as I said before, have no being to Hefiod what Zorlu. was to Homer. Islation to any part of Homer. Among the writ.
TOV andan xaruiasis: the cercent of in. . of our poet which were luft, we have the ti Theseus into hell. s'his is attributed to kiclicd, 1.5 [sounus, or Headw, Katoãoyes, and of rurxon by Pułanias, in his Bencic:. 2. La72..., 6., or Horas Mizzaz: both these tilles ETn HU ZVTIXZ xa. 7:7:9,5*65 ETI Tiguarv: on pro250 mkdig zo belong but to one poem, and to that precies, or vivination, with an capulation of pra
digies, or portents This is likewise mentioned | daffodil, or asphodelos. Quintilian, in his fikti by Pausanias
book denies the fables of Ælop to have been writΘειοι λογοι
divine speeches; which Maximus ten originally by him, but fays the first author of Tyrrus tak... tice of in his fixteenth differtation thum was Hefiod, and Plutarch informs us that Μεγαλα βα
or remarkable actions. Æfor was his disciple: but this opinion, though Wintherait of His ok in the cighth book countenanced by fome, is exploded by others. of Irena
When we refice on th: number of titles, the KUKc; the marriage of Ceyx. We have pot nis to which are irreparably lost, we should
prom both by Athenæus, aad consider them as so many monuments to raise our Plus! Sy map fracs.
concern for the loss of so much treasure never to Of as stil.labuse of this great poet, we fee be retrieved. Let us turn our thoughts from that nothire but the titles remaining, excepting some melancholy theme, and view the poet in his liv. fragments p.cserved by Pau'anias, Plutarch, Poly. I ing writings; let us read him ourselves, and incite bius, & We are told that our poet composed our countrymen to a taste of the poli eness of fome other works, of which we have not even the Greece. Scaliger, in an epifle to Salmafius, dia titles. We are assured, from diverse passages in vides the state of poetry in Greece into four periPliny, that he wrote of the virtues of herbs; but ods of time: in the first arose Homer and Hefiod; here Fabricius judiciously observes, that he might, on which he has the just observation that conin other poems occasionally trcat of various herbs; cludes my discourse : this, says he, you may not as in the beginning of his works and Days, he improperly call the fpring of poesy; but it is rafpeaks of the wholefumeness of mallows, and the I ther the bloom than infancy.
GENERAL ARGUMENT TO THE WORKS AND DAYS.
FROM THE GREEK OF DANIEL HEINSIUS. The poet begins with the difference of the two and Menelaus; and such as are recorded by the contentions; and rejecting that which is actended * poet to be in the Trojan war; of whom fonie with disgrace, he advises his brother Perles to pre- perished entirely by death, and some now inhabit fer the other. One is the lover of Arife, and the the illes of the blessed. Next he describes the iron occasion of troubles: the other prompts us on to age, and the injuttice which prevailed in it. He procure the necessaries of life in a fair and honest greatly reproves the judges, and taxe, them with way. After Prometheus had by subtlery stole the corruption, in a short and beautiful fable In the fire clandestinely from Jove (the fire is by the diother part of the book, he sets before our eyes vine Plato, in his aliation to this pafrage, called the consequences of julice and injustice; and the necessaries, or abundance of life; and those are then, in the most fagacious manner, lays down called lubtle, who were folicituus afrer che abund. some of the wifest precepts to Perfes. The part ance of life), the god created a great evil, which which contains the precepts, is chiefly writ in an was Pandora, that is Fortune, who was endowed irregular, free, and easy way; and his frequent with all the gifts of the gods, meaning all the be- repetitions, which custom modern writers have 1.efits of nature: so Fortune may from thence be quite avoided, bear no small marks of his antiquifaid to have the disposal of the comforts of life; ty. He often digresses, that his brother might and from that tiine care and prudence are requir- not be tired with his precepts, because of a too ed in the management of human affairs. Before much laneness. Hence he passes to rules of ecoPrometheus had purloined the fire, all the com nomy, beginning with agriculture. He points mon necessaries of life were near at hand, and ea out the proper season for the plough, the harvest, fily aitained; for Saturn hail firli made a golden the viniage, and for felling wood; he shows the age of men, to which the earth yielded all her is uits of industry, and the ill consequences of fruits fpontaneously: the mortals of the golden negligence. He describes the different seasons, a je subnitted to a foft and pleasane death, and and tells us what works are proper to each, were afterwards made demons; and honour at These are the subjects of the firn part of his Ecotended their names. To this incceeded the fecond, nomy. In procels of time, and the thirft of gain the l'iver age, worse in all things than the first, increasing in nen, every method was tried to the and better than the following; which Jupirer, o procuring liche; men begun to extend their bate, took from the earth, and made happy in commerce over the leas; for which reason the their death. Hence the porc paffts to the third, pott lail down precepts for navigation. He next the brafen age; the men of which, he says were proceeds to a recommendation of divine worship, fierce and cerrible, who ignobly fell by their own che adoration due to the immortal gods, and the folly and civil discordd; nos was their future sate various ways of paving our homage to them. He like to the other, for they defcended to hell. This concludes with a short observation on days, digeneration is followed by a race of heroes, Etco- viúing them into the good, bad, and indifferent cles and Polynices, ani, the rest who were in the first and oldcit Theban war, and Agamcoinon * I luopce Heinfius means Homer.
THE ARGUMENT. This book contains the invocation to the whole, the general proposition, the story of Prometheus
Epimetheus, and Pandora ; a description of the golden age, silver age, brasen age, the age of herocs, and the iron age; a recommendation of virtue, from the temporal blessings with which good men are attended, and the condition of the wicked, and several moral precepts proper to be observed through the course of our lives. Siso, muses, fing, from the Pierian grove ;
To him alone, to his great will we owe, Begin the fong, and let the theme be Jove ;
That we exist, and what we are below. From him ye fprung, and him ye first thould praise ; Whether we blaze among the tons of fame, From your immortal fire deduce your lays ;
Or live obscurely, and without a name,
Or poble or ignoble, ftill we prove • The fobdiaft Tzetzes tells us, this poem was forf Our lot determin'd by the will of Jove. called the Works and Days of Hefiod, to diftinguish it With ease he lifts the peasant to a crown, from arsiber or tbe fame subje&l, and of the fume title, With she same ease he casts the monarch down; wrote by Orpbeus. How much this may be depended With ease he clouds the brightest name in night, - I canci lay; but Fabricius afures us from Pliny, And calls the meanest to the fairelt light; back 18. obap. 25. tbat Hefiod was the forf wbo laid At will he varies life through ev'ry itace, doren rules for agriculture. It is certain, that of all Unnerves the Itrong, and makes the crooked the picces of tbis nature wbicb were before Virgil, and Atrait. extent is bis days, this was mofi effeemed by bim, otber. Such Jove, who thunders terrible from high, wife be would not bave fowed that respect to our au Who dwells in mavsions far above the sky. ther spbicb be does quite througb bis Georgic. In one Look down, thou pow's supreme, vouchsafe thine place be proposes bim as a patters in that great work,
aid, sters, addrefjing to his country, be says,
And let my judgment be by justice sway'd; 21 tibi res antiquæ laudis et artis O! hear my vows, and thine aflistance bring, Ingredior, fanctos aulus recludere fonies;
While truths undoubted I to Perles ling. Aluzumque cano, Romana per oppida, carmen.
As here on earth we tread the niaze of life,
The minds divided in a double ftrife;
And this attended by the grcatest thame,
The d Imal source whence frring pernicious jars, And oli Alcrzan verse in Roman cities fing.
The Traveful fountain of deatruelive wars,
Dryden, which, by the laws of arbitrary face, He begins the Georgic with an explanation of the Whu follow, though by arture taught to hate ; titic of the Works and Days.
From night's black r alms this took its odious Quid faciat latas fegetes, quo fidere terram
31 Vortere, &c.
And one Jove planted in the womb of earth, What makes a plepteous harvest, when to turn
The better trife; by this the foul is fir'd Tbe truity foil, and when to low the corn. To arduous coils, nor with those oils is 'ir'd;
Dryden. One fees nis neighbour with laborious hand, for by Works is meant the artof agriculture, and by Planing his orchard, of manuring land; Days the proper seasons for works. See farther in
He fets anocher with induitrious care, xey Discourse on stas Writings of Helod.
Materials for ebe building art prepare ;
Idle himself he sees them hastc to rise,
Next Hermes, artsul god, must form her mind,
Jove gave the mandate; and the gods obey'd.
Minerva next perform’d the task aslign'd, Nor from thy honcit labour idly swerve;
With ev'ry female art adorn'd her mind. IIO 'The love of strife, that joys in evils, Thun,
To dress her Suada, and the Graces join; Nor to the forum from thy duty run.
Around her person, lo! the di'monds shine.
A garland breathing all the sweets of spring.
And adds to ev'ry ornament a grace.
Her manners all deceitful, and her tongue
A lovely mischiei to the soul of man.
Prometheus mindful of his cheft above,
Let the fair bribe should ill to man portend;
Accepts the mischief, and repents too late.
Alas! they grow in their afflictions old;
Full of diseases and corroding cares,
Which open'd, they to taint the world begin,
Such was the faral present from above,
Alike infected is the land and main;
And multiply their trength by night and day : Pofterity the fad effect thall know,
'Twas Jove's decree they should in filence rove : When, in pursuit of joy, they gralp their woe. For who is able to contend with Jove ! 151 He spoke, and cold to Mulciber his will,
And now the libject of my verse 1 change ;
Whence you may pleasure and advantage gain,
Soon as the deathless gods were born, and man, To add the vigour and the voice of men,
A mortal race, with voice endow'd, began, To let her firit in virgin lustre shine,
The heav'nly pow'rs from high their work behold, In form a goddess, with a bloom divine :
And the first age they style an age of gold. And next the fire demands Minerva's aid, Men spent a life like gods in Saturn's reign, 160 Ir all her various skill to train the maid,
Nor felt their mind a care, nor body pain; Bids her the secrets of the loom impart,
From labour free, they ev'ry sense enjoy ; To cast a curious thread with happy art.
Nor could che ills of time their peace deltroy ;
In banquets they delight, renov'd from care ;
They die, or rather seem to die, they seem