Bulletin (United States. Bureau of Animal Industry), Numero 12

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1896
 

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Sivu 23 - Dr. DE Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC...
Sivu 12 - The known or supposed life history has been based upon four different methods of work, ie — 1. Experimental infection of the fowls by feeding to them known larval stages found in invertebrates, and thus raising the adult stage. 2. Experimental infection of invertebrates by feeding to them the eggs of tapeworms found in birds, and thus raising the larval stage. 3. Comparison of the hooks upon the heads of adult tapeworms of birds with the hooks of larvie found in invertebrates, and thus associating...
Sivu 15 - ... listless, remain apart from the rest of the flock, the feathers are ruffled, and the wings drop, the appetite is lost, and the birds allow themselves to be easily caught. Although it was stated that in the beginning of the trouble the appetite is not disturbed, the sick animals develop an intense thirst for cold water. When it rains, they run under the eaves in order to catch water, and in winter are eager for ice water.
Sivu 16 - ... would be expected if the subserous and muscular coats were closely studded with small, oval, solid bodies. The mucosa presented similar elevations. Attached to the mucosa over the nodules were :i number of tapeworms.
Sivu 15 - ... increased. The droppings are thin, contain considerable yellow slime, and are passed in small quantities, but at short intervals. The poultry raiser must direct his attention to these thin, slimy, and often bloody droppings, for if any treatment against the tapeworms is to be undertaken this must be done as early as possible. In observing the droppings it should be noticed whether tapeworm segments or eggs are present. The eggs can be seen, of course, only with the microscope.
Sivu 12 - Wild speculations as to the intermediate hosts, based upon negative results and totally devoid of any scientific foundation. Of these four methods of work the first two give positive proof of the life history when the experiments are successful ; the third gives a probability to the statements, but not a proof ; the less said about the fourth method the better.
Sivu 18 - ... a bowl of warm water, and look for the parasites. TAPEWORM-INFECTED FOWLS AS FOOD. None of the tapeworms of birds are transmissible to man in any stage of their development, and the presence of tapeworms in the Intestine of fowls does not in itself warrant the condemnation of their bodies as an article of food. PREVENTION. From the nature of the intermediate hosts (fresh-water crustaceans) of the tapeworms of the aquatic birds it Is evident that nothing can be done to prevent the introduction...
Sivu 17 - ... were not readily detected in the necrotic masses contained in the larger nodules, but were almost invariably seen in the smaller ones. In a few sections the tape-worm could be traced through the mucosa to the nodule in the muscular tissue in which its head appeared. In the earlier stage of the nodular development there is a cell infiltration about the head of the worm. This process continues until the infiltrated tissue reaches a considerable size. " The worms attached to the mucosa were usually...
Sivu 19 - If one is not willing to do this, however, because of Its commercial value, he should at least take steps to prevent further infection from it. If the sick chickens are confined to a comparatively small space, their droppings can easily be collected and placed in a strong barrel, to which the access of snails, slugs, worms, etc., should be guarded against. It is not known how long the eggs of poultry tapeworms will live, but it seems very doubtful to me whether they could live many months in such...
Sivu 16 - The smaller nodules contained a more purulent-likc substance and the smallest appeared to the naked eye as areas of Infiltration. Sections of the affected Intestine showed upon microscopic examination that the heads of the tapeworms had penetrated the mucous membrane and were situated in different layers of the intestinal wall. They were frequently observed between villi.

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