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on condition of thereby adding five" the people would again choose such years to the length of my life ; men. I would not consent to be the
can I, for my own sake, sigh after a representative of any body of persons " seat in the Parliament ?
“ who would not pledge themselves “ Yet, what a fuss, what a contriving, “ most solemnly to support me in my " what a plotting, to keep me out of “ endeavours to accomplish all this. “ hole of candle-light confusion, to sit" And, further, I would accept of the “ in which, more than one session by post only on the condition that I
candle-light, would demand a motive should be at liberty to vacate it if I “much stronger than I can at this mo- “ chose, at the end of one session, if the “ment conceive! What an intriguing, Parliament continued the shameful “ what a plotting, what a prosecuting," practice of sitting by candle-light, and “ by both the parties; and what terrible " under the same roof where there are “ calamities to this our country! And, “ an eating-house and a boozing-place.
at once horrible and ludicrous as is " I will never sit, for any length of time, “the thought, I verily believe that, at“ amongst legislators,' who drop in “ last, both parties would prefer a going one after another, or half a score at a
upon the rocks to the seeing of me in “ time, belching, and picking their teeth. " that Parliament, in which I do not “ In such a scene, how can attention “ want to be, but to go into which I " and reflection exist? From such a “ will never decline, if any body of" scene sober thought is excluded by “ electors shall freely, and of their own “ the laws of nature. From the fumes “ accord, choose me to be the represen- “of port and sherry and groy and brown “ tative of their will; and in which“ stout and tobacco, from the spattering “ Parliament the nobility, if they had “ of the frying pan and the hissing of “ had common sense, would have taken " the gridiron, wisdon, flees as men flee
care to have me long and long ago," from a pestilence. To account for so “seeing that, while I would not have a great a country being brought to the “ suffered them to take one penny un- “ state in which this now is, after ages “justly out of the pockets of the peo- “ will only want to be informed that its “ple, I would not have suffered thein to" legislators lounged away the morning “ be slespoiled by loan-mongers and“ in bed, and held their deliberations in “ Jews; always having been convinced, “ the night-time, under the same roof “as I still am, that an aristocracy of" with a gutiling and guzzling house, “ title and of privilige, when kept “and that, on an average, a fourth, or a “ within due and constitutional bounds, " third, of them were eating or drink“ brings none of that oppression upon “ing, at the very moment that laws “the working people which is always" affecting the property, the liberty, the “ brought upon them by a damned“ life of millions were under discussion. “ aristocracy of money.
“ This is all that after-ages will want to “ Now, my Lord Grey, [the propo- “know about the causes that produced sitions were inserted just before this], a state of things such as that which “here, at any rate, there is nothing of “ now exists in England. To a body of “ an abstract nature ; nothing theoretic,“ men leadiny such lives and addicted * nothing dark, nothing covert. This “ to such manners, no motive, not much “- is what I would do, if I could have" inore powerful than I can have an idea “ my will; and if I were a member of " of, would induce me to belong any “ Parliament, and found that this, the “ longer than thre tiine sufficient to en“ whole of this, could not be obtained “able me to ascertain that no change " by the Parliament, I would quit the “ in their manners was to be reasonably
concern as soon as I had ascertained “ expected. So that the renowned OLD “ this to be the facts as soon as I had “ SEREANT need not be very uneasy “ ascertained that the people bar chosen“ about the danger to be apprehended
men mot ready to do all this, or, at “ from my being in Parliament. Those least, as soon as I had ascertained that " who have the power of choosing “ members of Parliament generally look derive from being chosen for any other “ for a little coaring ; and none will place in the kingdom., Westminster, “ anybody ever get from me. It will with a vastly superior population, I con--“ be service for me to bestow, and not sider a mere nothing compared to Man
a favour for me to receive. I have, chester : it is a mass of drones and
with the rest of the people, an interest wasps got together, to swallow up the "in the general happiness of the nation; honey collected by the industrious bees : “ but I have none but a common inte- it is a heap of rabble, and of court
rest; and there is no moral obligation sycophants : a swarm of loungers at “ on me to submit, for the sake of the clubs and gaming-houses, collected to
general good, to endure the breath of gether, as it were, for the express pur“the belchers from Bellamy's, who pose of devouring the fortunes of skilful “ have, I am told, even a smoking and industrious masters, and the earnings
room! All this must be changed, or of their work-people. The city of “ there can be no good arise from reform. London is, in itself, what it always was, “ At any rate, it shall be changed, or 1 a place for the deposit of wealth, and “ will have nothing to do with it for for the reception and the circulating of “ more than one-session. So that, again goods; its inhabitants, indeed, pretty “ I say, OLD SERJEAN'T Best may make well corrupted by the crapulous crowds “himself pretty easy on account of me.” which the taxes have drawn together in
Such, gentlemen, were ny senti- its environs, and by the swarms of Jews ments upon this important subject, and that carry on their usurious traffic such they remain. I repeat that it in its centre. The city of London, would be great glory for me to be chosen however, is a great commercial city, as a member for Manchester, but that that it always was, and always will be ; but glory does not in my mind weigh as a the West-end of the town, as they call single feather, when compared with the it, is at once the great corrupter of the weight which it would give me in my nation, and the great devourer of the endeavours to effect those objects which fruit of its toils. Aliilions upon millions are described in the propositions which of the hard earnings of the people have I have read to you this evening. Man been drawn thither to be wasted on abchester includes, in its own name, in the jects of mere show, and thrown away, opinions of the rest of the kingslom, scattered about with such profusion, and not only all the industrious part of Lan- with such an abuse of all good taste, as cashire, but extends itself into parts of to make it rational in me to believe that other counties. It is the centre of them the squanderers have had no other object all. The word Manchester means in- in view than that of wasting the subdustry, English industry, ingenuity, and stance of the people, and that of collectopulence. To have my name go over ing together swarms of the most dithe world coupled with that of Man- graded, and, at the same time, mo: t chester, would be great glory inderd; insolent and prostituted wretches that and so great that the best efforts of the ever disgraced the human shape. Mr. remainder of my life, even if successful, Edmund Grundy, who lives at Bury, in would be no more than enough to merit this county, and who, being in London, such reward. But I most solemnly de- last spring, and having been to take a clare to you, gentlemen, that great as look at what is called the House of the honour would be, proud as I should Commons, saw, during the short time be of it, great as would be the triumph that he was present in the gallery, that it would give me over more nu- 60,000l. of the public money voted to merous and more malignant fves than widen and ornament some street in man ever had before to encounter ; it Westminster, at which he was greatly would not give me a thousandth part of astonished, seeing that, in Lancashire, the satisfaction which I should derive the towns themselves, by local taxes or from the certainty that it would give collections, paid for works of this sort me much greater weiglit than I could carried on within their precincts. Mr.
Grundy and I, being compelled to work four other members of Parliament, with for that which we possess, had not leisure whose services I think the city of Lonfor the purpose, or I could have taken don could more conveniently dispense, him, in the course of half an hour, and lowever, against one thing I beseech shown him how at least ten millions of the people of these towns to guard the nation's money had been wasted in a themselves, and that is, the choosing of similar manner. And will these indus- men of such amiable facility as to be trious towns send to a reformed Parlia- easily seduced from their duty by blanment one single man who will not dishment. Many a man of perfect pledge himself most distinctly to put a honesty, of perfectly good intentions, stop to this prodigal waste of the people's and of real public spirit into the bargain, earnings ? If one single man be sent has been rendered a mere tool in the from any of these towns without such hands of the Ministry, or of the other pledge, the people of that town will party, by appeals well made to his vanity. deserve never again to behold days of He means well, goes with a resolution to prosperity.
be firm, even anticipates the heartfelt apGentlemen, I have heard it said, that plause of his constituents as the reward of Manchester, being a commercial town, his fidelity to his trust, gets clapped down ought to choose none but commercial at dinner between an earl and a duke; or, men as its representatives in Parliament. if his virtue be of an extremely stubborn If the Parliament were intended for no kind, by the side of a lord's daughter, other purpose than that of ascertaining or, if the wife be handsomer, by the side what would be best for Manchester, re- of the lady herself. In an instant the lative to the importation of cotton and lights dance before him; his brain silk, and the exportation of cotton and swims; he looks back to the town that silk goods, and what regulations would has sent him, as a rich manufacturer be best, relative to the use of machinery, looks back to the clogs which he wore of coals, and of engines ; if, in short, when he was a boy; away goes all bis the Parliament were to be merely a resolution; and, though he become not chamber of commerce, then, men an absolute rogue, he becomes of no brought up and engaged in commerce more use to his constituents than if he all their lives might be the most proper were a man cut out of wood. to represent Manchester. But, as ihe Once more, to speak of myself and of prosperity, as the well-being, of this my views as to this matter, I repeat to great town, is, and always inust be, com- you, Gentlemen, that, were I to consult pletely inseparable from those of the my own private taste, my own private nation at large; and as it requires, in feelings and pleasure, I should decline order to determine that which is best serving in Parliament even for this fafor the whole, a thorough knowledge of mous town; and I again most positively all those relationships which bind the declare, that nothing shall induce me to interests of one part of the kingdom to sit for more than two sessions by candlethat of all the rest ; as laws will have light, and that I will not pledge myself to to be passed, affecting every part of the sit by that light for more ihan one session. people, from the lord in his mansion It is impossible that an assembly keepdown to the labourer in his cottage, it ing such hours, even if consisting of does appear to me that there is very wise and upright men, should produce little weight to be given to the opinion, good works. As a strong instance in which points out commercial nien, as confirmation of this opinion, suffer me being the only men fit to represent to relate to you what took place in the great commercial towns. As far as my AMERICAN Congress (when I was last observation has gone, experience by no in America) in consequence of candlemeans speaks in favour of this opinion. light legislation. In 1817, the war had In the city of London I have the honour broken out between the Spanish Coloto be represented by four commercial nies in South America and the King of men; and I do not happen to know any Spain; and the United States had passed an act, which they called an act ever be; that it is then unclouded by of neutrality. This act had just been heavy food and muddling drink; that it promulgated when I (fleeing from the is then, if ever, fit to be employed in dungeons that Sidmouth and Castle the making of laws; that is to say, in reagh had prepared for the reformers) the performance of things affecting the arrived in Long Island. Upon hearing happiness of millions. When a man the complaints, relative to this act, of undertakes a duty like this, those whom some of the Spanish revolters, I read it, he represents are entitled to his best and found, that, instead of its being an hours. The present hours were resorted act of neutrality, it was an act of great to in order to accommodate lawyers, partiality against the Colonies, which I clerks in office, merchants, and bankers, reprobated with great severity, espe- who want the prime of the day for cially as it came from a country who themselves and their own private affairs, boasted of that independence which it and who give to their constituents only had acquired, and so recently too, by re- that part which they have to lounge volting against its own King. The pa. away. All this must be changed, or the per, containing these just reproaches, reform will bring no good to the nation; was sent to be published, and was pub- and, as far as I am concerned, Gentlelished, in the Register in England; men, it shall be changed: for I will never but, at the same time, it was pub- sit, at most, more than two sessions lished in New York, because I would not amongst men who debate by candlesay any-thing of the Americans that I light, and who have a guttling and a did not say to their face. Now, observe, guzzling place under the same roof that it had always been, and still was, the covers the scene of their discussions. practice of the Congress to sit from nine This is my firm deterinination. If I o'clock in the morning to three in the quit my pleasant course of life, it shall afternoon. When the Congress mel, in be for the purpose of accomplishing November, I having written about this some great good for my country. My act in the previous month of July, the career has been long, and always brilliant, very first subject that they took in hand and brilliant it shall be to the last. was a revision of this Act of Nentrality; On the first of January, the day after the and a bill was brought in by Mr. Clay close of these lectures, I shall have puba. to alter and amend that act; and this lished a Register every week for thirty gentleman, in moving for leave to bring years, with the exception of the six in the bill, said, that the House would weeks that it took to carry me across, be aware that the error had been pointed the Atlantic (out of the reach of Sidout by a celebrated Englishman then in mouth) and the six weeks that it took the United States, who might with pro- to bring the first Register from Long priety, perhaps, have spoken of it in Island to England. I, last January, exterms less harsh ; but that his censure pressed my intention to close this publiof the act, however unnecessarily severe, cation at the end of 1832; being resolved, form no ground for not at once cor that my light shall never go out twinkrecting the error, and thereby doing jusling in the socket; being resolved, that tice to the Spanish colonies. The bill the last number shall want no part of was brought in and quickly passed ; but, the spirit that marked the first. Judge Gentlemen, that which is worthy of your you, then, Gentlemen, whether I be a particular attention is this; that Mr. man to set any, even the smallest, value CLAY stated, as an apology for the error, on a mere seat in Parliament ! Judge that the act was passed on the last day you, whether I be a man voluntarily, of the session, and, on account of the and with my eyes open, to sink quietly press of business, was passed at ten down into that insignificant thing called o'clock at night!
an “honourable gentleman," sitting beAll the world knows, that the morn- side the "gallant officer” or the “ worthy ing is the time for all matters of impor-alderman." Judge you, whether I be tance; that the mind is then serene, if it made of vulgur stuff like this! Oh, no! Gentlemen of Manchester, great “Mr. Alderman VENABLES wished to though I should deem the glory of "" put one more question, which he did having my name associated and sent at the request of the silk trade yenethrough the world, coupled with that of " rally. They wished to know for this renowned hive of industry, not even " what particular reasons the comprothat would I accept of unaccompanied" mise was effected ? for they felt very with the assurance of being able to per- strongly that it was the most injudi. form some great and memorable good " cious course to compromise such for my country, and especially for its “ actions. laborious millions; and, as I can have “ The ATTORNEY-GENERAL was bound no such assurance; as I can have no to state that this matter had come such hope, unless those who choose “ into his hands without instructions or me be ready to pledge themselves to " restrictions as to what he was or stand by and support me in my endea-" was not to do. He believed that in vours to effect the purposes that I have“ the pledge spoken of, his right hon. sofully and so frankly stated to you, onthat“ Friend only intended that the case pledge being given or withheld, will de- “ should be brought into court, to be there pend whether I shall have that great dealt with as might be proper ; and se honour, which is the only thing that “ far there had been no violation of the could be a compensation for the labours" pledge. Now the fact was, that if that the task would impose upon nie. every-thing could have been proved,
" the penalties could only have amount
“ed to 20,000l. (Hear, hear!) The 'A PRETTY TRANSACTION. "compromise, therefore, was only for a HOUSE OF COMMONS,
sum of 5,0001. less than might have
“ been obtained had every-thing been Dec. 9, 1831.
"fully proved against the parties. “ Mr. Alderman V'exABLES asked “ Mr. Alderinan VenABLES was bound “whether the prosecution which had to say, that Government had on this “ been instituted against a house in occasion obtained a more satisfactory “ the silk trade, had been continued " settlement of the prosecution than had not?
ever before been obtained; but the “ The ATTORNEY-General said, that " objection to any compromise still ex“ his right hon. Friend, to whom it " isicd.
properly belonged to answer that “Sir R. Peel said, that as this case “ question, was not present, but he “ had excited a great deal of attention, “ thought he might take upon himself" he thought it would be of advantage “to give an answer to the hon. Gen. "if the papers connected with it were “ tleman.
The prosecution to which “ laid on the table. Those papers would " the hon. Member had alluderl, was a “ show the way in which the duties bad “prosecution for penalties for evading“ been originally evaded, and they would “ 'the payment of the duty on silk. " inflict that punishment which the com“ There were others, but one alone was promise had enabled the guilty parties “about to be brought to trial, when it to avoid, but which was the inost ef"was compromised for a sum of 20,0001. "fective that could be employed against “ He believed that that sum was the them—he meant the punishment of
largest the Government had ever re- publicity. (Hear, hear, hear!) If the “ceived from such a prosecution. compromise was effected, as he sup" There were goods to be taken back,“ posed it was, before the trial, of course “which might possibly amount to "there could have been no publication
So that the offending parties“ of the circumstances of the case, and “ would have to pay a sum of 15,0001., " the disgrace attendant on such a pub“ which was sufficient to make them" lication was wanting to complete "suffer severely enough not to repeat " that punishment which, without it, “ the offence.
“would be hardly sufficient to prevent