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totally overlooked, and we are to think upon that as what he calls a

" distinct : of nothing but of the property' of the act of robbery;" to such act, he says, Ely clergy; they never having had allotted he never will consent; and therefore ! to them any property at all, except in Mr. Macaulay thus declares that he

trust for the purposes of religion, and will not move or support a measure in for the relief of the poor.

accordance with the Leeds petition. I The Leeds petition, founded on a may just add here, that the rotten bomotion of Mr. Bower, prayed for a roughs are as much property as tithes i restoration of this property to its legiti- are ; and more too. The regular clerEl mate uses; it prayed that all the pro- gy could possess nothing ; they could

perty formerly applied to the feeding of neither possess, nor receive, nor bequeath;
the hungry and clothing of the naked, and the secular clergy had no more right
might be so applied again. But Mr. of property in their rithes, than any trus-
MACAULAY says that he will touch none tee of a charity has in the rents or the
of the “ propertyfor this purpose; he bread, or anything else lodged in his
will touch neither the tithes, nor the hands for the purpose of distribution
lands in possession of bishops and cleri. among the poor. * Fore-warned fore-
cal corporations. At the very least he urmed,” they say; and the people of
will wait for the death the existing Leeds now know upon what footing they
incumbents; which, besides involving a stand with regard to Mr. Macaulay.
most monstrous absurdity and imprac-
ticability, can by no means apply to lay
tithes, which form a very considerable
portion of the whole of the tithes of
Ireland. These tithes descend from COUNCIL ROOM, Jan. 26, 1832.
possessor to

successor;
they

J. Lower, Esq., in the Chair. alienable and transferable, like landed property in general; and yet they still Resolved, That the following gentlecarry along with them all the privilege, men form a deputation to wait upon belonging to their sacred origin. So Mr. Cobbett, when he arrive at Leeds, that this part of the tithes, at any viz. rate, will remain according to the Mr. Bower, Chairman. principle of Mr. MACAULAY, who

Nichols, Vice-Chairman. will by no meddle with

Thos, ORRELL. " existing interests,” for these interests

- LEES, Secretary. exist for ever. Besides this, what does

WuTEHEAD, Treasurer. Mr. Macaulay know about this mat

ORRELL. ter, when he seems to hint his readiness

SMITHSON. to take away the benefices on the death

METCALFE. of the present incumbents? Does he

BOYLE. forget that there are two parties who

Heald, have existing interests in a benefice

Beggs. namely, the incumbent and the patron ?

J. GILE And the patron's right is perpetual; the

Rhodes. patron's right is like that of the owner of lay-tithes; the advowson is a free

Resolved, That the deputation convey hold as well as the lay-tithes. It is a

to Mr. Cobbelt the thanks of the Leeds trust, indeed, like all the rest of it, but Political Union, for his unrivalled adit approaches nearer to the nature of vocacy of the Reform Bill, and for his real property than any other item in the indefatigable and successful exertions catalogue of church rights.

in support of the rights and liberties of The conclusion is this, the Leeds pe- the niiddle and working classes of sotition prays for an application of the ciety, tithes and all other church revenues to

J. LEES, Secretary. their ancient uses; Mr. Macaulay looks

By Order of the Council.

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means

TO TIE

one

for most money, lies or truths; and, COUNCIL OF THE POLITICAL though wavering as to every thing else, UNION.

though changeable as the winds with

regard to principles and opinions, alLeeds, Feb. 24, 1832.

ways to his own interest, to his own Gentlemen,-Amongst the more than dirty gain, true as the needle to the ample rewards which I am, at least, re

pole. He is like a HERBERT ; always ceiving for the patience and fortitude lirue to that one point; and I dare say with which I have endured the calum: the like quality is to be found in every nies poured out against me by official of his breed. This man appears to corruption and private selfishness, envy have been cruelly mortified at the cirand malignity; with which I have with cumstances attending the dinner given stood, and finally overcome, LIARS

to me at Manchester. Contrary to his more foul, more base and more beasily bounden duty to his readers, he omitted than ever, at any former period, ven- to publish ihe speech of Mr. Joan tured openly to show their faces in the Fielden. He has been accused of this: world ; amongst these rewards, none at last he has come out with a garoled have been more gratifying to me than statement of the speech, and such comthis mark of the approbation and friend.

mentary as

his barren and confused ship of an association whose principles head was able to invent. The following and views are sufficiently characterized is a commentary upon this liis miserable by its having at its head a gentleman publication, which I never should bave who has so recently distinguished him-noticed, nor any other part of his conself as the proposer of a resolution, the duct, had it not been for the following passing of which has done so much ho- article, which I deem worthy of the nour to the town of Leeds, and the con- best attention of my readers, containing, sequences of which cannot fail to be

as it does, that which gives us a great greatly beneficial to the whole king deal of insight into the workings of the dom; seeing that, while it sets an example to all other bodies of electors, it turing districts.

paper-money system in these manufaccannot fail to be the test by which the Mr. Fuelden's Speech. We have extorted intentions of all future inembers shall some notice of this speech from the Guardian be tried.

at last. Mr. John Edward Taylor did not I am, Gentlemen,

notice it at first ; nor did not even report it, With great respect

(though he reports the speeches of Ashmore

and Currau ; though he reports the speeches of and profvund gratitude, a King's birth-day dioner), because of " the Your most bumble

utter insignificance of the proceedings at the and most obedient servant,

dinner given to Mr. Cobbett;" and he now

devotes a whole column to a cominentary on WM. COBBETT.

a detached portion of one part of one speech delivered at that dinner, because that address

bas been “ thought worthy of insertion in MANCHESTER BANKING.

Cobbett's Register for two successive weeks.”

Wby we thought that Cobbelt's Register was The speech of Mr. Fielden, which a thing utterly insignificant in the eyes of the has twice been inserted in the Regieter, Guardian; and how can Cobbett's Registergive has given rise to the following article, importance to a thing so utterly insignificant as

the speech of Mr. Fielden. Come, come ; the which I take from the Manchester and Guardian has seen our advertisement of his Salford Advertiser of the 25th instant. loul play, and he must not think, like the The Edward Taylor who is alluded foolish bird, that, because he has closed bis to in this article, may be called (sex ex- eyes, and thrust his head in a hole, he has

succeeded in concealing those parts, which in cepted) the Anna Brodie of Manches- animals in his grade of phrevological develop. ter : that is to say, the watcher of how ment, bear the same proportion to the head, the cat jumps; the consulter of the that the haunches of an elephant do to his tastes of those who purchase newspa- that, it is we, who have udeartbed the id pers, and publish advertisements ; the badger

, and will laugh at this effort to hide careful calculator as to which will sell it.

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Now, however, to Mr. Fieldeu's opinion, examine the effects, in operation, of the imabout bauking, and to Mr. Joby Edward l'ay- proved system of banking. Jor's remarks upon it. Mr. Jolu Edward The great auvautage of these banks is said Taylor lays it down, that the legitimate busi- to be their security; and the security arises iu ness of bankers is “ to borrow money 'rom this way. The capital is fixed at a certain those who do not want it, tu lend it to those sum-say 500,0001. This capital is divided who do, and to furnish the meaus of making into five thousand shares of 1001. each. Every payments at a distance." Now, if we bad not person who takes a share pledges himself leto address ourselves to

gally as a partner to the whole delts of the * The leathern ears of stocá-jobbers and Jews,”

whule firm ; but, as between the partners, he

pledyes bimself to the full amount of that and to a generation instructed by scribes, to share. A demand is made by the company fur whom the Stock Exchange is at vince a college an advance of 101. op each share (it sometimes and a temple, and gambling the most useful, has not exceeded five), and thus, in the case as well as the most holy of occupations, we supposed, 50,0001. is paid in), as the capital ou should be disposed to deny that there is any which to tradle. Thus every shareholder who real utility in the calling of a banker, excepi is trading on 101. is pledged for 100%; and, as that of furnishing the means of making pay. it is a reasonable supposition in the beginning Deuts at a distance; we should be strongly of the thing, that, ou the average, each indidisposed to questivo, whether there is any vidual is worth twice as much as what he public use in the existence of a tribe of brokers pledges himself for ; aud as the whole private of loans,—whether it would not be better for property of each shareholder is liable for the the murals of the people, and even for the se. whole of the debts of the firm, the capital of curity of wealth itsell, that all men should 50,000!. is backed by the security of a icillion. earn their money before they had the use of Heuce the security of Scotch baukiug. Whatti. But, when we recollect that the time is ever ruin fall on trade, tbe bank does not fail. not long passed away, when it was an article But when we examine the matter more closely, of faith on the Exchange of Manchester, that we shall find iu this great apparent security of "national debt was national wealth," we thiok the bank not only results injurious in the it better to wait for that revolution in Europe highest degree to the tradesınan, but a cer, which is now in preparation, and which will tainty that, in the long run, such bauking will scatier the claims of fundholders to the hecoine the most insecure and bullow of all, winds ; to wait for the alteration which that and that expressiy in consequence of this-its revolution will make ia men's minds, before apparent securiiy. We attempt to preach on this subject the We bave supposed the case of 50,000 addoctrines for a true political morality. We vanced, backed by a security of a million. threfore accept Mr. Joha Edward Taylor's The credit of the bauk is thuis placed beyond proposition, that a legitimate occupation of suspiciou; and, particularly if it issues its own bauhers is to borrow money froin those who paper, the moderation of the directors is aldo not want it, and lend it is thuie who do ; inost ibe ouly limit to its engagements. and we complain of the present race of bauk We presunie that it will now be conceded, ers that this is not their occupation; that they even by the disciples of the Guardiun, that, if are the mere creatures and tools of the loai there be a general dispositivu to discount jag system; and that they levd not muncy, freely, it will have soine effect in raising but credit. It is notorious ihat many bunkers, prices; and that if the discounts he suddenly So far from borrowing money froni those who checked, it will have some effect in lowering do unt wa:it it, tu lend it to those who do, will prices. To coinplete our case, let us suppose hardly give interest ou deposits; and it'is on there be among the directors of the bank account of this difficulty of getting interest ou une not a manufacturer, but a mercbant, deposite that the Scotch system of banking a buyer and seller upon a very large scale ; has becoine so much into vogue of recent and that, after a very dull season, he years, by which the wealthy merchant, in fact, has a warehouse crammed with goods bought sets aside the brokerage of the banker, gives at exceedingly low prices, at the lower a practical devial to the doctrine of the prices in consequence of the distresses of his Guardian, that such an iutermediate ageut is neighbours and the difficulties of those who useful, and himself becomes the lender of his are trailing ou a'sniall capital. Suppose, as a

if he leut money, though we merchant, he sees that the prices of all goods should still deny his utility, the mischief which are below the cost of manufacturing them; it would be in his power to do, would not be without reasoning very deeply, he comes to great, because be must have the money to the conclusion that prices must rise, that led; he could not create it, at his pleasure; there inust be a good trade; his experience as he could not enlarge or diminish the amount a neretiant guides his operatious as a banker; of circulation in a very great degree, as his he discounts freely; be allows the shoal of caprice or interest mighi dictate the expan- little strugyling tradesmen to overdraw their sion or contraction of his issues. But totally accouuts; be enables them to gain credit with different is the case, when the credit of an in- live manufacturers ; either in tills or notes he dividual, a:d far worse when the credit of a puts his credit into circulatiou to double or number of individuals comes to supply the treble the amount of his capital; his operaplace of mouey. Let us take au instauce, and I tions and the simultaneous operatious of his

OWO meaus.

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brother bankers, resulting from the same cal- and the more you borrow on your security, the culations, produce the expected briskuess of more your security seems worth. And thus it trade, and all goes ou smoothly, till some panic is, that, while Scotlaudis immoeasurably is felt similar to that which was experieuced a poorer in real wealth than England, she has a few months agoiu Manchester. Our wealthy lar greater quantity of paper.movey in promercbant, in the mean time, has sold off his portion to her traosactions. Thus it is that stock at advanced prices; he has made his di- Mr. Maberly, on the winding up of bis transvideud at perhaps 174 per cent, as banker;l actions as a Scotch bauker, finds bis wealth and now he suddenly calls in his balances, he put into the same boat with that of insolvent rejects the bills offered for discount, and leaves shareholders; and with all his kuowiedge, and foundering the tradesmen whom his " liber- all his praises, of the Scotch system of bankality" had encouraged to extend their trade. iug, be has contrived, hy means of it, to get Perbaps by selling their goods at a fearful rid of an immense fortune. sacrifice, and by surrendering the fruits of of the attempt which Mr. Juho Edward years of industry, the more fortunate amongst Taylor makes to confound the trade of a these may enable the bauker-merchant again banker with trades in general, we must speak to fill his warehouse with goods under prime next week. We will only observe upon it cost;" the less fortunate are thrown back now, that it is exactly the artifice of the clergy upon that credit with the industrious mauu- in confounding tithes with real property; but facturer, which they had derived from the useful tradesmeu, like the possessors of estates favour of their banker; and they are taught in fee, must guard themselves against the by a com.nission of bankruptcy the blessings dissemination of doctrines destructive of proof an “ improved system of banking.” Thus! periy and society, whether such doctrines are the bank is secured; thus usury doubly preached by the Poor Man's Guardian or the thrives ; and the miserable slave of a trades. pretended Guardian of the wealthy. man is thrown down like a squeezed sponge, again to imbibe moisture from the sweat aud marrow of the industrious, and again, at a convenient season tu receive auother squeeze from his bauker.

PLAGIARIS M. Is not this already exemplified in the trading towns of Scotland, where pauic spares the

If there were a

court (and there bank, but spreais a universal rot among the ought to b: one), to punish literary tradesman ? And has it not hitberto been the thieves, I would certainly bring the boast and security of Mauchester, that, kuow. under-signed Mr. Waterron before it ; ing nothing of impro ed bauking, and comparatively little of paper money, she was re- and, if he escaped the whipping-post or markable for the stability and firmness with the tread-mill, or both, he would not which she bore those shocks which have passed have justice done him. Whether a man over other places like a burricane ?" bankers discoudied the less, because their thieve with his naked fingers, or with a whole capital was engaged in their business, pen stuck on to the end of them, it is no and because they dared nut extend their trans- matter: we do not find thieves acquitted actions beyond the limits of that capital. The merely because they steal people's improvement consists in doing more business with less mouey, and extending further ticti- goods by the means of a wire or a hook; tious credit.

but we take the act, and . punish the Let us now, then, consider what is the ulti- offender according to that. My readers mate effect of this on the security of the bauks. will see that every word of the following We bave presumed that, at first, each shareholder is worth double the amvuut that he article, which I take from the Leeds pleriges himself for; and this is presuming a

Patriot of the 25th of February, is taken good deal. But the shares are saleable ; and from my History of the Protestant Re. on what terms are the trausfers made ? We formation.

Doctor Black, who called suppose the advance upon the shares to be 107. Let the shares be at a premium of 21.

the history " pig's meat,” will certainly each. Then a purchaser pays not 1021., but swear that this Watertoy is the most 121. for his share; and every person who can greedy piece of swine's flesh that he muster 121. inay, if it so please him, become a ever heard of. Lord Cocarane used banker, and a sbarer in the profits aud responsibility of this solid fabric. Every person of their flesh with the change of their

to say that animals changed the nature in trade, as the system becomes diffused, becomes more or less a sharellder. He dis- diet; that a man might eat mutton till counts at his own bank; and is, in fact, bis he became a sheep, and so on.

If his own bauker, and his own security. As the Lordship's philosophy was right, this paper-mouey multiplies, it gives a ficticious value to all property; that wbich was once a

Waterton inust be a prime piece of security for 1001. becoines a security for 2001.; pork. I will not say anything about the

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receiver in this case; for the handlers of these tithes, and the division was into three of types, are, very properly, wholly in- parts ouly.” attentive to the words into which they stone, that iv Catholic times one-third of the

Thus, then, we have it proved from Blackform those little bits of metal; but as tithes weut to maintain the poor. Wherefore, to the thief himself, who is, I under- 1 state, without fear of contradiction, that, by stand, a Catholic, I do hope that his the law of nature, the poor have a right of priest will not forget the old and good of Eugland, in Catholic times, were maiu

maintenance from the rich; and that the poor maxim of “ restitution or damnation.” tained by the common law of the land, out of 2! For, if ever there were theft more the tilhes which the rich had given to the

iagrant than this, I will be content to church. pass for a man that does not know his I vow prove that the poor, in Catholic times,

were entitled to a maintenance out of the proown words, when he sees them upon perty of the church, by the canon law. paper. It was very proper for Mr. To the 24th canon of Elfrie we read, “ Let Waterton to make use of all these facts the priesis receive the tithes of the people, and and arguments; and he has made use of keep a written account of all that they have

paid them, and divide them in the presence of them in a very judicious manner. If he such as fear Gud, according to canonical auhad put no name to them, all would thurity. Let thein set apart the first share for have been right; for then the editor the building and ornaments of the church, and would bave thought it his duty to say, with their own hands, in mercy and humility,

distribute the second to the poor and strangers, from whom they had been taken. If and reserve the third part for themselves. Mr. Waterton chose to put his name, it Here, theu, we have the canon law, in ad. then became him to say that he took dition to the law of nature, and the common the words from the writings of Mr. law of the land, to prove that in Catholic times

the poor of England were maintained by the Cobbett. Having put his name to this church. writing as something of his own, he is Moreover, I prove by act of Parliament, that guilty of plagiarism, as a literary man; iu Catholic times, the poor were maintained and as a Catholic, he is guilty of the by the church.

We read ibat an act of Parliament was blackest ingratitude; for which, I thus passed in the reign of Richard the 2nd, punish bim; and if I were his priest, I which evacts, that if the liviug of the parish would give him as a penance the count be in the hauds of any convent, that convent ing of a sack of clover-seed, which would shall always leave in the hands of their vicar have this benefit, that it would leave a part of the incume sufficient for the relief of

the poor. Again, another act of Parliament hiin not another moment of his life which enforce this act was passed in the wherein to commit acts of plagiarism. 4th year of the reign of King Henry the 4th.

Now that these laws were well acted upon up to the period of what is called the Reform

ation, there canuot exist a doubt, and I will RIGHT OF THE POOR OF ENGLAND, prove it, both directly and indirectly. IRELAND, AND SCOTLAND, TO A

Tst, Directly from Fortescue. He describes MAINTENANCE OUT OF THE PRO, the people of Evyland in Catholic times as PERTY OF THE CHURCH BY LAW having "all things which conduce to make ESTABLISHED.

life easy and happy." BLACKSTONe says, that “a right in the 2dly, ludirectly; for upon consulting history, indigent to demand a supply sufficient w all I cau fiud nothing to lead me to suppose that the necessities of life, from the more opulent the people of England were in misery and part of the community, is dictated by the want. Wherefore I conclude that misery and principles of society."

I waut did not exist amongst the people of EngNow, when Eugland was Catholic, her in- land in Carbolic times. Had such things exdigeut were maintained out of the property or isted, no doubt they would have appeared upon the church. I prove this froin Blackstone. the page of history.

Blackstone ipforms us, that “at the first But as soon as Harry the 8th and his assoestablisbinent of parochial clergy, the rithes' ciates in pluuder had seized upou the property

were distributed in a fourfold wbich bau been left to the church by the piety division, viz., one for the use of the bishop, of our Catholic ancestors in trust for the poor, another for the maintaiuing the fabric of the then, indeed, inuumerable swarms of beggars church, a third for the poor, and the fourth to infested the land. To remedy this evil, an provide for the incumbent. The same author act was passed in Harry the 8th's reign, to

“ when the sees of the bishops ' authorise magistrates to cause voluntary alms became otherwise amply endowed, they were to be collected. And in the same reign offenprohibited from demanding their usual share ders were punished by having part of their

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of the parish

continues,

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