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ears cut off. Queen Elizabeth affected to be, ecclesiastical property, a full fourth part of quite shocked at the miserable looks of the the annual profit of such property. So far Mr. crowds who came to gaze at her; aud she Justice Ruggles. It is argued by some people exclaimed, “ Pauper ubique jacel."
that the claim which the poor had in the In Edward the 6th's reiy!), beggars were church.property became extinct when poor, burut with a red hut iron, and made slaves for laws were enacted. No such ihing. Had two years; and if they were refractory or fu- Elizabeth been actuated with feelings of real gitive, they were to be slaves for life.
justice, she would bave given back to the poor Thus, then, by the aid of the foregoing do- the property which hier father aud his come cuments, we may safely make the following nanions io plunder bad steu from them. assertion, and draw the followi:g conclusion, Burin lieu of doing this most necessary act viz. That up to the period of what is called the of justice, she threw the poor upon the nation Reformation, the poor of England were well at large, and allowed the plunderers to keep supported by the church; ani that after the their ill-got'en property. Sometbing was ab. period of what is called the Reformation, the soluely necessary to be done, because the property of the churcu having been plun- people were weariy starred into rebellion. dered by king and courtiers, the poor were Thus, through fear, she invented the poor berest of their main stay, and becanie a prey laws. But mind, when the act was passed, to misery and stapvativn—that they swarmed pot a word was said that the act was to do all over the land, that their numbers couti- away the claim which the pour had har for nued to increase; and that they are still in- above nine hundred years on the church. creasing to a most alarming extent in our property. Thus, if I give a beggar a suit of
clothes, it does not follow that I deprive him Let us now see if the poor have not yet an of a right which he has hy law, to receive anundoubted, though nearly forgotten, right to nually a portion of provisions which have been a maintenance out of the tithes. Thomas hequeathed 10 bim by some former kouefactor
. Ruggles, Esq., F.A.S., and one of his Majes. Neither, then, can nor does Elizabetti's act ty's justices of the peace, published his first for establishing poor.laws, deprive them of edition (I think in 1793) of his “ History of one-third of the lithes of all England. The the Poor, and their Rights, &c. &c.". Mr. I poor, I may say, have an everlasting mortgage Ruggles insists that it appears clear, by the on the property of the church. No matter writings of the fathers, by the canons of the who possesses that property. The mortgage church, and by the coinmion and statute laws is still on it. It would he well if some benesoof England, that the tithes and glebes were lont and eloquent person would take vot given to priests and bishops for their own subject. The wition at large wonld no doubt use; but that they were given iu trust for support him. lihen we see to what a state certain purposes, one of which was, the main- of unfeeling brutality the poor-laws have retenance of the poor.
duced the lower orders; wud wben we read in Mr. Ruggles adduces a well-known maxim history how happy and how moral those orders of law, in ecclesiastical rights, viz. “ Nul- were when they were supported in their hour lum tempus occurrit ccclesie.” Now the poor of need by the church and by the monasteries, being a part of the church for the poor were we are apt to cry out, alas, the change has always maintained by the charity given in indeed been a bad vue ! trust to the church), he asks, and very pro
CHARLES WATERTON. perly too, are out the poor, therefore, permite
Walton-Hall, Feb. 15th, 1832. ted tu claim the oevefit of the same maxiin? Is not that the law of the part which is ihe law of the whole ? Therefore, nullum tem.
FREE TRADE, GLOVES, AND pres occurrit pauperibus. Mr. Ruggles conti
CURRENCY. “Ji positive ordinances of the state have not destroyed this right, no length of
To the Editor of the Leeds Patriot. time should be allowed to weaken it. Let S18,-Without either acknowledging or dethose who doubt the truth of these assertions nying any participation on my part, in the find, if they can, an offirmative injunction, article on the glove trade and the currency, that the church should fold its revenues free which appeared on the 4th instant, although and clear of these trusts for the benefit of the I admit I agree, for the most part
, with the poor, which were created by the donors, sentiments of the writer-I beg the favour of when they gave their lands and iitbes for elee you to allow me to make a few observations mosynary purposes. No such discharge is to relative to some comments which have been be seen in the acts of Parliament in the 27th marle on that article, in the Morning Herald and 31st of Henry the 8th, which empowered of the Ilth instant, the crown to alienate the possessions of the It is assumed in the Morning Herald, --Ist, monasteries. Those, therefore, wbu are pos- That I attribute all the paticual distress to the sessed of estates which were formerly monas currency, a:d none of it to free rade. 2d, That tic, held theni, quod hoc, subject to ihe same I am not correct in representing all trades.to equitable claim.”
be in as bail a state as the glove and silk from all wlders u whatis, or whatever was, the importation of foreigu gloves and silks Mr. Justice Ruggles proposes to take away trades. 30, That I am not correct an stating
was the same in 1825 as it is row; anil 4thly, 'the silk and glove trades, but I apprehend That my earnest advocacy of a rectification of that is the relative quantity of money lost in the currency might give rise tu " suspicions" | those trades since 1823, was to be deemed the respecting my sincerity in the cause of re- criterion of distress, we should not upon exform.
amination find that a much greater degree of In the first place, then, I have upon many distress exists in those tradus than in most occasioos deprecated the deceitful and inju. other branches of productive industry in Engrious doctrines of free trade. I have publicly I land. Loss by trade, is in fact, become the represented them as calculated only “ toivring rule, and profit the exception. Pur seven years more grist to the plunderer's mill;" as tend. I have made a point to inquire from all the ing and intended to still further string up the best-informed persons in ali trades throughvalue of money, and beat down the value of out Englaud, whether any branch of industry property and labour, for the atrocious ubject exists in which a prudent and industrious of iucreasing the wealth of the rich and the man, of compe:ent knowledge, can be justified poverty of the poor. I call the currency the in embarking 10,0001. The universal answer " muster.evil” it is true, because I know that which I have received in huudreds and bunit tias caused more positive misery in England dreds of instaures is, “such branch of induring the last seventeen years, than all the dustry does not exist in England.” legislative acts of seven hundred years have This representation of the state of industry occasioned before. But this “master-evil" is in England, of course, applies only to what is not all that I bolelohelute Buruugbi Government called "productive industry,” or in other auswerable for. The free trade laws, the coru words, to the great branches of agriculture, laws, and many other cruel, sordid, and un- manufactures, and commerce. Some few exjust measures, will also, I trust, at a period, be ceptions will of course exist. The very disoverliauled.
tress of the country will make some irades In the second place, I beg to say that I am Rourish. Pawnbrukers, commission-agents, prepared to prove that all trades are in as haul and purchasers of bankrupts' stock, may, pera state as the silk and glove trades, or at least baps, thus derive profii, in the saine way as very nearly so, and that the state of the poor physicians would derive profit from the prevarates is no proof to the contrary. I do not leuce of pestilence, and builders from a gemean to say ihat every one coucerned in any neral earthquake. Su persous possessed of trade will instantly acknowledge this great exclusive patent rights, and of particular systruth, for I kravw that some men will boast of tems, improvements, and localities, may prothe goodness of trade from pride, and some barily flourish, and indeed I know some that froin igourance, and some from a morbid ma- do su But upon the average, I assert and ligaity against their rivals, and others from a am ready to prove, that every great branch of sensitive fear of personal discredit tu them- agriculture, manufnctures, and commerce, has selves. We have a proverb in trade, which been attended wi!h positive loss during the last has grown into use during the last seven years seven years. The gross annuai profit, if any,
boast to-day and fail 10-morrow ;"--and has vot been sufficient to keep up the cultialthough I know that this is not the case wit.. vation of the land, and to hold the capital all meu who boast of duing well in their re- together; and wbeu the fired capital employed spective trades, yet I will venture to say that in manufactures and in commerce is estiI have myself scarcely ever met with any one mated, a positive and very large loss is found of thein from whom I have found any difficulty to exist generaliy throughout the country. in extracting the confession, that he has po With regard to the third representation in sitively lost money by bis trade during the last the Herald, I beg w acknowledge an error on seven years. In pive cases out of ten, indeed, my part, which is not, however, important to in many branches of mercantile industry in the great question at issue. I thought that the Eugland, the judustrivus aud prudent inan new regulations respecting foreign gloves and who possessed 10,0001. seven years ago, has silks, bad taken place in 1825. It appears not dow so much as 50001, left; and this is that they took place in 1826. But altbuugh I also meltiog away. Need I make meution of thus lose my proof that the present distress in the iron trade, ibe lead trade, the copper- those trades is not made by foreign importatrade? There is not any branch of these tions, yet I derive abundant collateral proof trades—there is scarcely a cutton or woollen from two other facts of a similar nature. In manufactory in Lancashire or Yurkshire, which the year 1816 a greater distress existed in is not in a worse state than this
. In all cases those trades than exists wow, and yet then we the dead or fircd copital is, as it were, uearly had no foreign competition. That distress annihilated, and if any profit is ground out oi passed away in 1817 and 1818. But in 1819 the current or floating capital, that profit is again, as great a state of distress was produced grouud out of the very hones and vitals of the iu the glove and silk irades as exists now; uuhappy workmeu employed, who are com- and yet then we had no foreigu competition. pelled to toil from fourteen to sixteeu hours If then we see, in two instances, that a similar per day, in order to obtain a miserable main- distress has existed at two furmer periods, not tenance, more than double of which they only in the glove and silk trades, but in all ought to obtaiu iu teu bours work per day. Other traces, what reason bave we to couclude A birilar state of things, of course, exists in that this third period of distress in those
trades, and in all other trades, is occasioned by a new principle, which is only brought into local operation during the last few years ? | GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. When a general cause is evideutly at work, surely we have uo occasion to rely upou a
WeDNESDAY, FEB. 22. local cause.
With regard to reform, I have given suffi. COLONIAL DEPARTMENT. cient proof of sincerity in that great cause, lo
Downing-street, Feb. 22, 1832. render me regardless of “ suspicions " respecting my views of the currency. I have all my the Governor of Jamaica was received at
The following communication from life advocated the extension of popular power, and certainly my exertions in support of that this office on Sunday last :great object, have not beca diminished in the last few years. The currency I am content to
King's House, Jamaica, Jan. 6, 1832. leave to the wisdom and justice of the re My LORD, -I have a painful duty to formed Parliament, being perfectly convinced discharge, in detailing to your Lordship that such Parliament will either take imme. the substance of accounts I have rediate steps to rectify the errors of their predecessors, aud to restore the whole nation to a ceived, by which you will learn that an state of prosperity and contentment, or other extensive and destructive insurrection wise that it will at least forth with apply itself | amongst the slaves in the western disto the effectiog of such an equalization of the strict of ihis island has followed a season patiogal burdens as will quickly bring the uvproductive classes to share equally with their of unusual sickness and distress, and that hitherto unfortunate brethreu iu ihe sinister I have felt myself compelled to resort benefits of a contracted and deficient, or as the to the most active measures, even that political ecunomists style it, “ a sound and of proclaiming martial law, to arrest the healthy currency." I am, Sir, yours respectfully,
progress of so great a danger.
THOMAS ATTWOOD. It was not until Thursday, the 22d ult., Birmingham, Feb. 16, 1832.
that I received any accounts to excite P.S.-The currency is a simple question,
alarm. The apprehensions which apalthough generally mystified by interested peared to disturb the public mind during men. A few mouths ago, I was speaking to the summer had nearly subsided. The a working man on this subje He said to planters complained of poverty and me, “ Here are three balf-crowns of silver in distress—the delegates sent forth an my band : the other day I bad also ten balfcrowns of paper. The boroughinongers have ambiguous declaration, deprecating (as taken away from me ten balf-crowns of paper; they expressed themselves) “ the insidibut God curse their ! they have left me ous attempts to undermine and render to pay the same rent and taxes out of the three valueless what little remains of tlieir half.crouins, as I formerly paid out of the thirteen !!" Philip Johnson, of Leamington, property,” but the brink of danger on was the man who made this observation. The which they stood formed no part of money of the country is first reduced in quan- their deliberations. lity, and STRUNG UP IN VALUE, by a series of On the 22d of December I received a cuuping legislative enactments. Every shilling that is left is then quietly drained from dispatch from Colonel Lawson, a mathe industrious classes, and twisted into the gistrate, and commanding the Saint hands of persons who have already too much ; James's regiment of militia, dated the and after this, gentlemeo gravely complain 20th, stating that on the Friday precethat money is gathered into masses, and ac- ding he met the overseer of Salt Spring use for it, and do not know what to do with it! Estate, who informed bim that on the And can any man, who sees these things, previous day the negroes had behaved possibly be insincere in the cause of reform? with great insolence to Mr. Grignon,
the attorney or chief manager of the estate ; that two constables, who had been sent to convey the ringleaders to Montego Bay, had been assaulted and deprived of pistols, with which they were armed, as well as their mules, and that the negroes had expressed their determination not to work after NewYear's-day. Mr. Grignon having to
paired to Montego Bay, a special session received an application from certain 1 of magistrates was assembled, when he magistrates and inhabitants of the parish
and other persons employed on the of Portland, desiring that a vessel of
estate gave information of the circum- war might be ordered to Port Antonio, X stances which had occurred, and of the on account of some unpleasant rumours
riotous and disorderly state of the slaves;' which had reached them of discontent in consequence of which an order was j amongst the slaves in that quarter. issued by the magistrates to Major Being in Kingston when these acCoates, as the nearest Field Officer of counts arrived, I immediately commuMilitia, to send a detachment of the nicated the information I had received to Saint James's regiment to Salt Spring Sir Willoughby Cotton. I applied to Estate, for the purpose of restoring Commodore Farquhar for a ship of war order. Major Coates immediately com- to proceed to the port of Port Antonio, mudicated the directions he had received and, as a precautionary measure, I also to Colonel Lawson, commanding the recommended that ships of war should Saint James's regiment, and who, be dispatched to Montego Bay and anxious to avoid the necessity of having Black River, which Commodore Farrecourse to the militia, and being for quhar with his usual promptitude and many years well known to the negroes attention immediately complied with. of the estate, delayed the detachment I directed circulars to be addressed to from marching, and accompanied by custodes of parishes, inclosing the King's Mr. Thorp, a neighbouring proprietor, proclamation, and also letters to be proceeded to the estate, in the hope, by written 10 the Major-Generals of the his influence, to prevail on the negroes Militia, copies of which (Nos. 1 and 2) I to return to their duty. He found enelose. the degrues assembled in groups about On the morning of the 28th I rethe buildings on the estate, and was ceived a dispatch from the Custos of
informed that the senior book-keeper Trelawny (No. 3), including one forF" had suffered ill-treatment, and that his warded him by Colonel Lawson (No.4), = life had been threatened. He endea- containing certain affidavits, copies of ** voused to expostulate with the negroes, which (Nos. 5 and 6) I herewith in-.
telling them he came as their friend, and close, and further stating, that he consi* asked them to listen to him ; they would dered the information they contained so
not, however, suffer him to approach convincing of impending danger, that them, and walked off; and finding all he had determined to assemble the ; his endeavours to restore order in- whole strength of his regiment, and efectual, he left them. Soon after, a referring to me for further instructions. party of fifty men of the militia arrived, From Mr. M.Donald, the Custos of Trewhen almost every negro on the estate lawny, I also learned that he deeply redisappeared. The next day they began gretted to find a strong spirit of insubto return, and when Colonel Lawson ordination amongst the slaves. That, wrote his dispatch, the principal offend on the 23d instant, the trash-houses on ers only, amounting to six persons, were York Estate, in Trelawny, had been absent. This conduct of the negroes pusposely burned down, and that the on Salt Spring estate, and information attorney who lives on the property was which the magistrates had received, that strongly impressed with the idea that the negroes on other estates would not they intend to burn the rest of the works. return to work after New Year's Day, One company of militia was ordered
induced the magistrates assembled at to proceed to ibis estate, but before they - Montego Bay to forward a requisition arrived, the negroes had cut down the to Major Pennefather, commanding the plantain-walk belonging to the over29d regiment, at Falmouth, to order a seer, and both men and women had detachment to march to that town, ied. which Major Pennefather immediately It happened that I had convened a complied with. On the following day 1 council on the day I received this dis
patch, for the purpose of enabling me the letters I had received, not doubting to form regulations of quarantine, should that, on their perusal, Sir Willoughby such a ineasure become necessary, by Cotton would deem it advisable to order which means an opportunity was afford- a stronger force to follow him. By ed me of conferring personally with Sir this means also, I communicated to Sir Willoughby Cotton, who came from Willoughby Cotton my intention to Kingston for the purpose of attending convene a council of war, according to the council; and being fully satisfied, the 50th George III., ch. 17. cl. 74, on from the information I had received, tlie following day, for the purpose of that nothing but prompt and decided submitting to them such information measures would arrest the spirit of in- as I possessed on the state of the subordination which prevailed so gene- country, in order to obtain their opinion rally in the parishes of St. James and on the necessity of declaring martial Trelawny, I strongly recommended Sir law. The next morning (the 30th) Sic Willoughby Cotton to proceed to Mon- Willoughby Cotton, with the detachtego Bay with as little delay as possible, ment, embarked on board the Sparroirtaking with him such an amount of hawk, sailed from Port Royal for Monforce as he might deem expedient, anti- tego Bay, and on the following morncipating that his immediate presence ing his Majesty's ship Blanche, Comwould produce the most favourable modore Farquhar, proceeded on the effect. Sir W. Cotton readily acquiesced same destination, conveying three hunin my proposal, and the following day dred inen from the 23rd and Sith rezi he embared on board his Majesty's ship ments, and sixteen artillery soldiers, with Sparrowhawk, with two companies of two eight field-pieces and rockets, &c. the 84th regiment.
I did not come to the resolution of On Thursday, the 29th, I receiveci assembling a council of war, for the various dispatches by post, the sub- purpose before stated, until I had thostance of which I enclose (No. 7), roughly satisfied my mind that the im. which I lost no time in communicating mediate exigency admitted no middle to Sir Willoughby Cotton, and imme- measures; that more than anything diately issued the accompanying M.G.O. else, it would remove an impress on, (No. 8). On the same day, at five which had been made on the minds of p. m, dispatches arrived by express, the slaves, that the Executive Governcontaining still more alarming accounts ment and the King's troops would not of the state of the country. The work oppose them. That speedy example, of destruction had begun, and fires had however greatly I must regret and debeen seen both in Saint James's and Tre- plore the necessity of resorting to it, lawny, to blaze on the preceding night, could alone save the destruction that in various directions. The Custos of had begun, and ultimately save a greater Trelawny stated that, in his opinion, effusion of blood, and likewise that nine-tenths of the slave population had under martial law alone I could obtain refused to turn out to work; and Col. complete control over the militia Lawson, instead of being able to oppose force, on whose services I must chiedig these excesses, had drawn in his regi- depend to put down this rebellion. ment to Montego Bay, and even there By the 720 clause of the act abore appeared to feel apprehension, acting referred to, your Lordship will find the only on the defensive. Not waiting to form directed for holding councils of detail this information in a letter to Sir war, and that no council shall consist Willoughby Cotton, who on account of less than twenty-one members ; on of the regular winds which prevail this occasion twenty-six persons were in this latitude could not leave Port present. I communicated to them such Royal until the following morning, I information as I possessed, and laid beimmediately dispatched Captain Ram- fore them the letters I b ad before transsay, 77th regiment, and military secre- mitted by Captain Ramsey to Sir ... tary, on board the Spar:owhawk, with loughby Cotton, copies of which (Nos.