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ple, even in England and Wales, go to to some really useful public purpose.
Will any man say it, let him be clergy of the church of England.” It is who or what he may ? notorious that, in numerous parishes, 46. At to the deans and chapters, of the churches have been suffered to what use are they to the nation ? As tumble down, and to leave scarcely a far as I have ever heard, it is not even trace behind, while the tithes do, never- pretended that they perform any duty, theless, continue to be most rigidly any services at all to the public, io exacted by the parsons. It is notorions either king or people: and, besides, that many of the parsons have several the persons who receive the revenues livings; and that many receive the of the cathedral churches have genetithes for years together, without ever rally, if not always, a parish-living, besetting their eyes on the parish. It is sides, at many miles' distance, and, notorious, that a considerable part of sometimes, two or three such livinge ! the parish-parsons are, at the same Yet, as this Second Volume of my time, colonels, captains, or subalterns work will show, the Chapters have imin the army or navy, and that they con mense estates. And is there a man on tinue to receive half-pay as such officers, earth, except he be one who gains by though the half-pay is held, by the the thing, who will say that the nation's Government, to be a retaining fee for estates ought thus to be used ? Will future service, and though the law for- even Sir Jarnes Graham say, that the bids these men ever to be military or fundholder, who has lent his money to naval officers again. Lastly, (for the those, who, in fact, enjoy the greater enumeration would never end,) it is part of these and all such like estates; notorious that a large part of these will even Sir James Graham say, that a parsons are justices of the peace, and farthing of interest ought to be deare, at the same time, rectors or vicars ducted from the fundholder, while there of several parishes each.
is any part of this public property un44. It being manifest, then, that the applied to the liquidation of the debt revenues received by these persons are due to him! not applied as they formerly were, and 47. The colleges present us with that they are not applied to any bene- another immense mass of public proficial public purpose, we must deter-perty, from which the parsons and the mine, that they ought to be otherwise aristocracy alone derive, or can, under applied ; that they ought to be applied the present regulations, derive any pos
sible advantage. The estates of these the act were effectual, the manner might colleges are very great in worth, and, be as mild as the parsons themselves of course, in yearly amount. This could have demanded, even in " Anti
is divided ainonyst parsons, Jacobin” times, when the workings of who are the schoolmasters to the aris- our avenging friend, the Debt, were not tocracy! As to the nation at large, it perceived. The degree would be a can have no share in the benefit pro- maller of more difficulty; or, I should duced by these estates, seeing, that the say, it would require a little more scholars are admitted only on such thought. There are two opinions with terms as must effectually shut out all respect to new regulations ; the one is, the oriddle and working classes. And, that there ougiit to remain no churchare we, then, going to back the men establishinent at ail, but that each sect, who would strip our neighbours, the or sort, ought to be left to provide for fundholders, while these estates remain its own religicus instructors. The other to be used for the exclusive benefit of is, that there ought to be an establishthe aristocracy and their schoolmusters ? ; ment upon an alınost apostolical allowThese estates, like all those which are ance. I'am for the former; because, as held by the rest of the clergy, are public long as there is an establishment making property ; as such they may be dealt a part of the state, there must always with by the King and Parliament. It be a contest going on amongst the would be hypocrisy, calling for the livers sects for a preference of some punishment of the cat-o'rine-tails, to kind or other. Before, however, we can pretend that this great mass of public say, what the degree of alienation or property, or, that the whole of the subtraction ought to be, we must know church establishment, all taken to- which of these two changes would be gether, is of any use to the public, as it adopted. But, one thing I am fixed on,, is now employeil. It is a large part of and that is, that I, for my own part, the property of the whole country, di- would never join in any petition to vided amongst, and enjoyed exclusively King or Parliament, for any new modelby, the aristocracy. That is the real ling or anv alienation, or subtraction, fact. The bishopricks, the parish-liv- of these public revenues, if such petition ings, the deanships, ihe stalls, the fel- stopped short of taking and applying to lowships, are, in fact, all in their gift. public purposes, nine tenths of these The property is, in short, the public's revenues, taken as a whole. in right and in naine, and the aristo 49. If any one should be disposed to cracy's in possession and enjoyment. characterise such a deduction as harsh, And, as to its being necessary for the I here, beforehand, beg leave to observe religivus instruction of the people, that to him, that I have no desire to see any is the very thing that I have showed to deduction at all, if tha nation could be false, in the very first paragraph of continue to pay the interest of the Debt the first volume of this work ; to which in full and in gold of standard weight I beg the reader to turn, if he have it and finen ss. I look upon this immense not in his recollection. In short, this is mass of public properiy as enjoyed ala great and enormous mass of public most exclusively by the aristocracy and property, now e joyed by the few; and its immediate dependents. I do not like the time is apparently not far distant, this; but, for me, let it still be thus, if when all men will be convinced of the the fundholders could continue to be necessity of applying it to purposes of paid as I have just stated. But, is there a really public nature, or, in one word, a man in the worlu, who will not say, to the liquidation of part of the Debt. that every shilling's worth of public
48. With regard 'w the inanner of property ought to be applied to the withdrawing this public property froin payment of the Debt, before a thought the control that it is at present under, he entertained of taking from those who the means would be an act of Parlia- have hy force lent their money, any ment, and, provided the provisions of portion of their right to a demand of
payment? We have seen, that Mr. account of the poverty of the state, while Ruggles insists on the right, the legal the state suffers the clergy to keep this right, of the nation to demand, that the money? Abbey-lands, that is, that all property 50. The thing called Queen Anne's seized and granted away by the “ Re- Bounty, is an annual sum taken formation” sovereigns and Parliaments, from the people, to be given to whether it consist of lay-impropriations, church parsons, in addition to all Abbey-lands, or what not, though now their monstrous revenues.
What pretty in the hands of lay persons, and deemed names they give to these things! i private property; we have seen, that he, The crown had for part of its income,
who was a land-owner, a justice, and, I the tenths and first truits of the clergy. believe a lawyer, insists, that a part of QUEEN ANNE was the sovereign wlien
even this property could be legally, and this branch of income was granted i might be justly, applied to the public away from the crown, in order to aug
purpose of relieving the poor. Now as ment the value of small livings ; but,
for me, I never wished to see proposed one good turn deserves another ; such i
any measure that shall touch property,“ generosity” in the Queen merited a which may now fairly be called private return; but, alas! the people had to 'property. Though Gud forbid the ne- make the return; and, accordingly, they cessity should arise, I have no hesitation have had to pay more to the Civil List in saying, that I would rather see even ever since, on account of this '. Bounty" the lay.impropriations and the abbey- than the “ Bounty" itself amounts to. lands resumed by act of Parliament, However here is another great annual than see an act of Parliament making a sum (in addition to the tithes and alt great deduction from the property of the other things that we have before the compulsory fundholder; and most seen) going from the pockets of the assuredly, I would much rather see people into those of the clergy. a resumption of grants by the crown of 51. Here, again, we have another the lands and houses and mines and effect of the Protestant “Reformation." other property, wbich the crown has Before that event there was no Civil granted away since the reign of Henry List. Poor-rates, Civil List, Queen VIII., out of the ancient crown estate; Anne's Bounty, Septennial Bill, Naand, as we always ought to bear in mind, rional Debt; all, yea all, are the fruit which granting away has been the cause of the event called “the Reformation;" of that continual and copious drain, the and, though the rest might, or may be Civil Lixt. But of all the horrible overcome, rue DEBT CANNOT, without things in this world, would not the most making a change in that Protestant horrible be, to borrow 1,600,0001. to church, to establish which on the ruins make a present of to the parsons of the of the Catholic church, the debt was ehurch ; and to reduce the interest of made! All history, though full of inthe Debt; that is to say, to take away stances of retribution, does not I verily a part of the property of the fundholder; (believe, throughout its thousands of to take, I say, part of his property nway volumes, furnish us with one so comwhile the clergy were suffered to keep plete, so striking, and reading to mankind the 1,600,0001.! Observe, that, during so tremendous a lesson as this. Here, at the years, during all the years, that the this moment, is England, famed, during Parliament was making the church fifty ages, for her liberties and her laws; clergy a present of 100,0001. a year, the but, still more famed for the happiness making of louns was going on: 90 that, of her people, and the plenty in which this 100,0001. a year came out of the they lived : here she is and here she has loans : it was borroiced money; the been for years, avowedly in deep distress, lender is to be paid his interest; and, engaged in contrivances for getting rid will any man say, that it is not most of her people, who are petitioning to be horrible to think of deducting from this transporteil from their native land, in interest ; to think of doing this on the hope of mending their miserable lot!
Here she is covered with the disgrace of applied to purposes really public; and, ten times the jail-room that was for as a reward for all the labour I have merly necessary, and with that of a bestowed, I am quite satisfied, with the regulation, which allots to the convicted firm belief that the day is not far off felon in her jails more and better food when the knowledge that I have comand raiinent than to the honest labour-municated, and when the principles that ing man in her woods and fields ! And, I have taught, relative to this great what is the cause of this ? The DEBT subject, will be adopted by persons in is the sole cause ; for that renders authority, and acted upon to their full monstrous taxes necessary; they render extent. a great standing army necessary ; so Here I had signed my name, and that it is the Debt, and that alone, which was about to put the date.
It was has made England the most degraded on its way from my mind to my and miserable of countries, Ireland always hand, when I stopped my hand, all excepted. And what caused the Debt ? at once, and exclaimed, “ Good God! An act of Parliament for the making of " the ninth of July! the anniversary loans and paper-inoney. And for what “ of my sentence of two years' imwere loans and paper-money made ? “ prisonment in a felon's jail, with a Why, the very act itself declares, that “ fine of a thousand pounds to the King, they were made for the purposes of “ and, at the end of the two years, with waging a war, in order “ to keep out“ seven years' bail, myself in three
Popery, and to preserve the Protestant thousand pounds and two sureties in “ church as by law established ;" so a thousand pounds each; and all this that the Debt is an invention and insti.“ monstrous punishment for having extution as purely Protestant as half-pay" pressed my indignation at Englishparsons are, or as is the tread-mill itself. men having been flogged, in the heart And, at last, that Debt, that Protestant" of England, under a guard of German Debt which was created for the declared, troops ! Good God!" exclaimed I nay, the boasted, purpose of preserving again; “ What! am I, on the anniver. this church, now threatens this very sary of that day, which called forth church with destruction ; now fixes its “ the exultation of the Hampshire eyes on the property of that church as parsons, who (though I had never the first thing to Hy to in case of ne committed any offence, in private life, cessity; and that such necessity will and“ against any one of them) crowed out must arise, and is even now at hand,“ aloud, in the fulness of their joy, where is the man of sense who does " • Ha! he's gone for ever! He will not believe? And, where is the just " never trouble us any more!' and who, man who will not say, that those who“ in a spirit truly characteristic of their have lent their money for the waging of " corps, actually had, as a standing wars to “keep out Popery," ought not“ toast, • Disgrace to the Memory of to be bilked of one farthing of their de- " Cobbett.'—What!" exclaimed I again, mand, while there is left to the Protest-" and am I, on the anniversary of that ant clergy a single ear of wheat, or a " very day, putting the finishing hand; single blade of grass?
yea, sending from under my fingers 52. Here I conclude. I have (in the “ to the press, the last, the very last, first volume) given a history of the “ words, the completing words, the manner in which church-property had “ closing point, of a work which does been dealt with heretofore. In this " the Job for them and for all their second volume I give an account of the “ tribe ; of the former part of which property, show the worth of it, and who work, I, myself, have sold forty thouhas it. In this INTRODUCTION I have " sand copies, containing six hundred endeavoured to show, that it is just and“ and forty thousand Numbers; and reasonable that the immense muss which " which work is now sold in English, still continues to be public property • in two stereotyped editions in the ought to be dealt with again, and legally" United States of America ; which
work has been published at Madrid have beeu in office, that questions which have "and at New York in Spanish, at Paris, so long agitated the country should be brought “ Geneva and Alost in French, at Co- (Hear, hear.). It is true that I feel with the
to an inmediate and satisfactory conclusion. logne in German, and at Rome in noble Duke the necessity und the importance " Italian ; and all this took place just of providing peace for Ireland, and our object " about sixteen years after these Hainp is to settle one question at least in such a man
ner as will conduce to the safety of the coun: "shire parsons had taken for a stand.
try and the maintenance of all its institutions. "ing toast, Disgrace to the Memory The report of the committee to which the " of Cobbett !'” And, then, feeling question of tithes has been referred will be health and vigour in every vein and in presented without delay, and we hope soou to
follow it with such a measure as will place the every nerve ; seeing, lying before me,
great interests of the country on a proper and manuscript (equal to twenty pages of settled basis. (Hear, hear.) print) written by me this very day ; The Marquis of LANSDOWNe said that the knowing the effects which in ihe end evidence takeu before the committee had not that manuscript must have on these par- therefore, it was impossible that the measure
been communicated to the other House, and, sons, and the great good that it must to be founded upon such evidence could be indo to the nation ; reflecting, feeling, troduced yet for a few days. seeing, knowing, thus it is that I, in jus The Duke of WELLINGTON -My Lords, I tice to our pious, sincere, brave, and have not had an opportunity—I have in a man
per evaded the having the opportunity-and I wise forefathers, and in compassion to have, up to this time, avoided sayiug one my suffering countrymen, and to the word on the subject of tithes. (Hear.) It children of us all, send this little volume was not, my Lords, my intention to deliver forth to the world.
one word on that question until the noble Earl WM. COBBETT.
brought forward the measure which he said
was in contemplation, and which we all supKensington, 9th July, 18:27.
posed was to originate in the report of the
committee to whom so important a topic had HOUSE OF LORDS.
been coufided. (Hear.) But when I hear,
my Lords, a noble Earl state that when the February 28.
present Administration came into office it
found all the difficulties now prevailing in IRISH TITHES.
Irelaud in active existence, and that no meaThe Duke of BUCKINGHan said he did not sure had been adopted by any previous Gowish to raise a discussion of explanation rela-vernment to remove them, I, who have betive to the intended measure of Government longed to previous Administratious, and who on the subject of lithes in Ireland, given by was a member of that Government to which two members of the Administration, between the noble Earl succeeded—I cannot, I say, sit whose statements no slight discrepancy pre by and lis:en to such assertions without giving vailed, but he wished to remind the noble Earl a direct coulradiction to them. (Cheers.) I that Irelanıl was in the most disastrous con- caupon refrain from stating the fact, that dition, and that the suoner whatever nieasure until the period when the noble Earl took on he had to produce was matured the beiter. At himself the management of affairs, we never the same time he desired to know when the heard of disturbances on account of tithes proposed measure was likely to come before since the time that the Consposition Act, wbich
had been brought into the other House by an Earl Grey—My Lords, all I can say, in honourable frieud and colleague of nine, put answer to the question of the noble Duke, is, an end to all difficulties on that subject. (Hear, that the measure on which lois Majesty's Go- hear.) And as a proof that I am stating novernment have agreed is in a forward state ; thing but the fact, so far as the effects of the but as the noble Duke knows that it must bill are concerned, I can prove to your Lordoriginate in the other House, some little time ships thai more thau two-thirds of the whole must elapse before it can be laid on your value of the livings in Ireland are governed Lordships' table. My Lords, I a.n aware of by the Composition Act. (Hear.) Wbat. my unhappy circumstances which at present affect Lords, is the cause of the present state of the a part of Ireland, and I am most auxious to tithe question ? Why is it that the clergy in apply a remedy, but I must say the difficulties Ireland are unable to collect their rights? under which that couutry Jabours have not Aod why is it that the attention of this House been produced by us-they have existed under is called, nut to consider a measure brought previous Administratious, and our predeces- forward on the responsibility of bis Majesty's sors were unable to provide a renedy for Government, but to consider the subject of thern. (Hear, hear.) Indeed, my Lords, it is eithes as a new question ? (Hear.) My Lords, too much to expect from his Majesty's present I think I can tell you. It is, my Lords, the Goverumeut, consideriug the short time we encouragement given to agitativu throughout