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DONE, or, at any rate, attempted to be artillery as may be necessary to - done, if I have a seat in the House of maintain the arsenals at the seaCommons in the reformed Parliament. ports in a state of readiness for And, now, having given the history of war; and to abolish the military these lectures, I shall here insert a report academies, and dispose of all barof the first of them.

racks and other property now ap

plied to military uses.

3. To make the counties, each according MANCHESTER LECTURES.

to its whole number of members of

parliament, maintain and equip a LECTURE I.

body of militia, horse as well as 26th December, 1831. foot and artillery, at the county Gentlemen of MANCHESTER,

expense, and to have these bodies, I am here for the purpose of main- as they are in America, mustered taining, in the presence and hearing of at stated periods; so that at any the inhabitants of the most intelligent time, a hundred thousand efficient town in the kingdom, those propositions,

men may be ready to come into the which I some time ago put forth in an field, if the defence of the kingdom address to the reformers of this town,

require it. who had sent to me an expression of 4. To abolish tithes of every descriptheir intention to put me in nomination tion; to leave to the clergy the as a member of Parliament, whenever

churches, the church-yards, the the Reform Bill should give them the

parsonage houses, and the ancient power of choosing one. Upon an occa

glebes ; and, for the rest, leave sion of so much importance to the

them to the voluntary contributions country, as well as to myself, I thought of the people. it necessary to state, in the most distinct 5. To take all the rest of the property, manner, the ternis upon which I would

commonly called church-property; undertake the honourable, yet arduous all the houses, lands, manors, tolls, task which had been tendered to me. rents, and real property of every These terms I stated in thirteen propo- kind, now possessed by bishops, sitions, to which I now add another,

chapters, or other ecclesiastical bomaking fourteen propositions; and I dies, and all the misapplied proam now here to submit to you, with the perty of corporate bodies of every greatest respect and deference, that

sort; and also all the property called statement of facts and those arguments crown-lands, or crown-estates, inwhich occurred to my mind when I

cluding that of the Duchies of Cornput forth the propositions ; and which, wall and Lancaster; and sell thein when submitted to you, will, I trust, all, and apply the proceeds to the convince you of the reasonableness, the

discharge of the Debt which the justice, the necessity, and the practica

late parliaments contracted with bility of the measures propounded in the fundholders. those propositions ; which, with your 6. To cease, during the first six months permission, I will now read to you. after June, 1832, to pay interest on 1. To put an end to all pensions, sine- a fourth part of the debt; second

cures, grants, allowances, half-pay, six months, to cease to pay interest and all other emoluments now paid on another fourth ; and so on for out of the taxes, except for such the other two fourths ; so that no public services as, upon a very

more interest, or any part of the scrupulous examination, shall be debt, would be paid after the end found fully to merit them; and to

of two years. reduce all salaries to the American 7. To divide the proceeds of all the prostandard.

perty mentioned in paragraph No. 2. To discharge the standing army, ex- 5, and also in paragraph No. 2, in

cept such part of the ordnance and due proportion, on principles of equity, amongst the owners of what mily; to leave to him the unis called stock, or, in other words, shackled freedom of appointing all the fundholders, or persons who his servants, whether of his house lent their money to those who bor- hold or of his public ministry ; to rowed it in virtue of acts of the late leave to him the full control over parliaments, and to give to the his palaces, gardens, and parks, as fùndholders, out of the taxes, no- land-owners have over their estates; thing beyond these proceeds.

to take care that he be not worried 8. To make an equitable adjustment with intrigues to purloin from him

with respect to the pecuniary con- that which the people give him for tracts between man and man, and his own enjoyment; so that he may thereby rectify, as far as practicable, be, in all respects, what the Chief the wrongs and ruin inflicted on of a free people ought to be, his thousands upon thousands of vir- name held in the highest honour, tuous families by the arbitrary and his person held sacred, as the changes made by acts of the late great guardian of the people's parliaments, in the value of the rights. money of the country.

13. To make an accurate valuation of 9. To abolish all internal taxes (except all the houses, lands, mines, and

on the land), whether direct or in- other real property, in each county direct, including stamp-taxes of in the whole kingdom; to impose every description; and to impose a tax upon that property, to be paid such a postage-charge for letters quarterly, and in every county on as to defray the real expenses of an the same day, and in such manner economical and yet efficient post- as to cost in the collection, or, office establishment, and no more ; rather, payment, not more than so that the postage would be merely four hundred pounds a year in any a payment for the conveyance of one county ; to make the rate and letters, and not a tax.

amount of this tax vary with the 10. To lay just as much custom-house wants of the state, always taking

duty on importations as shall be care to be amply provided with found conducive to the benefit of means in case of war, when war the navigation, commerce, and

shall be demanded by the safety, manufactures of the kingdom, the interest, or the honour of the viewed as a whole, and not to lay kingdom. on one penny more.

14. To cause the PROTESTANT HIER11. To make effectual provision, in ARCHY to be legally repealed and

every department, for the main- abolished in Ireland ; and to cause tenance of a powerful navy; to the Parliament of the whole kinggive such pay and such an allot- dom to hold its sessions, and the ment of prize-money to the seaman King to hold his Court in IRELAND as to render impressment wholly once in every three years; and to unnecessary; to abolish the odious cause the same to take place in the innovation of naval academies, and city of York once in every three re-open the door of promotion to years, and also in the city of Salisskill and valour, whether found in BURY, once in every three years. the heirs of nobles, or in the sons I am well aware, gentlemen, that, of the loom or of the plough ; to upon hearing these propositions read, abolish all military Orders, and to many will be disposed to exclaim “What place the navy next in honour to a visionary this man must be!” the throne itself.

well aware of this : but, it is a great 12. To make a legal, a fixed, and a change which we want : something very

generous allowance to the King, great must be done ; and, as to the proand, through him, to all the positions being visionary, are they more branches and members of his fa- visionary than the man would have been

am

deemed, who, thirty or forty years ago, crifices of all sorts, in order to ensure should have predicted many things of the attainment of these objects; if, at which we now behold the sad reality ? that time, some one had said, “the The fourteenth proposition will, I dare peace will bring you neither indemsay, appear to many more visionary than" nity nor security; you will have to all the rest ; but, let some one then, even “ maintain a regular army of 100,000 that sensible Lord Althorp, who has re- men, besides 10,000 Bourbon gencently been engaged in so dignified a darmerie; you will have to maintain correspondence with certain persons in “ what they will call a dead weight, this county, tell us wuAT CAN BE DONE " which shall surpass, in expense annuwith IRELAND, which, you will please “ally, the whole revenue of this happy to observe, is far too great to be treated " kingdom at the time when his preas if it were insignificant ; and with re. “ sent Majesty was born; you will find gard to which the Ministers know not “this, indeed, a very lively weight, what to do, any more than I should be “though called a dead one, and find it able to obey an order to take this house singularly prolific; though dead, it and fling it into the air. However, my “ will breed exceedingly; you will have reasons for proposing these measures to maintain the widows and the chilwith respect to Ireland, I shall have“ dren of the men, and lest the burden hereafter fully to state.

" should cease, at some time or other, As to the propositions being visionary, “the old men will be allowed to sell if any person had, thirty years ago, pre- “ their half-pay to young men, which dicted that we should, in the year 1831," these young men may repeat when see a half-military police established in “ they become old, and thus the burden England; dressed in uniform, and in “ wiil remain stuck upon your chilnumbers so great as to constitute a real " dren's children.” arıny, formed into companies and bat- If, I say, any one had foretold this at talions, put under leaders with military the time when Pitt was promising intitles, marching rank and file: in short, demnity for the past and security for the if any one had told me, thirty years ago, future, and was making this credulous that I should live to see a Bourbon gen- nation believe that the monstrous sacridarmerie established in London, with a fices which it was making during the lieutenant de police, together with all war would lead to a peace that would the rest of these things, for which, from enable every man to sit under his own my childhood, I had been taught to hold vine and his own fig tree, without any the Bourbons in contempt and abhor- one to make him afraid : if at that time rence; if any man had told me this in any one had told the nation that this the year 1800, I should have deemed standing army, this gendarmerie and him a visionary indeed; I should have this dead-weight, would be the result of turned from him as a person unworthy the war, he would have been prosecuted of attention. Yet, we have seen this as a stirrer-up of sedition, or pitied as a horrid thing come to pass; and we have maniac. Yet we have seen these things, seen a hundred English parishes bur- and see them yet; we have found them dened enormously for the maintenance to be no vision, but a cruel reality, under of this army; burdened much more which we are writhing.

If any one than for the maintenance of the poor. If, had at that time foretold that the peace only a very few years before the late establishment, military and naval, would war, some one had predicted that there cost the nation a great deal more an, would be established in England a nually than the annual cost of army and standing army of 100,000 men ; nay, if navy during the war with the revolted some one had predicted during the last states of America, when England had war, it the time when Pitt was promis- not only to carry on a war against those ing us a peace that should give us in- states, but against France, Spain, and demnity for the past and security for the Holland, at the same time; if any one future, and calling upon us to make sa- had foretold this at that time, he would

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have been treated as a visionary; yet church and state ; if, at that time, when such is the case, and the annual expense a reformer could not move without a of army and nary, at the end of sixteen bayonet being presented at his breast, or years of peace, exceeds that of any year a halter being shaken in his face; if at that of war against the revolted states of time, the wise men of Gotham, being so America, including the war against the assembled as aforesaid, to express their three great countries before-mentioned; unshaken attachment to things as they a fact which, of itself, is more than suf were, and their resolution to use all the ficient to convince any sensible inan that means in their power to put down and this system must be totally changed, annihilate those seditious men who were before any one can hope to see real peace crying for Parliamentary Reform; if and prosperity in England.

some one had stepped into the MansionIf

, forty-five years ago, any one had house, and had just said, “My Lord told Mr. Elman, a very celebrated “ Mayor, it will be better not to issue farmer in Sussex, who gave evidence " these declarations ; for, in just fourbefore a committee of the House of “ teen years from this day, these very Commons in 1521, and who told that “ bankers and merchants of London, committee, that when he began business “ will meet in this very place, and will as a farmer, every man in the parish “ send forth addresses to the King, in brewed his own beer, and drank it with " which they will bully the Lords for his family by his own fire-side; and that " not consenting to a Parliamentary ReNOW (in 1821) not one single man in “ form much more extensive than that that parish did it, except a servant or two " which would satisfy the present reof his own to whom he gave the malt “ formers !” — " Turn him out!” as a present. If any one had, at the “* Knock him down!”—“ He's a partime when Mr. Elman began business as son!”—Something of this sort would a farmer, told him, that before his farm- have taken place to a certainty ; the ing would be over, he would see the bankers and merchants of London, not people of his parish become so miserable being remarkable for their forbearance, as hardly to know the taste of beur, and when they possess power, and when to be compelled to drink water and eat their adversary is feeble. Yet, we have potatoes, he would have turneit from seen even this take place; and, in that the prophet with disgust: visionary very Mansion-house, we have heard would have been an appellation much speeches against the Lords, and particutoo mild to be applied to such a person, Tarly against the Bishops, more infiamyet this horrid state of things has come matory than any-where else. to pass; and this state of things we Therefore, gentleman, I am not to be must change, or else Parliamentary Re- deterred by the imputation of visionary form will be a mockery and a delusion. as applied to me on account of those

One more instance, not going so far propositions, which I shall suffer still to back. If, in the memorable year 1817, be called visionary it any one choose so when the bankers and merchants of to call them, but I am perfectly satisLondon, with their surprisingly wise fied that the measures which they deLord Mayor at their head, were assem- scribe must be a:lopted, or that the rebled in what they call their Mansion- form which is talked of will be a conhouse, to address the King, and petition temptible delusion. A great many peothe Parliament, in approbation of the ple inistake the Reform Bill for reform Power of Imprisonment Bills, and the itself ; and a very great mistake it is. Dungeon Bill, and the Gagging Bill, as The Reform Bill furnishes the means of

means absolutely necessary to put making the reform. A reform means a down those turbulent men, whó, under change for the better ; and, in this case, pretence of seeking reform of Parlia- the change must be very great to be of ment, were, in fact, seeking to accom- any use at all. A great many people plish the treasonable design of over- seem to imagine, or, at least, they act, tbruwing our happy constitution in as if they imagined, that the mere

being

a

sound of reform would be sufficient, word economy will not keep such a man without any proceedings to produce a out of the Gazette. It must be real change in the state of the country. The economy: there must be 201. a year Ministers themselves appear to be given for a house to live in instead of amongst these persons ; for you never thousand; otherwise the word economy hear from their lips any thing seeming is a delusion. to indicate that they look upon it as ne- Such is our case now. If the Reform cessary that some great change should Bill be to leave the system of sway take place in the manner of managing that which it now is; if the same sort the affairs of the country. Yet, if some of management of our affairs be to go great change do not take place, in this on after that bill shall have passed, as respect, I am perfectly convinced that is going on now; and really, to judge the passing of the Reform Bill would from the language of the Ministers, one lead to disappointinent and discontent, would say that they contemplate no such as must plunge the country into change; if the tithes and taxes be still 'utter confusion. Does any one believe to remain such as they now are ; if a that the mere sound of the word Reform Bourbon gendarmerie be still to dog our will quiet the country? That, when steps, and stop us when they like at any the trader, who feels the work of ruin hour of the day and night; if the Eng. atill proceeding, is told, in order to pacify lishmen, who do all the work, be still him, not' to complain now, for that we doomed to live on potatoes and water, have got reform: does any one think, while those who take from them the that that will make him submit to his fruit of their labour, are living on all the ruin without further complaint ? When choice products of the earth; if Eng. the hungry and angry half-starved la- lishmen and women be still harnessed boarers complain of their sufferings, and and made to draw like beasts of burare ready to break out into acts of violence den; if a reformed Parliament cannot find will they be quieted by telling them, the means of protecting the dead bodies that they must not complain now, for of the working poor, while such ample that we have got reform; will they, at means are found for protecting the dead the sound of that word, cease to har- body of a hare, a pheasant, or a partbour vindictive thoughts relative to ridge; then, indeed, the bishops did those whom they deem their oppressors ? right in opposing the Reform Bill; Oh, no! the reform must be something for a greater delusion, a greater fraud, more than a bill, something more than never was attempted to be practised on a bit of printed paper; it must, to be any part of mankind. Let me stop productive of harmony, cause some here, gentlemen, to request your partithing to be done to better the state of cular attention to this matter relating to the people; and, in order to do this, it the want of law to protect the dead-bomust produce, and quickly too, not only dies of the working-people. You all a change in the management of the af- know, or, at least, every Englishman fairs of the country, but a very great ought to know, that for an unqualified ekange. When a man is brought by person to have in his possession, the his extravagance to the verge of insol- body of a hare, pheasant, or partridge, vency; when, having been puffed up by was, a few months back, a crime, puPitt's paper, and pulled down by Peel's nishable by fine or imprisonment; that bill, he sees bankruptcy staring him in to have in his possession wires, or other the face, it is not savings in the articles implements, for taking any of these of salt and pepper that will rescue him wild animals, is still a crime, punishable from his embarrassments. Oh, no! the, in the same manner; that, to be out in turtle, the wine, the coach, the horses, the night in pursuit of, and seeking after, the footmen and grooms and lady's maids the bodies of either of these wild animust go, and even the house, the fine mals, and carrying with him the implehouse itself, and the pianos and the mu- ments where with to take or kill them, is sic-masters, most all disappear. The still a crime, punishable with transport

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