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בְרֵעֵךְ עֶר שָׁקֶר
17 לֹא תַחְמֹר בֵּית רֵעֶךָ ס לֹא־תַחְמד אֵשֶׁת רעך וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וָחֲמוֹו וְכָל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֲךָ : שביעי 18 וְכָל־הָעָם ראִים אֶת־הַקוֹלת וְאֶת־הַלַפִּילִם וְאֵת קול
הַשׂפָּר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשָׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּגֶעוּ וְיַעַמְדוּ מֵרָחק: 19 וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל-משֶׁה דַבֶּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעֶה וְאַל־ יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת: 20 וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל־ הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסְוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־־פְנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֵחֵטָאוּ :
21 וַיַּעַמְד, הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־ מפטיר שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים :
22 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל-משֶׁה כה תאמֶר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם כִּי מִן־ הַשָּׁמַיִם דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם: 23, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם : 24 מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעַשֶׂה־־לי וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת־עלֹתֶיךָ וְאֶת־־שְׁלָמִיךְ אֶת־צֵאנְךָ וְאֶת־בְּקָרְךָ בְּכָל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת־ שְׁמִי אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךְ :
וְאִם־מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִי לְא־תִבְנֶה אֶתְהֶן בְּוֵית כִּי חַרְבְּךָ הֵגַפְתָּ עָלֶיהָ וַתְּחַלְלֶהָ: 26 וְלֹא־תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלַת עַל־מִזְבְּחִי אֲשֶׁר
לֹא־תִגְלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ עָלָיו :
כא סדר משפטי
וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׁים לִפְנֵיהֶם: 2 כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עַבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְׁבִעַת יָצָא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם : 3 אִם־בְּגַפּוֹ יָבא בְּגַפּוֹ יצא אִם־בַּעַל אִשָּׁה הוּא וְיִצְאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ עָמְוֹ: 4 אִם־אֲדֹנָיו יִתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה וְיָלְדָה־ לְוֹ בָנִים אוֹ בָנוֹת הָאִשֶׁה וִילָדֶיהָ תִּהְיֶה לַאדֹנֶיהָ וְהוּא יצא בְגַפּוֹ : 5 וְאִם־אָמַר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד אָהַבְתִּי אֶת־ אֲדֹנִי אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי וְאֶת־בָּנָי לֹא אֵצֵא חָפְשִׁי: 6 וְהִגִישָׁו
22 And let the priests also which for I the LORD thy God am a come near to the Lord, sanctify jealous God, visiting the iniquity themselves, lest the LORD break of the fathers upon the children forth upon them.
unto the third and fourth generu23 And Moses said unto the tion * of them that hate me: LORD, The people cannot come
6 And shewing mercy unto up to mount Sinai: for thou thousands of them that love me, chargedst us, saying, Set bounds and keep my commandments. about the mount to sanctify it. 7 Thou shalt not take the name
24 And the LORD said unto him, of the Lord thy God in vain : for Away, get thee down, and thou the Lord will not hold him guiltshalt come up, thou, and Aaron less that taketh his name in vain. with thee: but let not the priests
8 Remember the sabbath-day, and the people break through, to to keep it holy. come up unto the LORD, lest he 9 Six days shalt thou labour, break forth
and do all thy work. 25 So Moses went down unto 10 But the seventh day is the the people, and spake unto them. sabbath of the LORD thy God: in CHAP. XX.
it thou shalt not do any work, 1 The ten commandments. 22 Idola thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughtry forbidden. 24 Of what sort
ter, thy man-servant, nor thy the altar should be.
maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor
thy stranger that is within thy gates. AND God spake all these words, , 11 For in six days the LORD saying,
made heaven and earth, the sea, 2 I am the LORD thy God, and all that in them is, and rested which have brought thee out of the seventh day: wherefore the the land of Egypt, out of the house LORD blessed the sabbath-day, and of bondage.
hallowed it. 3 Thou shalt have no other gods 12 | Honour thy father and before me.
thy mother : § that thy days may 4 Thou shalt not make unto be long upon the land which the thee any graven image, or any LORD thy God giveth thee. likeness of any thing that is in 13 Thou shalt not kill. heaven above, or that is in the 14 Thou shalt not commit adulearth beneath, or that is in the tery, water under the earth.
15 Thou shalt not steal. 5 Thou shalt not bow down 16 Thou shalt not bear false thyself to them, nor serve them : witness against thy neighbour.
This text hath greatly puzzled the expositors; and, as far as is come to my knowledge, nothing satisfactory hath been advanced to elucidate it. I had therefore purposed to pass it over in silence, sensible that I could not add any thing more satisfactory than what had been already said on the sübject ; but, finding, by Dr. Priestley's Letters to the Jews, (second Letter, page 15,) that be understands the meaning of these words to refer to the third or fourth generation only; and having also learned that this is generally admitted to be the meaning of this text, which to me seems quite erroneous, I think it incumbent on me to assign the reasons on which I ground my dissent; which will naturally lead me to submit a new paraphrase on so obscure a passage. But, as my limits here, will not permit me to enter fully on this inysterious subject, I therefore purpose offering my explanations at the conclusion of the book of Exodus; where will also be given, the dialogue between Rabenu Seadiah and one of the Caraim called Ben Sita, of the meaning of verses 23-26, of the next chapter.
The honour which is to be paid to parents, as a debt of nature, implies in it affection and gratitude, reverence and submission, concealing or extenuating their imperfections, and vindicating their personal honour, so far as right and the truth of the case will admit; obedience to their commands to the utmost extent of rational and just authority, and whenever it is wanted through a decay of their worldly subscance, the infirmities of age, or any other of the incident misfortunes or calamities of life, affording them in proportion to our ability and rank an honourable subsistence.
22 וְנִסְ הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנְנָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדְּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה: 23 וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֹא־יוּכַל הָעָם לעֲלֹת אֶל־הַר סִינָי כִּי־אַתָּה הַעֶרְתָה בָּנוּ לֵאמֹר הַנְבֵּל אֶת־־הָהָר וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ : 24 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה לֶךְ-רֵד וְעָלִיתָ אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן עַמָּךְ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם אַל־יִהֶרְסָוּ
לַעֲלֹת אֶל־יְהוָה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּם : 25 ירֶד משֶׁה אֶל־ נ הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם
וַיְדַבֵּר אֶלהים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר:
2 אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים: 3 לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־־פּני: 4 לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶלי וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ: 5 לֹא־־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם
לָהֶם וְלֹא הָעֶבְרֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פּקֵד עֲוֹן אָבָת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שְׁלֶשים וְעַל־רְבֵּעִים לְשְׂנְאָי : 6 יְעשֶׁה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשָׁמְרֵי מִצְוֹתָי:
7 לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־ שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־ יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא : 8 זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ: 9 שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֵּךְ ; 10 וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךְ־וּבְפֶךְ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיך : 11 כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־ הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בִּרְךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ :
12 כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךְ וְאֶת־אִמָּךְ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ : 13 לא תִּרְצָח:
14 לא תִּנְאָף : 15 לא תִּגְנֹב :
peculiar treasure unto me above all stoned, or shot through: whether it people: for all the earth is mine. be beast or, man, it shall not live :
6 And ye shall be unto me a when the trumpet soundeth long, kingdom of priests, and an holy they shall come up to the mount. nation. These are the words which 14 | And Moses went down thou shalt speak unto the children from the mount unto the people, of Israel.
and sanctified the people, and 7 9 And Moses came and called they washed their clothes. for the elders of the people, and laid 15 And he said unto the people, before their faces all these words Be ready against the third day! which the LORD commanded him.
come not at your wives. 8 And all the people answered 16 And it came to pass, on the together, and said, All that the third day in the morning, that there Lord hath spoken, we will do. were thunders and lightnings, and And Moses returned the words of a thick cloud
upon the mount, and the people unto the LORD.
the voice of the trumpet exceeding 9° And the LORD said unto loud: so that all the people that Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a was in the camp, trembled. thick cloud, that the people may 17 And Moses brought forth hear when I speak with thee, and the people out of the camp to believe thee for ever. And Moses meet with God, and they stood told the words of the people unto at the nether part of the mount. the LORD. *
18 And mount Sinai was al10 | And the LORD said unto together on a smoke, because the Moses, Go unto the people, and LORD descended upon it in fire: and sanctify them to-day and to-mor- the smoke thereof ascended as the row, and let them wash their smoke of a furnace, and the whole clothes.
mount quaked greatly. 11 And be ready against the 19 And when the voice of the third day: for the third day the trumpet sounded long and waxed LORD will come down in the sight louder and louder, Moses spake, of all the people, upon mount and God answered him by a voice. S Sinai.
20 And the LORD came down 12 And thou shalt set bounds upon mount Sinai, on the top of unto the people round about, the mount: and the LORD. called saying, Take heed to yourselves, Moses up to the top of the mount, that ye go not up into the mount, and Moses went up. or touch the border of it: whoso- 21 And the LORD said unto ever toucheth the mount, shall be Moses, Go down, charge the surely put to death:
people, lest they break through 13 There shall not an hand unto the LORD, to gaze, and many touch it, but he shall surely be of them perishi.
* This verse requireth an explanation; for, as it stands, it is not intelligible: and it appears as if there were a mistake; for, as the Lord spoke last, it might be suppossd it ought to be, “ And Moses told the words of the Lord unto the people. Therefore, to make it intelligible, i conceive the sentences must be transposed, agreeable to the following translation, “And after Moses bad told the words of the people unto the Lord, then the Lord said unto Moses, &c." And the meaning of this verse is this : Moses delivered a message to the Lord from the people, but what it was is not mentioned; however, as the Lord answers him that he would make them all prophets for a while, that thereby they mighi be convinced within themselves of the certainty that it was God that spoke with them, it is to be supposed, that the message, that Moses delivered to the Lord from the people, was the abovementioned doubt they had of the truth of Moses's mission. Aben Ezra.
Rabbi Bechayea observes that this was a must wonderful thing, that all Israel should be able to hear the voice of Moses, especjally when the voice of the trumpet sounded; and which might naturally have bindered them from hearing Moses, but God was pleased to assist him therein,