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without shoes and stockings, some with short and ragged clothes, and legs exposed to the knee. The people seem to go all by extremes; and yet in our congregations, all seem decent and clean. They appear to be truly pious, and separated from the world. To look at the houses, squares, public walks, &c. one would think this the most wealthy city in the world. And yet my host says, many of the people that make such a show are poor, and many that can hardly raise the rent of a fine house, will receive company, and be most extravagantly profuse in loading their table. He says, the visit of His Majesty to Dublin will almost ruin it; for the inhabitants will make such splendid preparations, the influx of strangers will be so great, and they will be entertained in such a manner as the men of Dublin cannot support.
“ Tues. 26.- At seven in the morning I took coach for Carlow, nearly fifty English miles, and arrived there at half-past two. The coaches are better managed, and the driving is more regular than in England; and the roads are the best I ever saw for so great a distance. From Dublin to this place, there are not a hundred yards of bad road. Carlow is the county town, and contains about 7000 inhabitants, of whom I suppose 6000 at least are Papists. We have a neat chapel, and about forty in society. In the evening preached at Carlow.
“Wed. 27.—Rose at two in the morning, and took the mail at half-past three, for Waterford, where I preached in the evening.
“ Thurs. 28.-Set out for Clonmell, in the county of Tipperary, at eight in the morning; had a pleasant ride on a most excellent road, chiefly along the banks of the river Suir, which falls into the sea eight miles below Waterford. The houses and cottages on the road are better than I have yet seen in any part of the country, being generally whitewashed on the outside. Clonmell is the county town, and contains 15,000 inhabitants, not more than one in ten being Protestants. When I arrived, the two preachers were waiting to receive me; and conveyed me to the house of Mr. Higgins, a kind, pious, and sensible young man, a batchelor.
I feel truly thankful that I am an Englishman, and have such a sense of the degrading tendency of Popery as I never had before. The lower classes of the Popish
population are held in a state of the lowest degradation. They are perfect slaves indeed, not only to divers lusts and passions, but also to their priests, who call them * poor devils,' and often literally whip them. Never did I see any human countenances so disagreeable as those of many of these people. Negroes, Hottentots, and Chinese are beauties in comparison with them. I cannot describe their faces. They are wretchedly poor, and dirty beyond description. They are too indolent to wash themselves, or to wash and mend their clothes, so that they are only balf covered with rags. Few of them wear stockings or shoes; and their legs are exposed as high as their knees before, and to their hams behind ; nor do they seem to think any thing of it, either old or young.
Hundreds of cabins have neither chimney nor window. The door is the only avenue to let in the family, the pig, &c. and to let out the smoke. Of course, in the day-time, they have no light, but what passes in at the door. The floor is mud or earth; and the walls are of the same material. Many of them have no proper bed, but lie upon straw, and their pigs with them. I have also seen goats in their houses, which some of them keep, and use the milk.
“I am sure these people need Missionary labours full as much as the Africans. I was surprised and pleased to see the contrast which our congregations form to what has been described. They were most respectable in appearance, neat, clean, well-dressed, even genteel, and really seem much devoted to God. The country is capable of great improvement, and if properly managed, would be very productive.
“ Frid 29th, being St. Peter's and St. Paul's day, immense crowds flocked to mass. The large Popish chapel which is said to hold 4000 was filled, and also a very extensive yard that will contain as many more,— all upon
their knees on the ground during mass. On this occasion two men guarded the door into the yard, and no one was permitted to enter it, without paying something. They received the offerings in large buckets.
“At seven this morning, I preached at Clonmell; and at two, set off for Cashel, where I arrived at five, dined at six, and preached at seven. In this ancient city and Archbishop's see, I had seventy hearers, more than oneeighth of the Protestants, out of a population of 7000. Here potatoes of the best quality are three farthings per stone ; lamb, 34d. ; beef, 2d.; pork, 2d. p fb.; eggs, forty-eight for a shilling; fowls, from 4d. to 6d. each; and yet the poor people live upon potatoes, and some of them can get only one meal a-day. No idea can be formed of the miserable circumstances and appearance of the
poor Catholics, by those who have not seen them : almost naked, living in miserable cabins, in society with their pigs, lying upon straw, &c. But the Protestants who live in towns only, for they cannot live in the country, are like a different caste; good houses, decent in their dress, &c. so that, though our congregations are but small, compared with those in England, they look even more respectable.
“ Sat. 30.-Preached at Cashel at seven in the morning. In the course of the day, Mrs. Upton, her son, and two daughters, accompanied me to Thurles, where we stayed an hour. Here are miserable cabins, a monastery, nunnery, friary, chapel, and about 5000 inhabitants, and not above fifty men Protestants. Oh! what a horrible place, and what terrible countenances! Here Popery appears in all its splendour: their public buildings are grand and extensive; but oh, what misery appeared in the poor, half-naked inhabitants! In the evening I preached at Templemore.
“I have now been a week in Ireland. I have had rather too much travelling, yet hope I have been of some use. The spirit of the Irish preachers is excellent: they appear to be men of God. But they have
difficulties we know nothing of in England. I have been much affected with the degraded, miserable state of the poor Catholics. Their condition and degradation are such as I had no conception of, before I saw it with my own eyes. Lord, have mercy upon them!
“Sun. July 1, at ten o'clock preached at Templemore to a lovely congregation. In this town there are many Protestants. It is superior in appearance to most small English towns. I was entertained at Mr. Banks's, a gentleman formerly in the army, and who appears to be a Christian of the first rank. His house, gardens, &c. are like an earthly paradise. Gideon Ouseley, and three other preachers, breakfasted with me. At half-past three
I arrived at Roscrea, where I preached at six. Here Messrs. Averill and Co. have taken away two-thirds of the Society. The Clonites endeavour to create prejudice against us by representing the English Methodists as fallen, and the preachers as proud, high, and without piety and zeal. They have publicly represented the Irish preachers who remain in the Connexion as disaffected, and enemies to church and state. The Protestant population in this town is about 1300—one fourth of the in. habitants: it therefore appears more clean and respectable than Popish towns.
“Our brethren in the south of Ireland preach in towns only. The reason is, the Protestants cannot live in the country. Often between one town and another for seven, ten, or twelve Irish miles, there is only a scattered population of Papists, living in society with the hogs in smoky cabins, without one Protestant family. Few of them-even the farmers—have better food than potatoes and milk three times a-day—and in winter no milk: and yet when they go to confession, they must pay at least 10d.
“ July 2.–At seven in the morning preached at Roscrea, and afterwards took a walk round the town with the gentleman at whose house I am entertained. O what poor habitations did I see! On our return to his house, a great crowd was before his door and windows. “Now, said he, ‘ you shall see some of the real poor Irish.'There were about thirty, who came once a-week, and some oftener, to receive alms. They were chiefly aged men and women: their appearance cannot be described. Their wretchedness can be conceived by those only who see them. Oh old England! happy are thy inhabitantseven the poorest of them!
“ Mon. evening, July 2nd, set off in a car for Birr, where I arrived at nine o'clock; and was kindly received by Mr. and Mrs. M.Donald, an amiable, sensible, and pious couple.
“ Tues. July 9.-I opened the new chapel at Birr. The congregation was large, respectable, and attentive. Most of the respectable Protestant families attended, amongst whom were the Countess of Ross and her son, Lord Oxendon, a lovely youth. The Earl of Ross would have been present, had he been at home. He gave the
land, and a subscription towards the chapel. I preached on Eccles. vi. 12, with much freedom. There was a good feeling : surely God will work in this place.
“Mr. Irvine of Castlebar Circuit, gave me an account of people at Castlebar, who practise the worship of fire, an heathenish rite still preserved: he himself saw it on the 23rd. of June.
“ Wed. July 4, I left Birr at nine o'clock, arrived at Tullamore about six, and preached at seven the same evening.
“ Thurs. 5.--I set off from Tullamore in the packet on the Grand Canal for Dublin, a distance of fifty-six English miles, twenty-eight of which are through what is called in Ireland a bog. The canal is large and wide, much superior to our English canals: there are twentynine locks between Tullamore and Dublin. We were fourteen hours on the passage. On my arrival, I found Messrs. Bunting and Mayne waiting for me. Blessed be God for his presence and protection. Hitherto hath God preserved and helped me. Since I left home, I have had little respite from travelling, preaching, &c. and have been much in company; but my mind has been preserved in a serious, recollected, and spiritual frame, and I trust I shall return home in a better state of mind.
“ A comparison of the circumstances of the brethren in Ireland with ours in England, deeply impresses me with a sense of obligation. Oh! how great and various are the privileges of the English preachers. Surely we ought to have a fellow-feeling for our dear brethren in their present circumstances of distress and adversity."
On the following day the Dublin Conference commenced. Mr. Bunting and my father remained until Thursday, the 12th, when they took leave of the Irish brethren, and the next day set out together on their return home.
This journey to Wales and through the south of Ireland was of singular use to my father. The sea air, the constant change of scene, and the mode of travelling in cars, (i. e. light carts without springs,) exposed to the open air, were very beneficial, and seemed to impart new vigour to his constitution, and to prepare him for the fatigues of the English Conference. Having spent three