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cargoes (wholly in bulk) at San Francisco ; (6) Revised rules and by-laws of the Office of the Port Warden of the harbour of Montreal, issued April, 1893. The Board of Trade, independently of these regulations, require :-(a) That shifting boards must extend to keelson ; (6) That there shall not be carried below the decks, or if the ship has more than two decks between the main and upper decks, any grain in bulk, except what may be necessary for feeding cargo in hold, and is carried in properly constructed feeders ; (c) That grain carried in bulk must be supplied by proper feeders, or else secured by bags of grain or other cargo.
Rules for loading grain in bags or bulk issucd by Board of Under. writers of New York on voyage from United States to ports in Europe :
(1) Pump Well.—To be sufficiently large to admit of passage of a man to bottom of hold, and room to work conveniently when there, s.ay not less than four feet fore and aft, and five feet athwartships, and must be grain tight and sealed if required.
(2) Access to pump well must be had either by a man-hole through the upper deck, or by a clear passage way between decks from the after hatch. In no case must it be from the main hatch.
(I).--Sailing Vessels (Wood).—Grain in bags. (3) Dunnage.--Vessels being loaded with grain in bags shall be dunnaged from six to twelve inches on floor, and from six to eighteen inches on the bilges, and two inches on the side, according to the form of the ship's bottom. In between decks to be dunnaged two inches from the sides.
(4) Dunnage in hold must be laid over with boards, and entirely covered with sails, or approved mats, so as to prevent any loose grain from running down on to the floor of vessel, and thence to pump-well
. “If sails are used, to be of good quality and free from holes. The sails and mats must cover the keelson.
(5) Shifting Planks.-Two-inch shifting planks (or equivalent), extending from beams four feet downward, and between decks from deck to deck, must be properly secured on each side of the stanchions, and stanchions to be well fastened at top and bottom, and properly shored, especially in the hatch ways.
(6) Bags to be properly stowed, and those in ground tier, with those next to sides of vessel, to be in perfect order, and tiers to be laid close and well fillerl. When on bulk or loose grain, boards to be laid under them fore and aft, and so placed that each bottom bag shall be supported by two boards, with athwartship bearing boarul. sufficient to prevent the bags from settling into bulk grain.
(II).-Grain in bulk, and in bulk and bags. (7) Bins. --Bulk or loose grain to be taken in bins prepared for purpose. Material for bins must be of well-scasoned stock: unseasoned lumber must not be used where it will come in contact with grain.
(8) Rules 1 and 2 also apply to vessels being loaded with grain in bulk.
(9) Floor of Bin.—To be laid on sleepers of scantling 2) by 4 inches in size, 16 inches apart from centre to centre, supported by studs of corresponding size also 16 inches from centre to centre. It must be raised from 6 to 12 inches over floor of vessel ; in the bilge from 6 to 15 inches; and in vessels that are very flat or sharp to be at the discretion of the surveyor. Fluor of bin never to be laid on loose dunnage. Floor considered as extending from keelson to turn of the bilge, and to be laid with two thicknesses of 1-inch boards, so that they will break joints at the edges and ends, and that it be perfectly tight. Vessels under 300 tons register allowed to have a singl floor laid with 1-inch boards placed edge and edge, and seams covered with battens 2 by i inch, or edges lapped i inch.
(10) Studs for forward and after bulkheads for ve-sels not ex. ceeding 14 fert depth of hold must be equal to 4 by 6 inches in size ; for vessels of greater depth than 14 feet they must be equal to 4 by 8 inches. They must be set 20 inches apart from centre to centre, firmly secured at top and bottom, and properly braced and cleated on the ceiling to resist pressure of grain, and made graintight.
(11) All air strakes and open seams must be closed, and sides of vessel above the turn of the bilge must be sealed after the manner of clapboarding reversed, and not furred where avoidable. When furring is used, the bilge ceiling must be made grain-tight at the sides by shutters. All lodging and bosom knees not fitted tight to deck must be cleated round the face of the knee.
(12) Shifting Planks.—To be 2 inches thick (in vessels under 250 tons segister I-inch boards with edges lapped or battened may be substituted) and must extend from keels on to deck on each side of the stanchions, fitted tight under on one side with the shutters, the other side to be left open between the deck and lower edge of beam, so that the space between shifting boards can be filled with grain. If single planks used, they must be made grain-tight under the deck and between lower edge of beams with well-fitted shutters between the shifting boards and deck.
(13) Masts and Water Tanks must be either of wood or iron, properly cased to prevent damage from leakage, and mast coats to be strong and tight.
(14) Vessels carrying full cargo in bulk must have, in addition to the forward and after-end bulkheads, two trimming bulkheads (to make a division of three compartments), to extend from upper deck 10 bottom of vessel. Except when the between decks are laid aft, the after one to extend only to lower deck, and so placed that in loading the middle compartment wil 'se entirely filled, and the end ones left to trim the vessel. If end compartments are not entirely filled, cargo must be properly secured to prevent shifting. Studs for trimming bulkheads to be not less than 3 by 6 inches, and set 22 inches from centres, and all studs to be firmly secured at top and bottom and properly braced and cleated.
(15) Vessels carrying bulk and bags must not carry bulk higher than to admit of the stowage of one quarter of the cargo, or not less than five heights of bags over it, except vessels be under 500 tons register, when height lest to surveyor. Vessels with two decks having bulk in hold as high as lower deck shall have strakes of tween deck-plank on each side over the bulk in the wings and amidships, and about 2 feet of bulk grain on the deck. When the hold is not filled to the deck, enough space must be left to stow sufficient cargo over it to properly secure it. Grain to be well trimmed up between beams, and wings completely filled.
(16) Draught or Freeboard.--The draught of water or free. board to be regulated by a scale approved by the Lcading Committee.
Freebcard to be measured from top of deck at side of vessel to the water's edge at lowest part of sheer.
(17) Iron Sailing Vessels. — Foregoing rules also apply to iron sailing vessels, excepting that, in cases where the frames and inside of plating are in such condition as to warrant it, the side ceiling may be dispersed with.
(18) Iron Steamships.-Steamers with or without water-ballast . tanks and floors planked with 2 or 3 inch planks, the same being sound, dry, and grain-tight, and not less than 18 inches above cementing, will not be required to sheathe over the same : - (1) Steamers with continuous hold forward to have a close bulkhead in the same, and also aft if vleemed necessary by surveyor ; (2) Two to three-inch shifting planks, or equivalent (at the discretion of surveyor), must be properly secured to stanchions or shored every 8 feet of length and every 5 feet of depth of hold. Shores to be 3 by 8 to 4 by 6), at surveyor's discretion ; (3) No bulk grain to be carried above main deck, unless the same can be, or is, opened in conformity with Rule 15, otherwise must have properly constructed feeders to feed the holds. Feeders amidships to have centre shifting boards. All vessels with iron decks not having sufficient openings in the wings, will be required to utilise all such openings with feeders; (4) Steamers not having properly constructed feeders must have sufficient space above the bulk (not less than 51 feet) to properly secure it with bags or other cargo, the bulk to be platformed as in Section 6 ; (5) Steamers having one deck and beams may carry bulk to such a height as will permit stowage over it of not less than five heights of bags, excepting at extreme ends, when four heights will be sufficient, stowed over board, laid fore and aft, so placed that each bottom bag shall be supported by two boarıls, with athwartship Learing boards sufficient to prevent bags from seitling into bulk grain ; (6) Section 16 for sailing vessels is also applicable to steamers ; (7) Class of steamships known as switch-back or web. frame are allowed to carry all grain in No. 2 hold only. Feeding hatch to have shifting planks in the middle as high as hatch covers; (8) The class of steamers which have long bridge decks, same being double deck at Nos. 2 and (or) 3 holds, may carry all buik grain in said holds only ; same must be fitied with properly con. structed feeders, with shifting boards extending up to top of hatch covers. No buik grain allowed to be stowed outside and around the feeders between the decks. Bunker hatches in this hold are to be utilised for feeders when possible. A bulkhead is required between Nos. 1 and 2 holds.
Oats are allowed to be shipped in bulk in steamships fitted for grain, excepting the feeders, Fut must be trodden down to satisfaction of surveyor while being loaded.
Flax Seed may be shipped in the same manner as wheat, excepting that the boards covering the buik seed shall be placed close together.
GENERAL REGULATIONS.--Owners and masters in'ending to load to give early notice to surveyors when ready for fitting, and when able to receive grain. Vessels loaded in con'ormity with rules may have certificate to that effect from surveyor appointed by the Board of Underwriters of New York.
The Rules of the National Board of Marine Underwriters, New York; the New Orleans Board of Underwriters; of the Wheat
Tarift Association of San Francisco ; and the Rules and Bye-laws of the Port Warden of Montreal are also approved by the Board of Trade, and appear in the official notices of that Department on the carriage of grain.
Part VI.-Special Shipping Inquiries and Courts. General Rules for Formal Inzestigations into Shipping Casualties, 1895.-These rules, cited as the Shipping Casualties Rules, are issued by the Lord Chancellor, and came into force ist April, 1895 The interpretation of the terms “investigation," "judge," " list of assessors,” and “Court of Appeal” is defined. Board of Trade, on investigation being ordered, may cause notice to be served upon owner, master, and officers of ship, as well as upon any person who in their opinion ought to have notice. Notice should contain a statement of the questions which it is intended to raise on hearing of investigation. Board of Trade and any certificated officer upon whom notice is served to be deemed parties to the proceedings. Any other person upon whom a notice has been server, and any person who shows that he has an interest in the proceedings, shall have the right to appear. Notices to admit or produce documents provided for. Proceedings in court regulated. Examination of witnesses provided for-after which Board of Trade in open court to sate questions in reference to casualty, and the conduct of certificated officers or other persons upon which opinion of court desired. Each party to investigation entitled to address the court and produce witnesses. When certificate of an officer is cancelled or suspended the decision must be in open court. In other cases judge may deliver decision either viva voce or in writing. Power of judge to order payment of costs by Board of Trade or any other party. Judge bound to report result to Board of Trade. When certificate of master, mate or ergineer, cancelled or suspended, the Board of Trade on application to give copy of report to any party to proceedings. Appeals to Probate Division and Admiralty Division of High Court provided for. Regulations as to hearing of appeal and provision for assistance of two assessors. Assessors to be Elder Brethren of Trinity House or selected from persons approved by Secretary of State as assessors for shipping casualties under Sections 466 and 467 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. Re-hearings by order of Poard of Trade provided for under Section 475 or 478 of Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 Assessors for investigation into shipping casualties to be appointed from list made by Secretary of State. When investigation involves the cancelling or suspension of the certificate of a master, mate or engineer, tuo assessors shall be appointed from Class I. and Class II, or from either of those classes. Following rules to apply :
(1) When investigation involves cancelling or suspension or certificate of a master or mate, but not of an engineer, at least two assessors shall be appointed from Class I.
(2) Where investigation involves cancelling or suspension of the certificate of a master or mate of a sailing ship, one at least of the assessors shall be appointed from Sub-section (a) of Class I.; and where the investigation involves the cancelling er suspension of the certificate of a master or mate of a steamship, one at least of the assessors shall be appointed from Sub-section (1) of Class I.
(3) Where the investigation involves the suspension or cancellation of the certificate of an engineer, one at least of the assessors shall be appointed from Class II,
Board of Trade to inform Secretary of State when assessors are required, and from which class to be appointed.
Copy of these rules shall be kept at every Custom House and Mercantile Marine Office in the United Kingdom, and any person desiring to peruse them is entitled to do so.
Power as to Certificates of Officers.--Sections 469 to 474. Power of Board of Trade to cancel or suspend certificates. Power of court of investigation or inquiry as to certificates. Inquiry as to conduct of certificated officers, and mode of procedure and hearing. Removal of master by Admiralty Court. Delivering up of certificate cancelled or suspended. Penalty. Power of Board of Trade to restore certificate.
Rehearing of Investigations and Inquiries.-Section 475. Rehearing of investigations and inquiries in certain cases may be ordered.
Supplementai Provisions as to Investigations and Inquiries:Seetions 476 to 479. Investigations and inquiries before stipendiary magistrates at certain places, Power of Lord Chancellor to appoint Wreck Commissioners. Authority for Colonial Court to make investigations into shipping casualties and inquiries into conduct of officers. General rules as to investigations and inquiries.
Naval Courts on the High Seas and Abroad.-Sections 4So to 486. Cases in which naval courts may be summoned. Constitution of naval courts. Functions of naval courts. Powers of naval courts defined. Report of proceedings of naval courts to Board of Trade. Penalty for preventing complaint or obstructing investigation. Application of provisions of Act as to naval courts.
Courts of Survey.-Sections 487 to 489. Constitution of Court of Survey for ports and districts. Judge with two assessors necessary. Procedure, &c. l'ower of Court of Survey. Rules for procedure of Court of Survey, &c. Scientific Referees: -Section 490.
Board of Trade have power to appoint scientific referees on Courts of Survey in certain cases.
Payments 10 Oficers of Court.-Section 491. Payments 10 officers of Courts provided.
PART VII.- Delivery of Goods and Lion for Freight. Sections 492 to 501. Definitions of expressions under Part VII. Power of shipowner to enter and land goods on default of owner of goods. Lien for freight on landing of goods. Discharge of lien. Provisions as to deposits by owners of goods. Sale of goods by warehousemen where lien not discharged. Application of proceeds of sale. Warehousemen's claim to rent and expenses. Warehouse. men's protection re charge of goods. Saving for powers under local Acts.
PART VIII.-- Liability of Shipowners.
Loss or damage may be broughi into account among part