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all the continuous certificates in his possession with the discharge columns filled in, so that no time may be lost in preparing for and proceeding with the work of discharge. By an early delivery of These books the busiress will be materially expedited.

As the success of the system depends very much upon the hearty co-operation of the masters in attending to the above recommendations, and also in exercising a just and careful discrimination in making the reports as to ability and conduct in the official log, the Board of Trade hope that all masters will bear this in mind.

INSTRUCTIONS OF THE BOARD OF TRADE FOR THE

GUIDANCE OF MASTERS AND SEAMEN WHEN
USING THE MORTAR AND ROCKET LINES FOR
SAVING LIFE FROM SHIPWRECK.

In the event of your Vessel stranding on the Coasts of the United Kingdom, and the lives of the crew being placed in danger, assistance will, if possible, be readered froin the shore in the following manner, namely :

1.-A roket or shot, with a thin line attached, will be fired across your vessel. Get hold of this line with all speed ; and when you have secured it, let one of the crew be separated from the rest, and signal to those on shore as follows:-IF IN THE DAY-TIME, wave his hat or his hand, or a flag or bandkerchiet ; OR, IF AT NIGHT, let a rocket, blue light, or a gun be fired, or let a light be shown over the side of the ship, and be again concealed.

2.- When you see one of the men on shore separated from the rest, wave a RED FLAG ; or, if at night, show a Red Light, and then conceal it. You are to haul upon the ROCKET LINE until you get a tailed block with an endless fall rove through it.

3. -Make the tail of the block fast to the mast about 15 FEET ABOVE THE DECK, or, if your masts are gone, to the HIGHEST SECURE part of the vessel ; and when the tail block is made fast, ani the ROCKET LINE UNBENT FROM THE WHIP, let one of the crew, separated from the rest, make the signal required by Article i above.

4.-As soon as the signal is seen on shore, a hawser will be bent to the whip line, and will be hauled off to the ship by those on shore.

5.-When the hawser is got on board, the crew should at once make it fast to the same part of the ship as the tailed block is made fast to, on'y about 18 INCHES HIGHER, taking care that there are NO TURNS OF THE WHIP LINE ROUND THE HAWSER.

6. -When the hawser has been made fast on board, the signal dirccred by Article i above is to be repeated.

7.-The men on shore will then pull the hawser taut; and, by means of the whip line, will haul off to the ship a sling, cot, or life buoy, into which the person to be hauled ashore is to get and be made fast. When he is in and secure, one of the crew must be separated from the rest, and again signal to the shore as directed in Article I above. The people on shore will then haul the person in the sling to the shore ; and, when he has landed, will haul back the empty sling to the ship for others. This operation will be repeated to and fro until all persons are hauled ashore from the wrecked vessel.

8.-It may sometimes happen that the state of the weather and the condition of the ship will not admit of a hawser being set up ; in such cases a sling or life-buoy will be hauled off instead ; and the persons to be rescued will be hauled through the surf instead of along the hawser.

Masters and crews of stranded vessels should bear in mind that success in landing them, in a great measure, depends upon i heir coolness and attention to the rules here laid down, and that by attending to them many lives are annually saved by the mortar and rocket apparatus on the coasts of the United Kingdom.

The system of signalling must be strictly adhered to ; and all women, children, pas engers, and helpless persons should be landed before the crew of the ship.

SINGLE SHIPS APPROACHING SQUADRONS.

BOARD OF TRADE INSTRUCTIONS. The Board of Trade desire to call the attention of shipowners and masters to the judgments delivered on May 17, 1900, in the Court of Appeal, in the case of H M.S. Sans Pareil and the East Lothin, and io warn them of the langer to all concerned which is caused by single vessels approaching a squadron of warships so closely as to involve risk of collision, or attempting to pass ahead of, or through, or to break the line of, zuch squadrons.

The Board find it necessary to warn mariners that on such occa. sions it would be in the interests of safety for sin gle ships to adopt timely measures to keep out of the way of, and avoid passing through, a squadron.

ANTIQUITY OF THE MARINER'S COMPASS.

The earliest mention of the Compass in Europe is in the work of Guigit de Povins, French Poet, written in 1180, and quoted by Claude Fauchet in his R’ecuil de l'origine de la langue et poesie Francois.'

“Par le virtue de la manete
Ou'il fers volenter se joint,
Quant il nuis est tenebre et brune,
Con ne voit estoile ne lune,
Parce sont il mariner ceinte,

De la droit voit tenir." Which would appear to dispose of the claim of the Venetians—that it was introduced from China by their countryman, Marco Polo, A.D. 1260, and the claims of the Neapolitans, who assert that it was discovered by Flavio Gioia, of Amalfi, about the year 1302.

COMPARISON OF THE DRAUGHT OF FOREIGN VESSELS WITH THE EQUIVALENT DRAUGIIT IN ENGLISH FEET

DENMARK & EGYPT, AUSTRIA.

FRANCE. GERMANY. HOLLAND.

NORWAY. Axo

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23109 The Belgian Measure is similar to the French. Large Bremen and Russian Ships are usually marked in English feet; Dutch, Antwerp, and German vith Rhineland Measure ; Finland with Swedish; and Austrian with Italian Measure. Greek and Italian Lineal Measure are similar to the French

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* AA 1.-Character of Iron Vessels built with thicker plating than the rules now require.

AA 1, ARI, AC 1.-Characters of Iron Ships built according to the rules of the Society in force between 1864 and 1871.

A !:-(Without a numeral prefixed)-Character of Iron Vessels built for a special purpose.

100 A 1, 95 A 1, 90 A 1, 85 A 1, 80 A 1, 75 A 1.--Characters of Ships built of Iron or Steel according to the rules since 1869.

A 1.---Character of Wood or Composite Ships.
A I (Red). ---Character of Ships which have passed the period of original survey.
£1.-Character of Ships for short voyages.
EI-Character of Ships for cargoes not subiect to Sea damage.

UNDERWRITERS' REGISTER, NOW AMALGAMATED WITH

LLOYD'S REGISTER.

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AI**. -Characters of Iron and Steel Vessels built in excess of rules red.

or extra quality of iron. AI A1 A1, A1, A, A.-Classes of Iron, Steel or Composite according ed. red. red.

to rules. Classed in Red, built under inspection of Surveyors at Liverpool Registry.

REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA,

NOW IN FORCE.

Issued in pursuance of the Merchant Shipping Act.

PRELIMINARY. These Rules shall be followed by all vessels upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith, navigable by sea-going vessels.

In the following Rules every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam is to be considered a sailing vessel, and every vessel under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a steam vessel.

The word “steam vessel" shall include any vessel propelled by machinery.

A vessel is “under way ” within the meaning of these Rules, when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore or aground.

RULES CONCERNING Lights, &c. The word “visible” in these Rules, when applied to lights, shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.

ART. 1. The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such time no other lights which may be mistaken for the prescribed lights shall be exhibited.

ART. 2. A steam vessel when under way shall carry

(a) On or in front of foremast, or if without foremast, then in fore part of vessel, at height above hull of not less than 20 ft, and if breadth of vessel exceeds 20 st. then at height above hull not less than such breadth, so, however, that light need not be carried at greater height above hull than 40 ft, a bright white light, so constructed as to show unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 20 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light 10 points on each side of vessel, viz., from right ahead to 2 points abaft beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible at distance of at least 5 miles.

(6) On starboard side a green light so constructed as to show an un. broken light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of compass, so fixed as to throw light from right ahead to 2 points abaft beam on starboard side, of such character as to be visible at distance of at least 2 miles.

(c) On port side a red light so constructed as to show unbroken light aver an arc of the horizon of 10 points of compass, so fixed as to throw light from right ahead to 2 points abaft beam on port side, and of such character as to be visible at distance of at least 2 miles.

MI) Said green and red side lights shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least 3 ft forward from light, so as to prevent these I ghts from being seen across bow.

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