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(e) A steam vessel when under way may carry an additional white light similar in construction to light mentioned in subdivision (a). These two lights shall be so placed in line with keel that one sha l be at least 15 ft higher than the other, and in such position with reference to each other that lower light shall be forward of upper one. The vertical distance betwe:n these lights shall be less than horizontal distance

Art. 3. A steam vessel when towing another vessel shall in addition to her side lights, carry two bright white lights in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 6 st apart, and when towing more than one vessel shall carry an additional bright white light 6 st above or below such lights, if length of tow, measuring from stern of towing vessel to stern of last vessel towed, exceeds 600 st. Each of these lights shall be of same construction and character, and shall be carried in same position as white light mentioned in Art. 2 (a), except the additional light, which may be carried at a height of not less than 14 st above the hull.

Such steam vessel may carry a small white light abaft funnel or aftermast for the vessel towed to steer by, but such light shall not be visible forward of beam.

ART. 4. (a) A vessel which from accident is not under command, shall carry at same height as white light mentioned in Art. 2 (a), where they can best be scen, and, is a steam vesel, in lieu of that light, two red l ghts, in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 6 st apart, and or such character as to te visible all roun i the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles; and shall by day carry in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 6 ft apart, where they can best be seen, 2 black balls or shapes, each 2 ft in diamcter.

(6) A vessel employed in laying or in picking up telegraph cable shall carry in same position as white light nientioned in Art. 2 (a), and, if a steam vesel, in lieu of that light, three lights in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 6 ft apart. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red, and the middle light shall be white, and they shall be of such a character as to be visible all round the horizon, at a di-tance of at least 2 miles. By day she shall carry in a ve tical line one over the other, not less than 6 lt apart, where they can best be seen, Three shapes not less than 2 ft in d ameter, of which the highest and lowest shall be globu'ar in shape and red, and middle one diamond in shape and white.

(C) The vesse's reserred to in this Article, when not making way though water, shall not carry side lights, but when making way shall.

(d) The lights and shapes required to be shown by this Article are to be taken by other vessels as signals that the vessel showing them is not under command and cannot therefore get out of the way.

These signals are not signals of vessels in distress and requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in Article 31.

Art. 5. A sailing vessel under way, and any vessel being towed, shall carry the same lights as are prescribed by Article 2 for a steam vessel under way, with the exception of the white lights mentioned therein, which they shall never carry.

Art. 6. Whenever, as in the case of small vessels under way during bad weather, the green and side lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept at hand lighted and ready for use ; and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side, nor, if practicable, more than 2 points abast the beam on their respective sides.

To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them shall each be painted outside with the colour of the light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with proper screens.

ART. 7. Steam vessels of less than 40, and vessels under oars or sails of less than 20, tons gross tonnage, respectively, and rowing boats, when under way, shall not be obliged to carry the lights mentioned in Article 2 (a) (b) (c), but if they do not carry them they shall be provided with the following lights :

1. Steam vessels of less than 40 tons shall carry :

(a) In the fore part of the vessel, or on or in front of the funnel, where it can best be seen, and at a height above the gunwale of not less than 9 ft, a bright white light constructed and fixed as prescribed in Article 2 (a), and of such a character as to be vis.ble at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(6) Green and red side lights constructed and fixed as prescribed in Article 2 (6) and (c), and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least i mile, or a combined lantern showing a green light and a red light from right ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on their respective sides. Such lantern shall be carried not less than 3 ft below the white light.

2. Small steamboats, such as are carried by sea-going vessels, may carry the white light at a less height than 9 ft above the gunwale, but it shall be carried above the combined lantern mentioned in subdivision 1 (6).

3. Vessels under oars or sails of less than 20 tons, shall have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass on one side and a red glass on the other, which, on the approach of or to other vessels, shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side.

4. Rowing boats, whether under oars or sail, sha'l have ready at hand a lantern showing a white light, which shall be temporarily exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.

The vessels referred to in this Article shall not be obliged to carry the lights prescribed by Article 4 (a), and Article 11, last paragraph.

Art. 8. Pilot vessels, when engaged on their station on pilotage duty, shall not show the lights required for other vessels, but shall carry a white lamp at the masthead visible all round the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or fare-up lights at short intervals, which shall never exceed fifteen minutes.

On the near approach of or to other vessels they shall have their side lights lighted, ready for use, and shall flash or show them at shor: intervals, to indicate the direction in which they are heading, but the green light shall not be shown on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.

A pilot vessel of such a class as to be obliged to go alongside of a vessel to put a pilot on board, may show the white light instead of carrying it at the masthead, and may, instead of the coloured lights above mentioned, have at hand ready for use a lantern with a green glass on the one side and a red glass on the other, to be used as prescribed above.

Pilot vessels, when not engaged on their station on pilotage duty shall carry lights similar to those of other vessels of their tonnage.

Art. 9.*

Art. 1o. A vessel which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned vessel a white light or a flare-up light.

The white light required to be shown by this Article may be fixed and carried in a lantern, but in such case the lantern shall be so constructed, fitted, and screened that it shall throw an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 12 points of the compass-viz., for 6 points from right aft on each side of the vessel, so as to be visible at a distance of at least I mile. Such light shall be carried as nearly as practicable on the same level as the side lights.

ART. 11. A vessel under 150 ft in length, when at anchor, shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding 20 lt above the hull, a white light in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, un form, and unbroken light visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least I mile.

A vessel of 150 ft or upwards in length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel at a height of not less than 20, and not exceeding 40, it above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall be not less than 15 It lower ihan the forward light, another such light.

The length of a vessel shall be deemed to be the length appearing in her certificate of registry.

A vessel aground in or near a fairway shall carry the above light or lights, and the two red lights prescribed by Article 4 (a).

ART. 12. Every vessel may, if necessary, in order to attract attention, in addition to the lights which she is by these Kules required to carry, show a flare-up light, or use any detonating signal that cannot be mistaken for a distress signal.

Art. 13. Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the Government of any nation with respect to additional station and signal lights for two or more ships of war or for vessels sailing under convoy, or with the exhibit on of recognition signals adopted by shipowners, which have been authorised by their respective Governments and duly registered and published.

ART. 14. A steam vessel proceeding under sail only, but having her funnel up, shall carry in daytime, forward, where it can best be seen, one black ball or shape 2 st in diameter.

SOUND-SIGNALS FOR Fog, &c. ART. 15. All signals prescribed ly this Article for vessels under way shall be given : i. By “steam vessels ” on the whistle or siren.

By “ sailing vessels and vessels towed on the sog-horn. The word; “prolonged blast ”ved in this Article, shall mean a blast of from 4 to 6 seconds' duration.

A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle or siren, sounded by steam or some substitute for steam, so placed that the sonnd may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and with an efficient log-norn, to be sounded by mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell. A sailing vessel of 20 tons gross tonnage or upwards shall be provided with a similar fog horn and bell.

* This Article will deal with regulations affecting fishing boats, and will be the subject of another Order, which will be submitted to His Majesty for approval at a

+ In all cases where the Rules require a bell to be used a drum may be substituted on board Turkish vessels, or a gong where such articles are used on board small sca-going vessels.

2.

Later date.

In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain storms, whether by day or night, the signals descrited in this Article shall be used as follows,

Viz. :

(a) A steaín vessel having way upon her, shall sound, at intervals of not more than 2 minutes, a prolonged blast.

(6) A steam vessel under way, but stopped and having no way upon her shall sound, at intervals of not more than 2 minutes, 2 prolonged blast, with an interval of about 1 second between them.

(c) A sailing vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, when on the starboard tack one blast, when on the port tack two blasts in succession, and when with the wind abaft the beam three blasts in succession.

(d) A vessel, when at anchor, shall, at intervals of not more than i minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.

(e) A vessel, when towing, a vessel employed in laying or in picking up a telegraph cable, and a vessel under way, which is unable to get out of the way of an approaching vessel through being not under command, or unable to manceuvre as required by these Ruies shall, instead of the signals prescribed in subdivisions (a) and (c) of this Article, at intervals of not more ihan 2 minutes, sound three blasts in succession, viz. : ore prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A vessel towed may give this signal and she shall not give any other.

Sailing vessels and boats of less than 20 tons gross tonnage shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned signals, but if they do not, they shall make some other efficient sound-signal at intervals of not more than 1 minute.

SPEED OF SHIPS TO BE MODERATE IN FOG, &c. Art. 16. Every vessel shall, in a fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain storms, go at a moderate speed, having careful regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.

A steam vessel hearing apparently forward of her beam, the fog. signal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained, shall so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

PRELIMINARY-RISK OF COLLISION. Risk of collision can, wł en circumstances permit, be ascertained by carefully watching the compass bearing of an approaching vessel. If the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.

Art. 17. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows, viz. :

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close hauled.

(6) A vessel which is cl se hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.

(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward.

(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the o her vessel.

ART. 18. When two steam vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.

This article only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.

The only cases to which it does apply are, when each of the two vessels is end on, or nearly end on, to the other ; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own ; and by night, to cases in which each ressel is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.

Ii does not apply, by day, to cases in which a vessel sees another ahead crossing her own course; or by night, to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen any. where but ahead.

ART. 19. When two steam vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

ART. 20. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.

ART. 21. Where by any of these rules one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed.

Note.—When, in consequence of thick weather or other causes, such vessel finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the giving-way vessel alone, she also shall take such action as will best aid to avert collision. (See Articles 27 and 29.)

ART. 22. Every vesse which is directed by these Rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, is the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.

ART. 23. Every steam vessel which is directed by these Rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse.

ART. 24. Notwithstanding anything contained in these Rules, every vessel, overtaking any other, shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.

Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than two points abast her beam, i.e., in such a position, with reserence to the vessel which she is overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side lights, shall be deemed to be an over. taking vessel ; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.

As by day the overtaking vessel cannot always know with certainty whether she is forward of or abast this direction from the other vessel, she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way.

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