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base of which is the verticle distance between the load water-line and the lowest longitudinal plane.

Gross Register Tonnage.--Gross register tonnage is reckoned at the rate of 100 cub. ft. of capacity, and is measured according to the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, by taking the areas of a number of transverse sections, varying in Lumber from 4 in ships not ex. ceeding 50 ft. in length to 12 in vessels of over 225 ft. The areas are then treated as the ordinates of a new curve of the same length as the vessel, and the area of the new curve, found by Simpson's first rule, will be the capacity of the vessel in cubic feet, which, being divided by 100, gives the gross register tonnage. Approximately, gross register tonnage may be found by the following formula :L

the inside length on upper deck, from plank at stem to

plank at stern. B = the inside main breadth. D = the inside midship depth from upper deck to ceiling, at

limber strake. Register tonnage

L x B x D

C. C = 65 for steamers of two decks.

68 for steamers of three decks. The values thus obtained give the entire cubical capacity of the ship. The capacity of the poop, deck houses, and other permanently enclosed spaces is to be measured and included, but deductions are allowed for buildings erected for the shelter of passengers only, for crew space at the rate of 72 cub. ft. per man, and for propelling space. This third item, for screw steamers, is taken as 32 per cent., if the cubic content of the space is 13 per cent. and under 20 per cent. of the gross tonnage; but, if the space is less then 13 per cent. or more then 20 per cent. of the gross tonnage, then either the 32 per cent., or 1 times the space may be deducted. Deductions are also allowed for (i) any space, used ex. clusively for the accommodation of the master, (ii) any space used exclusively for the working of the helm, the capstan, and the anchor gear, or for keeping charts, signals, instruments of navigation, and boatswain's stores, and (iii) the space occupied by the donkey engine and boiler, if connected with the main pumps of the ship.

Net Register Tonnage.—This is a very elastic term, and is arrived at by deducting the various allowances specified above from the gross register tonnage, to which it bears no ratio or proportion, in fact, it may even become a minus quantity. We have now examples of coasting steamers of 270 ton gross register carrying 220 tons deadweight, and trading on a net register of 12 tons.

Admiralty Datum.— The practice of the British Admiralty is to refer their soundings and tide-tables to " mean low-water mark of ordinary spring tides.” This datum is found by taking the mean of the low-water marks of such observations at spring tide as are available ; or, if the observations are very extensive, by excluding from the mean such spring tides as appear to be abnormal owing to the largeness of the moon's parallax at the time, or any other cause,

Ordnance Survey Datum.—The datum of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain is 4:67 ft. above the level of the Old Dock Sill, Liverpool, and all altitudes on Ordnance maps are taken from this datum.

OFFICIAL NOTICE TO OWNERS AND MASTERS

OF SHIPS.

LIME JUICE. Owners and masters of ships are informed that, under the provisions of Section 200 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, the Board of Trade have exempted from those requirements of that section which relate to antiscorbutics all ships bound from any port in the United Kingdom to ports on the Eastern Coast of America, situate between the Eastern Coast of America, situate between the 35th and 6oth degrees of north latitude, and also all ships bound to any islands or places in The Atlantic Ocean situate within tho.e limits.

It is important, however, to bear in mind that this exemption does not apply to ships which are, or may be by the terms of their agreements, ALSO BOUND TO ANY PLACE OUT OF THE LIMITS SPECIFIED, nor to ships bound to any part of the coast or islands of Greenland situate within those limits. CERTIFICATES OF DISCHARGE AND REPORTS

OF CHARACTER.

RIGHT OF APPEAL BY SEAMEN. THE FOLLOWING CIRCULAR HAS BEEN ISSUED BY THE BOARD

OF TRADE IN OCTOBER, 1902 :

The Board of Trade have had under consideration the recently issued Report of a Departmental Committee on certain questions affecting the Mercantile Marine, which contains a recommendation, in which the Board of Trade concur, that a reference by way of appeal to the Superintendent of a Mercantile Marine Office, should be allowed to seamen in cases in which the Master gives a bad character or “declines to report.'

Superintendents should continue to use their influence, as instructed in July, 1900 (Circular No. 592), to see that the character is justly given, and in addition, whenever the charac er is bad, or the Master declines to report, the Superintendent should, if appealed to in writing by the seaman, investigate the case by making inquiries as to the facts upon which the Master bases the bad character or declines to report. If, after inquiry, the Superintendent thinks that the seaman deserves a good or a very good character, he should inform the master accordingly, and should suggest the alteration of the report of character originally made in the Official Log. In the event of the Master declining to make the alteration suggested, the Superintendent should enter the result of the inquiry on the form provided for that purpose, and hand a copy to the Master, and a copy to the seaman.

Superintendents should bear in mind that under Section 129 of the Merchant Shipping Act, the report of character rests with the Master, who may report or decline to report at his discretion, and while Superintendents should endeavour to minimise any unjustifiable hardship to seamen in respect of character reports, nothing should be done to affect the responsibility of the Master in this matter.

When the report given is “Good ” the Superintendent should not entertain an Appeal, as the Board of Trade consider that the word should be understood in its natural meaning.

FOREIGN SEAMEN IN BRITISH SHIPS.

CERTIFICATES OF NATURALIZATION.

Regulations dated 4th August, 1903, made by the Secretary of State

for the Home Department for carrying into effect the provisions of the Naturalization Acts.

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In exercise of the powers vested in me by the Naturalization Acts, 1870 to 1895, I do hereby make the following Regulations :

(1) The application of an alien serving on a British Ship must be on the prescribed form, which may be obtained, free of charge, from the Home Office, or at any of the following Mercantile Marine Offices :-Aberdeen, Avonmouth, Barry, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Cork, Dublin, Dundee, Glasgow, Greenock, Grimsby, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London: Dock Street, Poplar, Victoria Docks, Tilbury, Graveserd; Manchester, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Newport, Mon.; Penarth, Plymouth, North Shields, South Shields, Southampton, Sunderland, Swansea.

The Superintendents of the Mercantile Marine Offices at these ports will assist foreign seamen in making their applications, will take care that the form is properly filled up in each case, and that the applicant clearly understands the particulars to which he declares, and will transmit the papers to the Registrar General of Seamen.

(2) The place of birth should be stated in the form of a postal address. It will not be sufficient for the applicant to state, e.g., that he was born at (a village or small town) in Russia. The province, &c , should also be given.

(3) The nationality should be stated accurately, 0.3., a Russian Pole should be described as a Russian; a German Pole, or a Bavarian, or a Prussian, should be described as a German.

If an applicant has lost the nationality he acquired at birth, such nationality of origin should nevertheless be specified, and an explanation should be given of the circumstances in which it was lost.

Particulars of any naturalization of an applicant in any foreign country other than that to which he originally owed allegiance should be added.

(4) The foregoing paragraph applies equally to the particular required of the nationality of the parents.

(5) Children only temporarily absent from home at the date of the application may be regarded as resident with the father. In any case of doubt the question should be referred through the Registrar General of Seamen to the Secretary of State.

(6) The applicant must establish that he is qualified for naturalization either by residence in the United Kingdom or by service on British ships (which is regarded as equivalent to such residence) or partly by residence and partly by service. If the qualification is chiefly by sea-service, the applicant must, when not employed at sea, have resided mostly in the United Kingdom during the last cight years.

The residence and sea-service together must cover a period of five years within the last eight. Applicants for naturalization applying on the prescribed form must have been at sea within six months of their application, and for three years within the last tight, and are required to declare that it is their intention to continue to serve on British ships or to reside in the United Kingdom.

If the applicant has had no settled abode when ashore, he must make his statements with regard to residence as fully and as accurately as he can.

(7) Particulars should be given of any Certificates which the applicant holds from the Board of Trade. he holds no Certificates, his present occupation, viz., whether mate, able seaman, cook, &c., should be stated.

(8) The statutory declaration required of the applicant must be made before a Magistrate or a Commissioner for Oaths.

(9) Ifthe Certificate is granted by the Secretary of State, the oath of allegiance will have to be taken, subscribed and registered in accordance with in-tructions which will accompany the Certificate.

(10) If a Superintendent feels the need of special instruc ions in any particular care he should submit the matter to the Registrar General of Seamen for reference to the Secretary of State.

(1) Except as hereinafter stated, no lee; will be payable to the Home Office or the Board of Trace, when duly authenticated certificates proving sea service and residence in the United Kingdom are produced ; but the following charges will have to be met :

(a) Fee on Statutory Declaration.- If made before a Com. missioner of Oaths, 1/6; if made before a Justice out of Court and unattended by the Clerk to the Justices, Nil; if made before a Justice attended by the Clerk, such fee as may be in force in the County or Borough in which the Oath or Declaration is made, generally 1/ or 1/6.

(6) An Impressed Inland Revenue stamp of the value of 2/6 on each declaration,

(c) A fee of 4d. for the verification of sea service on each voyage for which no officially authenticated Certificate of Discharge is projuced.

(d) A fee for the administration of the oath of allegiance, 2/6, payable as follows:--In England or Ireland, if the oath is adminis. iered by a Justice of the leace, to the clerk of such Justice, otherwise to the officer administering the oath ; in Scotland, if the oath is administered by a Sheriff or Sheriff-Substitute, to the Sheriff Clerk or any of his deputes ; if by a Justice of the Peace, to the Clerk of the Peace or any of his deputes.

(12) These regulations shall take effect as from the 31st August, 1903.

(13) Any regulations inconsistent with the foregoing are, so far as they are inconsistent, hereby repealed.

FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACT.

REGULATIONS, DATED OCTOBER 24, 1904, MADE BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE, IN RESPECT OF THE PROCESSES OF LOADING, UNLOADING, MOVING AND HANDLING GOODS IN, ON, OR AT ANY Dock, WHARF, OR QUAY, AND THE PROCESSES OF LOADING, UNLOADING OR COALING ANY SHIP IN

ANY DOCK, HARBOUR OR CANAL.

Whereas the processes of loading, unloading, moving and handling, goods in, on, or at any dock, wharf, or quay, and the processes of loading, unloading and coaling any ship in any dock, harbour, or canal have been certified in pursuance of Section 79 of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, to be dangerous :

I hereby, in pursuance of the powers conferred on me by that Act, make the following Regulations for the protection of persons employed in the processes or in any of them, and dire:t that they shall apply to all docks, wharves, quays, and ships as aforesaid.

These Regulations shall come into force on the 1st of January, 1905, except that so much of Regulations 6 and 8 as require structural alterations shall come into force on the ist of January, 1908.

Nothing in Parts 2 to 6 inclusive of these Regulations shall apply to the unloading of fish from a vessel employed in the catching of fish.

The Seeretary of State may by order in writing exempt from all or any of the Regulations and for such time and subject to such conditions as he may prescribe any docks, wharves or quays in respect of which application for such exemption shall have been made to him by the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland or by the Congested Districts Board for Ireland.

DEFINITIONS. In these Regulations :“ Processes” means the processes abovementioned; or any of them.

“Person employed ” means a person employed in the above processses or any of them.

“Shallow canal ” includes any of the following paris of a canal, canalised river, non-tidal river, or inland navigation :(a) Any part having no means of excess to tidal waters except through

a lock not excecding ninety seet in length ; (6) Any part not in frequent use for the processes; and (c) Any part at which the depth of water within fifteen seet of the edge does not ordinarily exceed five feet.

DUTIES. It shall be the duty of the person having the general management and control of a dock, wharf, or quay, to comply with Part I. of these Regulations; provided that if any other person has the exclusive right to occupation of any part of the dock, wharf, or quay, and has the general management and control of such part the duty in respect of that pari shall devolve upon that other person; and further provided that this part of these Regulations shall not apply to any shallow canal.

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