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SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, &c. r Aries (the Ram), oo

* Sextile, when two signs disTaurus (the Bull), 30°

tant, or differing 60° in [ Gemini (the Twins), 60°

Longitude or Rt. Ascension. og Cancer (the Crab), 90° o Quartile, when three signs 12 Leo (the Lion), 120°

distant, or differing 90° in me Virgo (the Virgin), 150°

Longitude or Rt. Ascension. - Libra (the Balance), 180° 8 Opposition, when six signs m Scorpio (the Scorpion), 210° distant, or differing 180° in Sagittarius (the Archer), 240° Longitude or Rt. Ascension. ve Capricornus (the Goat), 270°

Aquarius (the Waterbearer), * Pisces (the Fishes), 330° (300 N. North. Mins. of Arc.

S. South.

Secs. of Arc. ó Conjunction, in the same de. E. East. h. Hours.

gree or sign, or having the W. West. m. Mins. of Time

same Longitude or Rt. Ascn. Degrees. Secs, of Time.
TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN SHIPPING.
A/c.-Account.

E.E.-Errors excepted.
E. & 0. E.-Errors and omissions excepted.
F.O.B.-Free on board. F.P.A.-Free of particular average.
Inst.—Instant, present month. C/I/F.-Cost, Insurance & Freight.
Prox.--Proximo, next month. Ult.- Ultimo, last month.
D/D.-Days after Date. M/D.-Months after date.
D/S.-Days after sight. %-Per cent.
@-At, to. P-Per.

B/L.–Bill of Lading.
Ad valorem.—According to value.
Adjustment.—The settlement of a loss incurred by the insured.
Adventure.-Goods consigned to a party to be made the most of.
Agio.-The Premium borne by a better sort of money abovean inferior.
Appraise.-To value goods imported.
Assets-A term for property and money in contradistinction to liabilities.
Assurance.-See Insurance.
Average.--A sacrifice made to prevent the total loss of a ship or

cargo ; an average of the loss insured for the benefit of

all concerned, to be made good proportionately. Award. --The decision in arbitration. Banco.- A continental term for bank money at Hamburg and other

places. Barratry. --A fraudulent act on the part of the master or crew of a

vessel, against the interest of the owners. Insurances

are effected against barratry.
Bill of Health. -A certificate granted by Consuls and Customs

Officers as to health of port.
Bill of Lading.-A master's acknowledgment and undertaking as

to receipt and delivery of goods or cargo.
Bottomry. – Money' borrowed on a ship's bottom or hull, to be

repaid with interest if the ship return in safety, but if not
to be lost or forfeited. Sometimes it is raised on the

lading and master's personal security ; see Respondentia. Brokerage. The commission charged by merchants and brokers for

securing and transacting business for ships. Charter Party. -A contract with the owner, agent, or master for

the service of his vessel. Conul. - The commercial representative of one country residing

officially in another

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Credil, Leller of:-A letter written by one party to another

requesting the party addressed to advance the bearer or

person named a certain sum of money. Dars of Grace. – Days allowed by law or custom for payment of

Bills of Exchange (except those payable at sight or on demand) after specified day of payment ; thus, when three days are allowed, as usual in England, a bill due on the

5th of the month is payable on the 8th. Dead Freight.-The damage payable by one who engages to load

a ship fully, and fails so to do. Debenture.-An instrument of the nature of a bill or bond, by

which a debt is claimable. May bear interest or conser some peculiar advantage. It is given at the Custom

House to claim a drawback. Derelict.-Goods cast away or relinquished by wreck or otherwise.

Reductions in duty are also made proportionate to the

damage on them. Deviation is a divergence from the voyage insured which may

release the underwriter from his risk. Drawback.-An allowance granted by Government to encourage

exportation of an article, or a return of duties paid upon

certain articles on exportation. Discount.- An allowance made for money paid before it is due.

To discount a Bill is to buy from the holder the right

to receive the money upon it when due. Dunnage.- Articles used in stowing a cargo or trimming a ship. Embargo.-An order issued by Government to prevent vessels sailing. Flotsam.-Goods Aoating after a wreck. Jetsam are those sunk.

Lagan are those sunk but secured by a buoy. Groundage.—Money paid in some parts for permission to anchor. Insurance.- A contract whereby, for a stipulated consideration,

called a premium, one party undertakes to indemnify the

other against certain risks. Invoice.-A document enumerating goods sold from A to B.

Where the goods are exported by A to be sold on his own account, the document is a specification, and not,

strict y speaking, an invoice. Lay Days.-Days allowed by charter for loading or unloading ships. Lighterage.—The expense of a lighter or barge. Manifest.-- The specification of a cargo made out and signed by

the master of a ship. Policy.-A document containing the contract of insurance. A Valued

Policy is when the interest insured is valued. An Open Policy is one in which the amount is left for subsequent proof. In an open policy, where the value shipped does not equal the value insured, the difference is termed over insurance ; and the proportionate amount of premium re

turnable to the insurer is called a return for short interest. Primage. -A small allowance for the shipmaster's care of goods

now generally included in the freight. Pro rata.- Payment in proportion to the interests concerned. Quid pro quo. -Giving one thing for another. Respondentia.-A contract of loan by which goods in a ship are

hypothecated to the lender, as in bottomry. Super Cargo. -A person sent with a vessel to dispose of its cargo

to the best advantage.

EDUCATIONAL STANDARD REQUIRED BY VARIOUS MARITIME POWERS FOR MASTERS AND MATES.

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AIR.
In its pure state air is composed as follows:--By Weight. By Volunie.

Nitrogen..
Oxygen

do.

77 per cent. 23

79'19 20'81

100

100'0o

20'50 do.
20'75 do.

I cubic foot at 62° weighs 533 grains =1217 02.
The percentage of oxygen varies as follows :--
Sea-shore

21 per cent.
Mines ..

Confined Houses. Air travels in England in healthy years at the rate of about 4 miles per hour, and in unhealthy years about 3} miles per hour. Each adult inhales a gallon of air per minute, and consumes daily 30 02, of oxygen. For the conversion of this oxygen a certain amount of food is required--say 13 oz. os carbon for a male and 11 oz. for a semale-equivalent to 3lb. and 2 lb. of brea) respectively.

THE POWER OF THE WIND.

Figures!
odenote
he Force Description of
of the Wind.
Wind.

Rate of POWER OF THE WIND

the Wind as regards a well-conditioned Man-of-War per Hour

or First-class Clipper Ship.

in Miles

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2 10

1

Calm
Light Ilir
Light Breeze
Gentle Breeze
Moderate Breeze

2

3 4

21

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o to Just sufficient to give steerage way

.! 3-
With which the above Ship
with all sail set and clean

i to 2 knots.. 11

15

16
full would go

3 to 4
in smooth
I što o

25
water...
Royals, &c.

26

30 Single Reefs and In which she could T.G. Sails.

31 36 just carryin chase Double Reefs and full and by

Jib, &c....

37 44 Triple Reefs &c. 45 52

Close Reef & Courses 53 бо In which she could just bear close-reefed

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Main Topsail and reefed l'oresail 61 69 Under Storm Staysail

70 80 Bare Poles

above 30

11 12

Storm
Hurricane

с

D

F

W

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H

FORMULA FOR RECORDING STATE OF THE

WEATHER. B denotes Blue Sky, i.e. clear or v denotes Ugly, with a heavy hazy atmosphere.

appearance of ine Cloudy detached

weather. opening clouds.

Visibility of distant Drizzling Rain.

objects.
Fog-FF Thick Fog.

Wet dew.
Gloomy-dk. weather Dot under any letter, an extra-
Hail.

ordinary degree.
1.
Lightning,

By the combination of these M

Misty or Hazy-so as letters all the ordinary pheno-
to interrupt the view mena of the weather may be
Overcast- i.e., whole recorded with certainty and
sky covered with an brevity.
impervious cloud. BCM – Blue sky, with detacher!
Passing Showers.

opening clouds, but hazy round Q Squally.

the horizon. Rain-continuous rain GV-Gloomy dark weather, but Snow.

distant objects remarkably Thunder.

visible.

2

P

R

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USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN FORETELLING

WEATHER. On Barometer Scales the fol- And the following summary lowing contractions may be use- may be useful generally :sul in North Latitude: RISE FALL

RISE

FALL
FOR
FOR
FOR

FOR
N.Fly.

S. Wly. Cold, Dry, Warm, llet,
N.W.-N.-E. ( S.E.-S.-W.
Dry or Less Wet or More

Less

More
Wind.
Wind.

Wind.

Wind.
Except Wet
Except Wet
Except Wet

Except let
from
from
from

from N.ward .E N.Eward. Cold Side. I Cold Side. In other Latitudes substitute South or Southward for North, &c

or

or

Much inequality of atmospheric pressure or temperature, great depression or elevation of the barometer, sudden or rapid alternations, great falls of rain or snow-indicate more or less change, more or less wind, with its usual accompaniments, either in some places only, or throughout an extensive area of hundreds of miles, if not thousands.

Speaking generaliy, there is far less occasion to give warning oi southerly storms by signal ihan of northerly, because those from the southward are preceded by notable signs in the atmosphere, by a Talling barometer, and by a temperature higher than usual to the season ; whereas, on the contrary, dangerous storms from a polar quarter (N.W. to N.E.) are sometimes sudden, and usually are preceded by a rising barometer, which is often misleading, especially when accompanied by a temporary lull, or perhaps a day or two, with an appearance of fine weather.

B

THERMOMETER.

There are four thermometer scales, Fahrenheit, Rcaumur, Centigrade,

and Celsius, the two latter being synonymous. To convert one scale into either of the others : Let F = Fahrenheit, R Réaumur, and C = Centigraile or Celsius Then F R X 2'25 + 32, or F = C X 1.8 + 32.

R X 10 Then C =

8 F 32

C x 8
Then R =

2:25
ENGINEERING FORMULA.

F - 32

or C

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· Or R

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WEIGHTS OF METALS.
i square foot of wrought iron} inch thick = 5 lbs.
1 foot length,

squire= 3'333 lbs.

diameter 262 lbs. Weight in'wrought iron x 348 = 'weight in aluminium.

X 935 =

zinc (zn). X '9375=

cast iron. X 062

tin. x 1'0208

sieel. X 1062

mintz metal, Xi106 =

gun metal, XI1052 =

brass (2, CUI. I, zn.) XI1117

brass (cul. 3. 211.) X1155

copper (cu.) X1483

lead. * *962

tin. Thus a square foot of alüminium s in. thick would weigh 5 * *348=174 lbs.

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USEFUL CONSTANTS AND CO-EFFICIENTS.

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Useful Constants.

No.

Log of Resipro

No. cal of No 3:1416 *4971 ‘31831 9*8696

'0943 '10132 17724

2486 *5642 TT

*7854 8931 1*2732 + Centimetres in one inch

2'54 4048 *393708 Yards in one metre

1'0936

*03888 014383 Kilometres in one mile

1'0093

*2000 *62138 Miles in one (statute) knot

11528 '0618 .868 Cubic centimetres in one cubic inch

16.386

12145 *001027 pint

567-93

27543 *00176 Cubic inches

I'S 398

*02883 Pints in one litre

17008

'2457

*56703 Grains in one gramme

15432

11883 '00479 Lbs. (avoir.) in one kilogramme

2*2046 3433 45359 Lbs, in one cubit foot of water

62452 17953

" '016 Force de chrval in one horse power

101385 'oos8

'986337 Foot Ibs, in one horse power

33.000 4'5185

*0000303 British heat limits in one calorie

*252 Degrees Fah. in one degree Centigrade

*2553 '5555 Feer per second in one mile per hour

14666

1664

.6811 Metres per second in one kilometre per hour

27777 44.37 *360009 Value of g. at Greenwich in inch seconds

386-29 2-5869 Length of seconds pendulum at Greenwi:h, in ins. =

: 5926 The reciprocal gives the converse of the number ; thus there are 7'5a centimetres in one inch, or 393708 inch in one centimetre.

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