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SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, &c. r Aries (the Ram), oo
* Sextile, when two signs disTaurus (the Bull), 30°
tant, or differing 60° in [ Gemini (the Twins), 60°
Longitude or Rt. Ascension. og Cancer (the Crab), 90° o Quartile, when three signs 12 Leo (the Lion), 120°
distant, or differing 90° in me Virgo (the Virgin), 150°
Longitude or Rt. Ascension. - Libra (the Balance), 180° 8 Opposition, when six signs m Scorpio (the Scorpion), 210° distant, or differing 180° in † Sagittarius (the Archer), 240° Longitude or Rt. Ascension. ve Capricornus (the Goat), 270°
Aquarius (the Waterbearer), * Pisces (the Fishes), 330° (300 N. North. Mins. of Arc.
Secs. of Arc. ó Conjunction, in the same de. E. East. h. Hours.
gree or sign, or having the W. West. m. Mins. of Time
same Longitude or Rt. Ascn. Degrees. Secs, of Time.
B/L.–Bill of Lading.
cargo ; an average of the loss insured for the benefit of
all concerned, to be made good proportionately. Award. --The decision in arbitration. Banco.- A continental term for bank money at Hamburg and other
places. Barratry. --A fraudulent act on the part of the master or crew of a
vessel, against the interest of the owners. Insurances
are effected against barratry.
Officers as to health of port.
to receipt and delivery of goods or cargo.
repaid with interest if the ship return in safety, but if not
lading and master's personal security ; see Respondentia. Brokerage. The commission charged by merchants and brokers for
securing and transacting business for ships. Charter Party. -A contract with the owner, agent, or master for
the service of his vessel. Conul. - The commercial representative of one country residing
officially in another
Credil, Leller of:-A letter written by one party to another
requesting the party addressed to advance the bearer or
person named a certain sum of money. Dars of Grace. – Days allowed by law or custom for payment of
Bills of Exchange (except those payable at sight or on demand) after specified day of payment ; thus, when three days are allowed, as usual in England, a bill due on the
5th of the month is payable on the 8th. Dead Freight.-The damage payable by one who engages to load
a ship fully, and fails so to do. Debenture.-An instrument of the nature of a bill or bond, by
which a debt is claimable. May bear interest or conser some peculiar advantage. It is given at the Custom
House to claim a drawback. Derelict.-Goods cast away or relinquished by wreck or otherwise.
Reductions in duty are also made proportionate to the
damage on them. Deviation is a divergence from the voyage insured which may
release the underwriter from his risk. Drawback.-An allowance granted by Government to encourage
exportation of an article, or a return of duties paid upon
certain articles on exportation. Discount.- An allowance made for money paid before it is due.
To discount a Bill is to buy from the holder the right
to receive the money upon it when due. Dunnage.- Articles used in stowing a cargo or trimming a ship. Embargo.-An order issued by Government to prevent vessels sailing. Flotsam.-Goods Aoating after a wreck. Jetsam are those sunk.
Lagan are those sunk but secured by a buoy. Groundage.—Money paid in some parts for permission to anchor. Insurance.- A contract whereby, for a stipulated consideration,
called a premium, one party undertakes to indemnify the
other against certain risks. Invoice.-A document enumerating goods sold from A to B.
Where the goods are exported by A to be sold on his own account, the document is a specification, and not,
strict y speaking, an invoice. Lay Days.-Days allowed by charter for loading or unloading ships. Lighterage.—The expense of a lighter or barge. Manifest.-- The specification of a cargo made out and signed by
the master of a ship. Policy.-A document containing the contract of insurance. A Valued
Policy is when the interest insured is valued. An Open Policy is one in which the amount is left for subsequent proof. In an open policy, where the value shipped does not equal the value insured, the difference is termed over insurance ; and the proportionate amount of premium re
turnable to the insurer is called a return for short interest. Primage. -A small allowance for the shipmaster's care of goods
now generally included in the freight. Pro rata.- Payment in proportion to the interests concerned. Quid pro quo. -Giving one thing for another. Respondentia.-A contract of loan by which goods in a ship are
hypothecated to the lender, as in bottomry. Super Cargo. -A person sent with a vessel to dispose of its cargo
to the best advantage.
EDUCATIONAL STANDARD REQUIRED BY VARIOUS MARITIME POWERS FOR MASTERS AND MATES.
77 per cent. 23
I cubic foot at 62° weighs 533 grains =1217 02.
21 per cent.
Confined Houses. Air travels in England in healthy years at the rate of about 4 miles per hour, and in unhealthy years about 3} miles per hour. Each adult inhales a gallon of air per minute, and consumes daily 30 02, of oxygen. For the conversion of this oxygen a certain amount of food is required--say 13 oz. os carbon for a male and 11 oz. for a semale-equivalent to 3lb. and 2 lb. of brea) respectively.
THE POWER OF THE WIND.
Rate of POWER OF THE WIND
the Wind as regards a well-conditioned Man-of-War per Hour
or First-class Clipper Ship.
o to Just sufficient to give steerage way
i to 2 knots.. 11
3 to 4
30 Single Reefs and In which she could T.G. Sails.
31 36 just carryin chase Double Reefs and full and by
37 44 Triple Reefs &c. 45 52
Close Reef & Courses 53 бо In which she could just bear close-reefed
Main Topsail and reefed l'oresail 61 69 Under Storm Staysail
70 80 Bare Poles
FORMULA FOR RECORDING STATE OF THE
WEATHER. B denotes Blue Sky, i.e. clear or v denotes Ugly, with a heavy hazy atmosphere.
appearance of ine Cloudy detached
weather. opening clouds.
Visibility of distant Drizzling Rain.
By the combination of these M
Misty or Hazy-so as letters all the ordinary pheno-
opening clouds, but hazy round Q Squally.
the horizon. Rain-continuous rain GV-Gloomy dark weather, but Snow.
distant objects remarkably Thunder.
USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN FORETELLING
WEATHER. On Barometer Scales the fol- And the following summary lowing contractions may be use- may be useful generally :sul in North Latitude: RISE FALL
S. Wly. Cold, Dry, Warm, llet,
from N.ward .E N.Eward. Cold Side. I Cold Side. In other Latitudes substitute South or Southward for North, &c
Much inequality of atmospheric pressure or temperature, great depression or elevation of the barometer, sudden or rapid alternations, great falls of rain or snow-indicate more or less change, more or less wind, with its usual accompaniments, either in some places only, or throughout an extensive area of hundreds of miles, if not thousands.
Speaking generaliy, there is far less occasion to give warning oi southerly storms by signal ihan of northerly, because those from the southward are preceded by notable signs in the atmosphere, by a Talling barometer, and by a temperature higher than usual to the season ; whereas, on the contrary, dangerous storms from a polar quarter (N.W. to N.E.) are sometimes sudden, and usually are preceded by a rising barometer, which is often misleading, especially when accompanied by a temporary lull, or perhaps a day or two, with an appearance of fine weather.
There are four thermometer scales, Fahrenheit, Rcaumur, Centigrade,
and Celsius, the two latter being synonymous. To convert one scale into either of the others : Let F = Fahrenheit, R Réaumur, and C = Centigraile or Celsius Then F R X 2'25 + 32, or F = C X 1.8 + 32.
R X 10 Then C =
8 F 32
C x 8
F - 32
· Or R
WEIGHTS OF METALS.
squire= 3'333 lbs.
diameter 262 lbs. Weight in'wrought iron x 348 = 'weight in aluminium.
X 935 =
zinc (zn). X '9375=
cast iron. X 062
tin. x 1'0208
sieel. X 1062
mintz metal, Xi106 =
gun metal, XI1052 =
brass (2, CUI. I, zn.) XI1117
brass (cul. 3. 211.) X1155
copper (cu.) X1483
lead. * *962
tin. Thus a square foot of alüminium s in. thick would weigh 5 * *348=174 lbs.
USEFUL CONSTANTS AND CO-EFFICIENTS.
Log of Resipro
No. cal of No 3:1416 *4971 ‘31831 9*8696
'0943 '10132 17724
2486 *5642 TT
*7854 8931 1*2732 + Centimetres in one inch
2'54 4048 *393708 Yards in one metre
*03888 014383 Kilometres in one mile
*2000 *62138 Miles in one (statute) knot
11528 '0618 .868 Cubic centimetres in one cubic inch
12145 *001027 pint
27543 *00176 Cubic inches
*02883 Pints in one litre
*56703 Grains in one gramme
11883 '00479 Lbs. (avoir.) in one kilogramme
2*2046 3433 45359 Lbs, in one cubit foot of water
" '016 Force de chrval in one horse power
'986337 Foot Ibs, in one horse power
*0000303 British heat limits in one calorie
*252 Degrees Fah. in one degree Centigrade
*2553 '5555 Feer per second in one mile per hour
.6811 Metres per second in one kilometre per hour
27777 44.37 *360009 Value of g. at Greenwich in inch seconds
386-29 2-5869 Length of seconds pendulum at Greenwi:h, in ins. =
: 5926 The reciprocal gives the converse of the number ; thus there are 7'5a centimetres in one inch, or 393708 inch in one centimetre.