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MALDON, Essex. Lat. 51° 44' N ; long o° 40' E. Situated

at the confluence of the Blackwater and the Chelmer. There is no regular harb. D. Dry at LWST., vessels of 12ft dst, at HWST.

MAN.-See Isle of Man.
MANCHESTER, Lancashire.—Auth. The Manchester Ship

Canal Co. The Customs Port of Manchester commences at the eastern termination of the Port of Liverpool, at an imaginary straight line across the Mersey from Dungeon Point in Lancashire to Ince Ferry in Cheshire, and includes the Mersey above the said line and the Irwell, so far as navi. gable, the Weaver to Frodsham Bridge, and also the Manchester Ship Canal from the entrance at Eastham, where it touches the Port of Liverpool, to Hunt's Bank in Manchester, with all channels, havens, streams, cuts, and docks within the limits aforesaid. It is 351 miles in length, excavated to a depth of 26 feet, with an average breadth al water level of 172ft, and at bottom of isoft, with the following exceptions :-Curve at Weaver Outfall, width at full depth 140ft, and bend at Runcorn of 150ft ; Latchford Locks to Partington Coal Basin, about 2 miles, bottom width at present only 80 to goft-large vessels not to pass each other on this portion; from Barton Aqueduct to Manchester Docks, bottom width 170fr. It is thus throughout of much greater navigable width than the Suer. Canal, which, with the exception of portions now being widened and at passing places, is only 72ft at bottom. The tidal portion of the Canal from Eastham to Latchford Lucks (21 miles) is maintained at least 14ft zin above Old Dock sill. Liverpool (or glt 6in above Ord. nance datum, iol., mean sea level), and the Canal datum is at present 12st below the Old Dock sill, equal to a depth of 261t of waler inside the Ship Canal. The locks and swing bridges are all connected by telephone with each other and with the Dock Office at Manchester. The Ship Canal includes five sets of Locks, as follows:

Large Inter-
Name.

Small
Lock. mediate.

Rise.
Sluices.
Locks.

1

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Total rise from level of tide rising 14ft zin above Old Dock sill at Liverpool (this being the ordinary water level in Canal between Eastham and Latchford) to water level in Manchester Docks, 6oft 6in.

The Manchester Docks Estate covers an area of 406), acres, including a water space of 104 acres, and quays 5.1 miles in length and 152 acres in extent. The dimensions are--No. 1, 700 by 120ft ; No. 2, 600 by 150ft ; No. 3, 600 by 150ft: No. 4, 560 by 150ft; No. 5, 980 by 75oft ; No. 6, 850 by 225ft ; No. 7, 1,160 by 225st; No. 8, 1,340 by 25oft; No.9, now in course of construction, will be 2,700ft by 250ft. The distance from water-line to quay in Manchester Docks is 8ft. Only one condition is necessary to be observed by even the largest vessels, and that is the height of their masts, the height of various high level bridges being, from normal water level to under girder of bridlze, 75st. As, however, the headway is necessarily a few feet less when high tides or floods occur, to avoid detention, masts should clear the bridges at 70ft above the water level. In consequence of the development of

LV. s.s.

trade, powers have been obtained in an Act of Parliament to acquire about 150 acres of land adjoining the Canal and Docks at Manchester, which is being utilised for the provision of additional dock, railway and storage accommodation, some of the works including dock No 9, 2,700ft by 250ft, and five transit sheds (four floors) —being in hand and nearing completion. Accn. The dock accommodation at Manchester ard Salford is practically unlimited. The equipment includes 135 hydraulic, steam and electric cranes, with a radius of from 15 to 33ft, and capacity of i 10 10 tons; a 100-ton Hoating crane ; a 30-ton steam crane ; pontoon sheers up to 250 tons, with a lift of 2ift, portable grain elevators, six floating ponloons of d.w. carrying capacity of 800 tons each, 34 loc motives, and every appliance for quick despatch in loading and discharging ; a range of thirteen single, one double, and six three-story sheds and two four-story sheds ; also seven warehouses, four stories, and thirteen warehouses seven stories each. Manchester City, 3,727 net reg. tons; s.s. Samoa, 4,507 n.r. ; ss. Suffolk, 4,680 n. r. ; s.s. Spondilus, 4,752 n. r. The docks, quays, and warehouses are lighted by electricity, and there is a fully equipped fire brigade with appliances to cover all the warehouses. There is an American-built grain elevator with a capacity of 40,000 tonz (or 1,500,000 bushels), having 226 bins, and he fol. lowing operations can all be performed simultaneously :-(a) Dis. charging from vessels in the Dock at the rate of 350 tons per hour. (6) Weighing in the tower at the water's edge. (c) Conveying 10 the house and distributing into any of the 226 bins. (d) Moving grain about within the house for changing bins or delivery, and weighing in bulk at the rate of 500 tons per hour. (e) Sacking grain, weighing, and loading sacks into 40 railway wagons and 10 carts simultaneously. Conveying from the elevator into barges or coasters at the rate of 150 tons per hour if in bulk, or 250 sacks per hour if bagged. Further discharging power by pneumatic appliance is added. An important feature in the house is Metcalf's Patent Dryer, used in America with most satisfactory results. The dryer is capable of drying 50 tons of grain at each operation, and grain can be moved to or from the dryer from or to any bin in the house.

The railways of the Company convey traffic direct between the various loading and discharging berths at the docks and along the Canal, and are connected with all the railway systems of the country. The Canal and docks are in direct communication with the whole of the barge canals of the country. The Manchester Ship Canal Company receive, warehouse, and distribute all descriptions of traffic, and quote through rates for conveyance by railway, to and from all railway stations.

Cattle pens and wharves for the coast wise cattle trade below Mode Wheel Locks, with pens, 252ft long, divided into three sorting yards 84ft by 15st 6in, and six pens 42ft by roft, so arranged that cattle can be transferred (day and night) direct from the steamer through the sorting yards and pens to the railway trucks, or to the Salford market ve Adamson-road. Lairages and foreign animals wharí situate below Mode Wheel Locks, and 12 acres in cx. tent, with a frontage to the Canal of about Sooft: can deal with 1,000 head of cattle.

duction saleroom near the lairages. The Canal at this point is zooft wide. There is a large refrigerator store, 400,000 cubic feet, below Mode Wheel Locks, capable of holding 130,000 carcases of mutton, and specially constructed

for the Australasian frozen meat trade. A lay-bye for large steamers with wharfage and railway connections provided for the berthage of steamers discharging at the store. Oil tanks: The Consolidated Petroleum Company, Ltd., have, at Eccles, five tanks, capacity 22,000 tons (6,160,000 gallons), the Anglo-American Oil Co., Lid., have 8 tanks, capacity 11,348 tons (3,177,500 gallons), the Liverpool Storage Co., Ltd., 6 tanks, capacity 10,000 tons (2,800,000 gallons), the Manchester Corporation 2 tanks, capacity 4,016 tons (1,124,480 gallons), with wharves adjoining the Ship Canal at Mode Wheel, and the Pure Oil Co., the Homelight Oil Co., Ltd., and the General Oil Storage Co., Ltd., have 5 tanks in Trafford Park, which is alongside the Canal, with an aggregate capacity of 23, 344 (6,496,432 gallons). The total tankage capacity at, or adjacent to, the Docks is 70,708 tons (19,758,412 gallons). Oil is conveyed to each of the above depots through pipes direct from vessel to tank, whence it can be reloaded into carts, barges, or railway wagons. Adjoining the Manchester Docks are the Ship Canal Pontoons and Dry Docks Co.'s Works at Mode Wheel, fitted for ship repairing throughout, with a graving dock 480 by 65ft, and a floating pontoon which will raise vessels 300ft long and up to 2,500 reg. tons; also a floating pontoon and repairing yard at Ellesmere Port. Smelting Works : Tbe Smelting Corporation, Ltd., have erected large smelting works at Stanlow Wharf, near Ellesmere Port, with a deep water lay-bye for oceangoing vessels. Large vessels can berth at Warrington lay-bye, which is zooft long, 26ft depth alongside, and is provided with hydraulic transporter for loading and discharging and railway connections, &c. "The Haydock Shipping Wharf (belonging to Messrs. Richard Evans & Co., Ltd., of Haydock) at Acton Grange, near Warrington, is 34oft long, 40ft wide, with 22ft of water alongside. The United Alkali Company have two wharvas alongside their “Wiggs Works” at Old Quay, Runcorn, each 6ooft long, with depth of water 26ft and 12ft respectively. The Co-operative Wholesale Society have in connection with their soap and candle works at Irlam a wharf 3coft long with 26ft depth of water alongside.

Ships' Dues. Vessels trading to the Canal up to Runcorn swing bridge will pay ship dues as for Section A of Canal ; beyond Runcorn to Latchford Locks as for Section B); between Latchford Locks and Manchester as for Section C, as per schedule of ship dues shown on next page. Sailing vessels ordered to Manchester, and whose lower masts, after striking topmasts, would not pass under the fixed bridges 75ft high, will be discharged below bridges, the cargo being lightered to Manchester (in case of floated timber rafted) without extra cost to the merchant beyond what he would have paid if the vessel had proceeded to Manchester. Vessels discharging below bridges will be charged full ship dues as for Section A. Vessels having paid dues on their ioward voyage as from the most distant port of lading, and loading cargoes outward, will not be charged dues on their outward voyage when the dues chargeable as for the most distant port of destination do not exceed the amount paid for inward dues, but, should the outward dues exceed the inward, the difference in excess will then be charged. Ship dues will be collected on the vessel's net registered tonnage and deck space occupied by deck cargo, except in respect of deck cargo carried by vessels trading between places in the United Kingdom, or between the United Kingdom and ports in

Europe between the river Elbe and Brest, which will not be charged for. The Canal tolls and wharfage, which will be collected upon the cargo, are payable by the owners of the cargo (for particulars see separate schedule of merchants' charges).

SCHEDULE OF SHIP DUES.

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Between St. David's Head and the Mull

of Galloway, including the Isle of Man

and the Island of Anglesea.. Between the Mull of Galloway and Dun

can's Bay Head, including the Orkney
Isles and all tbe Islands on the Western
Coast of Scotland ; and between St.
David's Head and the Land's End, in-
cluding the Scilly Islands and the East
Coast of Ireland from Cape Clear to

Malling Head...
All the parts of the East and Southern

Coasts of Great Britain between Dun-
can's Bay Head and the Land's End,
including the Islands of Shetland : and
all parts of the West Coast of Ireland
from Cape Clear to Malling Head,

including the Islands on that Coast All parts

of Europe to the Northward of Cape Finisterre, and to the Westward of the North Cape, and without the Cattegat and Baltic Sea, and including the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, the Faro Islands, and Ice.

land Al parts within the Cattegat and Baltic,

lincluing the whole of Sweden, the White Sea, and all parts to the East. ward of the North Cape; all parts in Europe to the Southward of Cape Finis. terre without the Mediterranean, Greenland. Davis' Straits, Canaries,

Western Islands, Madeira, and Azores All other parts beyond the seas not speci

fied above

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Rent Charges.-Rent of one penny per net registered ton per week is chargeable on cargo vessels remaining in the Canal after the expiration of the period allowed in above table. Should vessels remain in the Canal beyond six months from date of entry, clouble these rates will be charged.

Differential Ship Dues.-(1) Vessels arriving in the Canal with cargoes not less than one-hall of which shall consist of all or any of the following articles, and discharging the whole of any such cargoes in the Canal, will be charged only one-half of the ship dues specified in the above schedule, whether they leave the Canal in ballast, or load cargoes in any section, consisting exclusively of all or any of the articles named in clause 2. The articles above referred to are : Bauxites, blende ore or black jack, copper ore, copper precipitate, copper pyrites, copper regulus, esparto grass, green fruit, guano, iron ore, iron pyrites, lead ore, magnesite ore, manganese, manganese ore, manganiserous iron ore, phosphate, phosphate rock, sulphur ore, sulphur pyrites. (2) Vessels arriving in the Canal in ballast or with cargoes not less than one-half of which shall consist of all or any of the articles named in clause 1, and discharging the whole of any such cargoes in the Canal, and loading cargots in the Canal consisting exclusively of all or any of the following articles, will be charged cne-half of the ship dues specified in above schedule : Bricks, coal, coal briquettes, purple ore briquettes, coke, pig-iron, iron ore, phosphate, pitch, salt, salt cake, slag, steel rails. (3) Vessels coming to Section C of the Canal in ballast, or laden, should they on their way to Section C call at any point in Sections A or B to discharge or load cargo, will be liable for ship dues applicable to those sections, but such vessels when on the way to Section C will be allowed to take in bunker coal in Sections A or B, paying ship dues as for Section C only. (4) Vessels having first discharged in Section C not less than one-half of total cargo, brought inward for discharge in the Canal, and calling at any point in Sections A or B on way outward to discharge balance of cargo (such balance not having been transhipped in any part of the Canal before reaching point of discharge), or to load there, will in either case be charged ship dues as for Section C only. (5) Ves els having first loaded in Section C not less than one-hall of the total cargo they take out of the Canal, and cal ing at any point in Sections A or B to load, will be charged ship dues as for Section C only. (6) Ves els entering the Canal in bailast and proceeding to Section C and loading not less than one h lf of total cargo taken on board in the Canal, and loading remainder of cargo in Sections A or B, will be charged ship dues as for Section C only. (7) Vessels trading exclusively on the River Mersey, and entering the Canal through any of the estuary locks loaded with transhipment cargo for outward sea-going vessel, or if such vessels load such cargo from import sea-going vessels in the Canal for lighterage to places either within or outside the Canal (on the Mersey), will not be charged ship dues. (8) Vessels, includ. ing yachts, launches, small steamers, and any other craft not cargo carrying (exclusive of tugs, licensed by the Company, attending on vessels), using the Canal from point to point, will, in lieu of ship dues, be liable for lockage toll, as follows:- For passing through any lock, 5/ per lock each way, in addition to Canal toll on passengers carried.

Minimum charge for lockage £l is. Upon payment of lockage charge such vessels may remain in the Canal seven clear days, after which rent will be charged as specified above. Toll on passengers, d per mile per passenger. Upper Mersey Dues : The Upper Mersey Commissioners have power to charge dues on vessels loading or discharging in the Runcorn and Weston Point Docks, or at Ellesmere Port, but

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