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TIIE SUEZ CANAL.

The Suez Canal was projected by Mons. Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1852. The cutting was commenced in 1859, and the first vessel passed from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea on August 15, 1865. In 1869 the course was declared suitable for mail steamers. The official opening took place in November, 1869. The Canal was II years in construction, is 87 miles long and 26 feet deep, and has shortened by one-third all voyages to the East. The British Government, in May and June, 1877, claimed for the Canal international neutrality. In October, 1887, a Convention agreeing to the neutralisation of the Canal was signed at Paris by the representatives of Great Britain and France.

The Suez Canal is open to ships of all nationalities, provided that their draught of water does not exceed 261t zin, and that they conform to the following conditions

(1) Sailing vessels above 50 tons are bound to be towed through.

(2) Steam vessels may pass through the Canal by means of their own steam power, or to be towed, subject to conditions.

(3) The maximum speed of all ships passing through the Canal is fixed at 10 kilometres, equal to 51 nautical miles per hour.

(4) Steamers are allowed to go through the Canal at night if they are provided with an electric projector, throwing a light 1,200 metres ahead. These projectors are supplied by shipping agents at Port Said for £8 through the Canal.

REGULATIONS FOR THE CARRIAGE OF PETROLEUM

THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL.

Any ship laden with petroleum oil in bulk shall, on arriving before any port of access to the Canal, at once make herselt known by flying at the mizen one of the signals hereafter described, which shall remain flying during the whole of her transit :

BY DAY: A red fag above one ball.
By Night: A white light beneath two red ones.

Before obtaining entrance into the Canal the captain shall make a declaration to the following effect :

(1) That his ship is specially classed for the carriage of petroleum oil

in bulk in Class + A 1,100 at Lloyd's in London, or in Class + 3/3 1. 1. in the Bureau Veritas, or in Class + 100 A in the Germanic Lloyd (Berlin.)

(2) That no single tank in the ship has a cubic capacity greater than 500 tons measurement (being tons of 2.83 cubic metres or 100 cubic feet English) nor can discharge its contents into any adjoining tank through any aperture or want of continuity whatever of its walls. (3) That the petroleum oil contained in her tanks is solely refined petroleum of a uniform quality, no sample of which taken at the port of loading shall have given a flashing point below 23° Centigrade (73° Fahrenheit's thermometer), this temperature having been ascertained conformably with such process of close test as may be recognised and made use of in the petroleum oil trade, as, for instance, the Abel test, or any other close test of a not lesser degree of accuracy.

(4) That the petroleum oil contained in any of the ship's spaces, other than her tanks, has a flashing point not under 66° Centigrade (150° Fahrenheit's thermometer), this temperature having been ascertained as in paragraph 3.

NEW TONNAGE REGULATIONS FOR MEASURING

DECK SPARS, PROMULGATED AUGUST 2, 1904,
BY THE SUEZ CANAL COMPANY.

(1) In the case of shelter-deck spaces with one or more openings in the shelter-deck and sides of the vessel, the whole of the space under the shelter-deck should be included in the tonnage measurement with the exception of that part of the space which is immediately abreast the openings (if any) in the sides of the ship.

(2) In all cases where a vessel is fitted with forecastle, bridge space, and poop there shall be exempted from measurement: (11) such length of the forecastle, measured from the inside of the stem at half height of the said forecastle as shall be equal to one-eighth of the full length of the ship; (6) such length of the poop mea ured from (the inside of) the stern timber at balf height of the said poop as shall be equal to one-tenth of the full length of the ship ; (c) such length of the bridge as is equal to the length of the actual deck openings to engire and boiler spaces, it being understood that sich openings shall not be considered to extend beyond the forward bulkhead of the stokehold and the after bulkhead of the main engine-room.

(3) In all cases where the poop and bridge or forecastle and bridge are combined and continuous, then only that length in each case which is due to the openings of engine and boiler spaces as defined under (c) above shall be exempted from measuremeot.

(4) By full length of the ship shall be understood, in all cases, such length as is comprised between the inside of stem at half height of the forecastle to the inside of the stern timber at halt height of the poop.

(5) If at any time the vessel shall perform transit with cargo or stures carried in any portion of any exempted space, then the whole of that space shall be added to the net tonnage, and never more exe.npted from measurement.

1883

3,284

3,708

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1883

7,386

1885

1,918

1890

TRAFFIC OF THE CANAL
Year.
No. of

1 No. of
Ships.

Year.
Net Tonnage.

Net Tonnage.

| Ships. 1876.. 1,457 2,096,771 1890...... 3,389 6,890,094 1877 1,663 2,355,447 1891.

4,207

8,698,777 1878. 1,593 2,269,678 1892..

3,559 7,712,028 1879. 1,477 2,263,332 1893

3,341

7,659,059 1880. 2,026 3,037,421 1894

3,352

8,039,175 1831

2,727 4,136,779 1895 3,434 8,448,383 1882. 3,198

5,074,808
1896. 3,409

8,550,283 3, 307 5,775,861

1897
2,986

7,899,373 1884. 5,871,500 1898 3,503

9,238,603 1885 3,624 6,335,752 1899

3,607 9,895,630 1836 3,100 5,767,655

1900.
3,441

9,738,152 1887. 3,137 5,903,024

1901

3,694 10,823, 840 1888. 3, 440 6,640,834 1902.

11,248,413 1889.. 3,425 6,783, 187 1903......

3,761 11,907,288 No. of Passengers who

Classification of

In In In passed through the Canal in 1 each of the following years.

Passengers.

1901. 1902. 1903. 1881.

90,524 1882

131,068 Soldiers -
119,177

Gerinan

| 25 884

8,207 1884 151,916 English

20,170 28,698 30,001 205,951

French ..

1 30,434 23,691 22,990 1886 171,401 Netherlands

2,194 1,999 2,411 1887 182,991 Italian

2,518

1,573 1888. 183,895 Japanese

290 45 1889. 180,594 Turkish

19,140 5,703 11,337 161,353 Portuguese

309 435

226 1891 194,467

Russian

34,074
12,477

4,10 1892 189 809 American

1,501 1,773 553 1993. 136,495 Norwegians

3 1894 165,980 Civilians

92,046 98,068 90,079 1895

216,938 Pilgrims, Emigrants, 1696. 308,243 &c...

41,661 | 40,499 25, 362 1897

191,215 1898

219,554 1899.

221.332 1900.

282,511 1301

270,221 1902. 223.513

Total

....,270,221 223,513 196,024 1903

196,024 The vessels passing through the Canal for the years 1902 and 1903 were as follow :

1902 1903 Nationality. 1902 1993 Steamers 2,695 2,765 British

2,165 / 2,278 Mail steamers 822 810 French

274 261 Steamers in ballast 33 31 German

480

494 Transports..

53 Netherlands

218

223 Government vessels of

Austro-Hungarian 139 various kinds 97 94 Italian

85

72 Yachts, &c.

8 Norwegian

41! 35 Spanish

30 26 Russian

IIO

119 American.. Turkish

26 Portuguese

3

3 Japanese

61

53 Egyptian

6

11 Swedish

7 Danish

14

11 | Siamese Greek

14

7 Persian

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RELATIVE PRICES OF COALS.
The Ton of 20 cwt.- The Imperial Chaldron of 25) cwt.– The Newcastle

Chaldron of 53 cwt.

Per Per NewPer

castle Imperial Ton.

Chaldron Chaldron

Per Per New
Per

castle
Imperial
Ton.

Chaldron Chaldron

Per Per New
Per
Ton.

Imperial castle
Chaldron Chaldron

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S. d.

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2

6 7'50

10 3

IO 6

18 3

189

120 12 3

5 o 67

126

16 690 34

2 3 2 0

9 3 0 3 3 3 6 39

O 3

6 4 9 5 O 5 3 5 6 5 9 6 O 6

3

6 6

9 7 o 7 3 7

9 8 8

3 8 6 8 9 9 O 9 3 96

S.
d. s. d.

S. d. s. d.
5.60
5 3.60

99 12 5'17 25 10'05 176
2 10:42 5 II'55 IO O 12 9'00 26 6'00

17 9 3 2'25

13 0'82 27 1'95 18 o
3 607 7 3'45

13 465 27 9.90
3 9'90 7 1140 10 9 | 13 8 47 28 585 18 6
4
172

8
7'35 II O 14 0'30 29

1.80
4 5.55 9 3'30 113 14 4'12 29 975 19 o
4 9'37
9 1125 11 6

14 795 30

570 19 3
5 120 ΙΟ 720 II 9

14 1177 311.65 19 6
5 5'02
II 3'15

15 3.60 31 960 19 9
5 8.85 II II'10

15 742 32 5.55 200 12 7'05

15 11'25 33 150 20 3 6 450 | 13 3'00 129 16 3'07:33 9.45 20 6 6 8 32 13 10 95 13 o

5.40 209
7 o'15 14 6'90

13 3
16 10'72 35

1'35 21 0
7 3'97 15 285 13 6 17 2'55 35 9'30 213
7 780 15 10'80 13 9 17 6 37 36 5:25 21 6
16 6-75 14 0 17 10'20 37

120

219 8 3:45 17 270 14 3

18

2'02 37 9:15 | 22 | 8 727 17 10'65 14 6 18 5'85 38 5'10 22 3 8 IT'10 18 6.60

14 9 18 967 39 1'05 22 6 9 2'92 19 2'55 15 0 19 1.50 39 9'00 22 9 96*75 19 10'50

15 3 19 5'32 40 4'95 23 O 9 10'57 20 6.45 15 6 19 9 15 41 0'90 23 3 10 2'40 21

15 9 20 o'97 418 85 | 23 6 10 6'22 21 10 35

20 4.80 42 4*80 239 10 10'05 22 6'30

20 8:62 43 0975 24 O 11 187 23 2'25

16 6

21 0'45 43 870 24 3 11 5.70 23 10 20 16 9 21 4'27 44 4'05 246 11 9.52 24 6915 17 0 21

24 9 12 135 25 2'10 17 3 21 11'92 45 8955 250

d.

d. 22 3.75 46 4950 22 7'57 47

o'45 22 1140 47 8940 23 3'22 48 4'35 23 7'05 49 0' 3o 23 10*87 49 8*25 24 2'70 50 4'20 24 6'52 51 0'15 24 10:35 51 8'10 25 2'17 52 4'05 25 6'00 53 o'00 25 9982 53 7995 26 165 54

3'90 26 5.47 .54 1185 26 9'30 55 7.80 27 1'12 56 3.75 27 495 56 1170 27 877 57 28 0 60 58 3660 28 442 58 11'55 28 825

59 7.50 29 0'07 60 3:45 29 3'90 60 1140 20

7'35 29 1155 62

3'30 30 3'37 62 1125 30 7 20 63 7'20 30 IT'02 64 3'15 31 2 85 64 11.10 31 657 65 7'05 31 10'50

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QUANTITIES OF COALS, COKE, AND PATENT FUEL EXPORTED

FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND BRITISH SETTLEMENTS ABROAD IN 1900, 1901, 1902, AND 1903.

1900 Tons.

Igor Tons. 43,766,552

1902

Tons. 44,897,947

1903 Tons. 46,622,700

........ 46,098,228

Total

COAL OUTPUT.

UNITED KINGDOM.

Year.

Total of the

United
Kingdom.

Year.

Total of the

United Kingdom.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896

191,614,288
185,479,426
181,786,871
164,325,795
188,277,525
189,661, 362
195,351,951

1897
1808
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903

202,119,190 203,054,516 220,094,781 225,181,300 219,037,240 227,095,042 23°, 334, 469

COAL CONSUMPTION IN TONS, PER DIEM.

= tons per 24 hours at the rate of 10 lbs. per hour.

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