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allowance prescribed in para. 11, p. 65 of the load line tables for strong well-decked vessels; but in that case in computing the allowance for deck erections, the actual length of the enclosed erections is to be taken as for a well-decked vessel without any addition.

(7) The deduction for summer to be intermediate between Tables A. and C., in proportion to the effective length of erections finally allowed for freeboard purposes, and the freeboards assigned to these vessels must never be less than would be assigned for a complete awning-decked vessel of the same dimensions.

(8) For the purpose of the assignment of freeboards, a hatchway having strong iron or steel coamings, with hatch rest bars of the usual description, and also cleats for battening down bars securely riveted to the coamings, thwartship beams and fore and afters, substantial hatch covers and tarpaulins, shall be considered to have "permanent means of closing.' And a deck erection having no openings in it, except so protected, shall be held to be "permanently enclosed" within the meaning of clause 6 of these rules,



(1) The circular disc prescribed by Section 438 of Merchant Shipping Act, October, 1894, shall be 12 inches in diameter, with horizontal line 18 inches in length drawn through centre. Disc to be marked amidships on each side of the ship, the position of its centre being placed at level specified in Board of Trade certificate of approval.

(2) The lines to be used in connection with disc indicating maximum load line under different circumstances and at different seasons to be horizontal lines, 9 inches in length and I inch in thickness, extending from and at right angles to a vertical line, marked 21 inches forward of the centre of disc, maximum load lines in fresh water to be marked abaft such vertical line, and maximum load lines in salt water to be marked forward of such vertical line.

(3) Such maximum load lines shall be as follows, and the upper edge of such lines shall respectively indicate:-For Fresh Water-the maximum depth to which vessel can be loaded in fresh water. For Indian Summer-the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded for voyages during the fine season in the Indian seas, between limits of Suez and Singapore. For Summer-the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded for voyages (other than Indian summer voyages) from European and Mediterranean ports between April and September, both inclusive, and as to voyages in other parts of the world (other than Indian summer voyages), the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded during the corresponding or recognised summer months. For Winter-the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded for voyages (other than Indian summer voyages and summer voyages) from European and Mediter

ranean ports between October and March, both inclusive, and as to voyages in other parts of the world, the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded during the corresponding or recognised winter months. For Winter (North Atlantic)--the maximum depth to which the vessel can be loaded for voyages to or from the Mediterranean or any European port from, or to, ports in British North America, or Eastern ports in the United States, north of Cape Hatteras, between October and March, both inclusive. Such maximum load-lines shall be distinguished by initial letters conspicuously marked opposite the horizontal lines, and such letters to be as follows:-F.W, Fresh Water; I.S., Indian Summer; S., Summer; W., Winter; W.N.A., Winter (North Atlantic).

(4) The upper edge of horizontal line passing through centre of disc shall always indicate the maximum summer load-line in salt water. The relative positions of the upper edges of the other lines to be used in connection with disc, with the upper edge of the line passing through centre of disc (the maximum summer load-line) will be indicated in the certificate of approval.

(5) Part V. of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, shall have effect as if the maximum load-line applicable to a particular voyage were drawn through the centre of the disc.

(6) Steamships shall be marked on both sides with such of the horizontal lines as are applicable to the nature of their employment, and sailing ships shall be marked on both sides with such of the above-mentioned lines, in addition to the horizontal line through centre of disc, as indicate the maximum load-line for fresh water and for North Atlantic winter; but sailing ships engaged solely in coasting trade shall only be marked, in addition to the horizontal line passing through the centre of the disc, with the line indicating maximum load line in fresh water.

(7) The disc and maximum load-lines shall be painted white or yellow on a dark ground, or black on a light ground, and the position of the disc and of each of the lines shall, in the case of iron and teel vessels, be permanently marked by centre punch marks, and in the case of wooden vessels be sunk for their breadths into the planking a depth of not less than one quarter of an inch.

(8) This paragraph shows diagrams indicating the positions on port and starboard sides of steam and sailing vessels of the discs and lines required.

(9) Application for a certificate of approval of the position of the disc and lines or any alteration thereof shall be made by one of the registered owners or by the builder of the ship. Every application to be made on the presented form L.L.I.

(10) Respecting certificates of approval and their duration the following rules shall prevail :


(a) As regards all ships classed in Lloyd's Register, or by any other corporation or association for the survey or registry of shipping approved by the Board of Trade, the certificate of approval shall cease to have effect when the class of the ship is changed or withdrawn.

(b) As regards unclassed iron and steel steamships the certificate of aproval will be granted for the period mentioned therein, and upon the expiration of such period the certificate shail cease to have effect. (c) As regards unclassed wooden ships which have been opened out for survey and unclassed iron and steel sailing ships, the certi

ficate will be granted for a fixed time, varying with the age and condition of the ship; and at the expiration of such period it shall cease to have effect.

(d) As regards unclassed wooden ships which have not been opened out for survey, no limit of time will be imposed in the certificate.

(e) As regards all vessels having deck erections in respect of which deductions have been made for freeboard, if any change tending to invalidate the right to such deductions is made in the structural condition of the deck erections, the certificate of approval shall thereby cease to have effect.

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(11) Every certificate of approval shall be issued in duplicate; one part shall be delivered to the applicant, and the other part sent to the Marine Department, Board of Trade.

(12) On a certificate of approval ceasing to have effect, application shall at once be made by the registered managing owner for the grant of a new certificate, and the old certificate is to be delivered up to the Board of Trade, who shall cancel the same. In default of a certificate which has ceased to have effect being handed in for cancellation, it shall be competent for an officer of the Board of Trade to notify such invalidity to any collector of Customs, and for any collector consequently to refuse clearance to the vessel in question.

(13) The master of every British ship shall, before she leaves any dock, wharf, port, or harbour in the United Kingdom, Her Majesty's possessions, or any foreign country, for the purpose of proceeding to sea, enter in the official log all the particulars stated in the certificate, if not previously entered.

(14) The managing owner or master shall forthwith, on the delivery to him or his agent of the certificate, cause the same to be framed and put up in some conspicuous part of the ship so as to be visible to all persons on board, and shall keep it so put up as long as the certificate remains in force and the ship is in use.

(15) The expression "amidships" in these regulations shall mean the middle of the length of the load water-line as measured from the fore side of the stem to the aft side of the stern-post.


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The Suez Canal was projected by Mons. Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1852. The cutting was commenced in 1859, and the first vessel passed from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea on August 15, 1865. In 1869 the course was declared suitable for mail steamers. The official opening took place in November, 1869. The Canal was II years in construction, is 87 miles long and 26 feet deep, and has shortened by one-third all voyages to the East. The British Government, in May and June, 1877, claimed for the Canal international neutrality. In October, 1887, a Convention agreeing to the neutralisation of the Canal was signed at Paris by the representatives of Great Britain and France.

The Suez Canal is open to ships of all nationalities, provided that their draught of water does not exceed 26ft 3in, and that they conform to the following conditions:

(1) Sailing vessels above 50 tons are bound to be towed through. (2) Steam vessels may pass through the Canal by means of their own steam power, or to be towed, subject to conditions.

(3) The maximum speed of all ships passing through the Canal is fixed at 10 kilometres, equal to 5 nautical miles per hour. (4) Steamers are allowed to go through the Canal at night if they are provided with an electric projector, throwing a light 1,200 metres ahead. These projectors are supplied by shipping agents at Port Said for £8 through the Canal.


Any ship laden with petroleum oil in bulk shall, on arriving before any port of access to the Canal, at once make herself known by flying at the mizen one of the signals hereafter described, which shall remain flying during the whole of her transit :

BY DAY: A red flag above one ball.

BY NIGHT: A white light beneath two red ones.

Before obtaining entrance into the Canal the captain shall make a declaration to the following effect :

(1) That his ship is specially classed for the carriage of petroleum


in bulk in Class + A 1,100 at Lloyd's in London, or in Class 3/3 1. 1. in the Bureau Veritas, or in Class + 100 A in the Germanic Lloyd (Berlin.)



(2) That no single tank in the ship has a cubic capacity greater than 500 tons measurement (being tons of 2.83 cubic metres or 100 cubic feet English) nor can discharge its contents into any adjoining tank through any aperture or want of continuity whatever of its walls.

(3) That the petroleum oil contained in her tanks is solely refined petroleum of a uniform quality, no sample of which taken at the port of loading shall have given a flashing point below 23° Centigrade (73° Fahrenheit's thermometer), this temperature having been ascertained conformably with such process of close test as may be recognised and made use of in the petroleum oil trade, as, for instance, the Abel test, or any other close test of a not lesser degree of accuracy.

(4) That the petroleum oil contained in any of the ship's spaces, other than her tanks, has a flashing point not under 66° Centigrade (150° Fahrenheit's thermometer), this temperature having been ascertained as in paragraph 3.


(1) In the case of shelter-deck spaces with one or more openings in the shelter-deck and sides of the vessel, the whole of the space under the shelter-deck should be included in the tonnage measurement with the exception of that part of the space which is immediately abreast the openings (if any) in the sides of the ship.

(2) In all cases where a vessel is fitted with forecastle, bridge space, and poop there shall be exempted from measurement: (a) such length of the forecastle, measured from the inside of the stem at half height of the said forecastle as shall be equal to one-eighth of the full length of the ship; (b) such length of the poop mea ured from (the inside of) the stern timber at balf height of the said poop as shall be equal to one-tenth of the full length of the ship; (c) such length of the bridge as is equal to the length of the actual deck openings to engire and boiler spaces, it being understood that such openings shall not be considered to extend beyond the forward bulkhead of the stokehold and the after bulkhead of the main engine-room.

(3) In all cases where the poop and bridge or forecastle and bridge are combined and continuous, then only that length in each case which is due to the openings of engine and boiler spaces as defined under (c) above shall be exempted from measurement.

(4) By full length of the ship shall be understood, in all cases, such length as is comprised between the inside of stem at half height of the forecastle to the inside of the stern timber at half height of the poop.

(5) If at any time the vessel shall perform transit with cargo or stores carried in any portion of any exempted space, then the whole of that space shall be added to the net tonnage, and never more exempted from measurement.

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