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Chronology of the Median Kinge.

[Jan. was but 40 years, and that in this 40 the epoch 595 B. C.; this, therefore, years are included the invasion of the

must be the true epoch of the death of Scythians, and their domination dur. Cyaxares, and the accession of Asing 28 years.

From this it appears tiages to the throne; which A. Z. has clear, that A. Z. has confounded, in crroneously set down at 630 B. C. the direct opposition to the testimony of difference being exactly 35 years. SeHerodotus, the 40 years of Cyaxares' condly, the 40 years assigned to the reign, with the 28 years of the govern- duration of Cyaxares' reign, will, addment of the Scythians included in it; ed 10 the above epoch 595 B.C. give and thus makes Cyaxares to have 635 B.C. for the epoch of Cyaxares' reigned 68 years; which, however, ascending the throne, and the death of as I have already shown, is at va. Phraortés, which, however, is within riance with the epochs he has given. 3 or 4 years of the time assigned by Assuming then the epoch assigned by A. Z. viz. 639 B C. By adding 22 A. Z. to ihe time of Cyaxares' ascend- years, the duration of the reign of ing the throne, viz. 639 B. C. it fol- Phraoriés, according to Herodotus, to lows, that the 68 years given to his 595 B. C. the result is 657 B. C. for reign must be distributed between the the epoch of Phraortés ascending the reign of Cyaxares and that of As- throne; and 53 years being assigned tiages his son; and therefore Cyaxares to the reign of Déiokès by Herodotus, having, according to Herodotus, reign- gives 710 B.C. within one year of the ed but 40 years, the remaining 28 be- time stated by A. Z. It appears, howlong to the reign of Astiages. These ever, froin Herodotus, that an anarchy 68 years being deducted from 639 B.C. of about 6 years preceded the time of give the epoch 571 B. C. at which Déïokes' ascending the throne, or of ume, according to A. Z.“ Ajaxares," his being elected King; and this conor the Astiages of Herodotus, ascended sequently gives 716 B. C. for the rethe throne, which is thus clearly de- volt or independence of the Medes, to monstrated to be an error. The dura- which A. Z. has given the epoch 711 tion of the reign of Astiages is, accord- B. C. ing to Herodotus, 35 years, which, de- The above epochs, therefore, being ducted from 599 B.C. the expiration cleared and arranged, will be as follow: of the 40 years of Cyaxares' reign,

B.C. gives 564 B.C. for the termination of the reign of Astiages, by the accession 716. The revolt or independence of the of Cyrus; which makes a difference of

Medes, and an anarchy of about 6 28 years between the above epoch 564

years. B. C. and 536 B. C. asserted by A. Z. 710. Déjokès elected King, reigns 53 to have been the epoch of the termi

years. nation of the reign of Astiages, and 657. Phraortés, son of Déïokès, as

cends the throne. consequently the epoch of Cyrus's as

635. Phraortés killed in an unsuccesscending the throne. It is clear, therefore, that A. Z. has

ful attack against the Assyrians of been inisled by the 28 years of the go

Nineveh. Kyaxarés, his son, suc

ceeds him. vernment of ihe Scythians, included in the reign of Cyaxares, which has 630. The war of the eclipse, foretold thus deranged the epochs given by

by Thalès, which event confirms

the above and succeeding epochs. him. The epoch obtained above, for the termination of the reign of’ As. 625. The eclipse of Thalès ; first siege tiages, viz. 564 B. C. appears from the

of Nineveh' hy Kyaxarés; invasion testimony of Herodotus 10 be within

of :he Scythians, and their domina

tion during 28 years. 4 years of the true epoch ;, since it is clearly deducible from Herodotus that 598. Expulsion of the Scythians; and Cyrus ascended the throne by detiiron

second siege of Nineveh, which is ing Astiages, in 560 B.C. This epoch

taken and destroyed by Kyaxarés. 500 B. C. affording a determinate point 595. Death of Kyasarés ; succeeded 10 set out from, with respect to preced

by his son Astiages, who reigns 35 ing events, and assigning to the reigos

years. of the Median Kings the duration 560. Astiages dethroned by Kyrus,

who ascends the throne. given them by Herodotus, there will occur first for ihe 35 years of Astiages,

Yours, &c.

QUÆRENS.

, ,

1897.) NEW CHURCHES.-St. George, Camberwell.

9 NEW CHURCHES.-No. X. Trinity Church. (See vol. xcv. ii. St. George's, CAMBERWELL. p. 393.)

The steeple, between a tower and a Architect, F. Bedford.

spire, possesses some merit for its ori'HIS Church stands on the south ginality. In common with the body of a furlong and a half from the high signer's favour, having been set up road. In plan it is an entire parallelo with but little variation on two other gram. The body is composed of four churches. plain unbroken walls of stone, with .. The plan is square, and the elevation common dwelling-house rectangular is made into two principal diminishing windows and doorways, as devoid of stories, the whole supporting a square mouldings and architectural ornaments pedestal, with honeysuckle mouldings as the building is of grace and elegance. on each face, and finished with a stone The windows are in two series; the ball and cross. The first story rests on upper long, the lower shallow. The a rusticated basement, and in each face doorways are in number five, and are are two Doric columns with antæ at all in ihe western wall. In describ- the angles. On the frieze two chaping the walls as unbroken, I have, lets, as the west front. This will be however, forgotten to notice several seen, by comparison of the two engravpilasters of pasteboard projection, one ings, to be exactly similar 10 Trinity of which has a station between the Church. The second story is uniforni; two windows nearest the west, in each the order Ionic. Both stories are open, of the side walls; why they are placed and the angles with Grecian tiles.' In there, the architect, who probably had many points of view this tower is not some reason for so doing, can best an- an inelegant object. swer: two others divide ihe cast front

The INTERIOR. into three portions. In the central division is a window. This elevation, A portion of the design being occulike the western, is finished with a pied by the stairs to the galleries and pediment and acroteria. To the west- ihe tower, the audience part is reduced ern front of the building is attached a almost to a square; it is naked and portico consisting of six fluted columns empty, with the air of a conventicle, of the Grecian Loric order, sustaining ill suited to the dignity of the Establishan architrave, frieze, and cornice of a ed Church, and, except in size, closely doubtful order and insignificant pro- corresponds with Trinity Church; alportions, which are continued round though the order is in that building the whole building, and, together Corinthian, -of equal merit, however, with the rest of the edifice, have no

with the jinitative Doric of the present. other connexion with the columns, The first objects which meet ihe eye than the cramps and cement that hold on entering are two pulpits, square unthem together. When I add, that the ornamented boxes perched upon tall triglyphs and mutules are entirely stone pedestals, formed of the upper part omitted, and that the whole entabla- of a Doric column: and on looking for ture wants breadth, it will be seen the altar, in its place is only to be seen how barbarously the order has been a large unsightly slab of veined marble, innovated upon. There is, however, more fit for a hearth-stone, let into the an attempt at ornament in the frieze of eastern wall, having the Decalogue, &c. the wesi front, where the places of inscribed upon it, which, like a Dutch the triglyphs are supplied by chaplets painting, may with difficulty be made of myrile, a style of ornament peculiar out in a particolar light. Beneath is to shop fronts, and which may be the Cominunion-table, and above, a seen in all its grandeur, holding up frieze of gilt honeysuckles. I never to the eyes of Christmas epicure's saw in any building the altar so negmany a noble sirloin, in the froni of an lected as it is here; such a style may eminent butcher's shop at Camber- do for the table pew” of a conven. well. Excepting the porticoes, Mr. ticle; but from the Church I hope it Bedford's Church designs are very only requires to be noticed to be baconvenient; their dubious style of ar- nished for ever. The usual quota of chitecture equally suits the Boric and galleries, with their delicately tinted the Corinthian, as I have alreally had fronts, supported on slender Doric cooccasion to remark in my notice of lumins, all' white or nearly so, reinind GENT. MAG. January, 1827.

a

10
NEW CHURCHES.-S1. Mark's, Kennington.

[Jan. the spectator how far inferior the cold distinct portions. The body is a long naked appearance which modern ar- octagon (a parallelogram, wiih the corchitects delight in giving to a building, ners cut off). The eastern end is is to the brown wainscot galleries of the brought out, to make a recess for the old churches. Although the altar is so altar, and to the western end is attotally neglected, the highly enriched tached the tower, sided by lobbies, organ-case displays that perversion of containing staircases to the galleries, ornament which so fully proves a bad and the whole fronted by a portico taste. Between the windows are placed formed of four columns, and two insuIonic pilasters, with enriched capitals, lated anlæ at the angles, supporting an occupying the whole height from the entablature of the Greek Doric order, floor of the church, to an architrave and finished with a pediment. This and a rich frieze of honeysuckle work, portico and the rest of the appendages on which rests the ceiling, which is pan- which form the second portion of the pelled into large square compartments, building, are very faulty; ihe triglyphs having a flower in the centre of each. and murules are only applied to the

The font is an antique vase, enrich- west front; and the antæ, which form ed with inouldings, standing on the exterior supporters of the portico, square pedestal ; it is cast, I appre- give it in a side view the appearance of bend, in the same mould as that at a wall. All the portion just described Trinity Church, which actually cost is stone. The body of the Church is the parish of Newington 321. 98. ; constructed with brick, and has stone though from appearance, any one un- pilasters attached to the piers between acquainted with the actual value of the windows, ranging from a contithe article, would imagine it might be nued plinth to the entablațare which purchased of the itinerant Italians for finishes the elevation. The windows as inany shillings.

themselves are in the meanest dwelling In the tower is a musical peal of six house style, in fact inere openings in bells, much admired in the neighbour- the wall, and the whole of this part of hood for their melody, which is no the building is sadly at variance with doubt improved by the adjacent canal. the Grecian portico.

The first stone was laid on the 7th The tower is square and massy. Each of March, 1822, by the Bishop of angle is strengthened with a square Winchester, and the edifice was con- pilaster buttress, on the capital of secrated on the 26th of March, 1824. which is placed a knot of honey

suckles. The elevation then takes St. Mark's CHURCH, KENNINGTON. an octangular form, with bulls' eyes

on four of the faces to receive ihe Architect, D. Roper.

dials. This story, supports a circular The second Church commenced in teinple, composed of Auted columns the parish of Lambeth, of four dedi- of the lonic order, finished with a cated lo tbe Evangelists. It stands on plaiu spherical cupola, on the apex she upper part of a small triangular of which is a stone cross of an elegant piece of land, separated from the re- design. Between each of these coinainder of Kennington Common by lumns is a pedestal supporting a trithe Brixton Road, and on the actual pod. Some originality is displayed spot which once served for the com. in this tower; but its cupola, like ihe mon place of execution for the county, other parts of the Church, is at vadistinguished by the martyrdom in the riance with every Grecian example. Jast century of sereral unfortunate gentlemen, who here suffered an ignomi

The Interior nious and cruel death for their devo- is pleasing, and more church-like than tion to the cause of the banished any of such buildings which consist of Stuarts In Mr. Allen's recently pub- one entire room. The altar is very lished History of the parish, is a wood properly rendered the most striking cut of an irou swivel, found in digging object. The Communion-lable with the foundations of the building, which its crimson furniiure is raised on doubtless belonged to a gallows for- steps. The decalogue, creerl, &c. on merly erected here.

slabs of white marble, are attached This Church differs exceedingly in to the wall immediately orer it. The plan from the generality of ecclesias- recess above contains two pair of Athetical buildings, and consists of two nian Ionic columns, situated on each

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1827.] Reconciliation of Chinese and European Dates.

11 side of the east window, which is en- both occasions being performed by his riched with a border of stained glass, Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. and contains a dove and glory. The

E.I.C. eeiling of the Church is coved elliptically, and its only ornaments are groups

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 13. . of foliage at intervals ; it is far more NE of the most important feaings which are so fashionable; it gives tions, and which constitutes the ground an appearance of lightness 10the of a just demand upon posterity for Church, and adds greatly to the gran- credibility, is chronological accuracy. deur of the design. The pulpit is sup. As mankind in all ages have formed ported on a screen of Doric architecture, one great family, their original must and is very tastefully embellished. The have begun at one period ; for at reading-desk on the opposite side of the whatever æra of time any one of them Church corresponds with it, and, un-' may have begun to take a local halike the modern Church arrangements, bitation and a name," their progress is lower than the pulpit. The galle- must have been traceable to one source : ries rest on Doric columns, and the the difficulty of discovering their pedipiers between the windows are fur- gree, especially when involved by: hemnished with pilasters.

selves in obscure traditions, has given Throughout the interior, the archi- rise to one of the most valuable arts tect has displayed great taste in the which the improvements of laborious judicious embellishments he has in- research has ever ushered into the iroduced. His attention to the ap- world,—the art of verifying dates. propriate ornamenting of the altar is There is a vanity prevalent in nanot lost, and had he assimilated the tions as in some individuals, respectstyles of the building more closely, it ing the antiquity of their race. "The would have presented to the critical nobility and gentry of these kingdoms eye that additional claim to admira- are not more zealous that their ban, tion which results from propriety. ners and heraldic crests should be

The lighting of the Church by an- known to have shone in the Crusades, tique bronze lamps is very tastefully and at Poictiers and Cressy, than the effected,

leaders of the nations of China and The church-yard is inclosed by a Tartary should be able to trace their handsome railing on a granite plinth, foundation to the skies, and to have and set off by piers of the same mate- looked down upon the origin of the rial. Some advocate for innovation present world. The zeal or the artifice has deviated from the universal custom by which they have been able either of burying the corpse with the feet to to deceive or to silence the rest of the east, several of the graves having mankind into the acquiescence of been constructed exactly at angles this national vanity, has involved the with the usual mode. I have soine- great question to discover where lies where seen the prevalence of the cus- the correct truth; and of this, as there tom in all ages adduced as an evidence can be no direct evidence, the fact of the reliance of the Church on the must be ascertained from those æras general resurrection : receiving the when tradition ceased, and positive custom in this light, it ought not to testimony and record coin menced. be departed from in these ages of In order to reconcile this great dif. schism, at the mere caprice of a grave- ference between the Chinese and Eu. digger. When an old custom like ropean nations, the case would soon this is, to say the least of it, harmless, be decided, if it were to be determined and clearly not unmeaning, though it by a majority in numbers: but as this may be founded in a superstitious rea- would no more attain the truth than a son, until a better cause can be as- battle ascertains more than strength, a signed for giving it up than for retain- still more powerful effort inust be ing it, I see no reason for its discon- sought for. tinuance.

One principal ground of difference The estimated expence of the pre- in their and our computations is prosent Church is 15,2481. The first bably to be found in their methods of stone was laid on the 1st of July, division of time, and of counting pe. 1822, and it was consecrated on the riods and days; and these have not 30th of June, 1824 ; the ceremony on been clearly explained. We know

12

Reconciliation of Chinese and European Dates. (Jap. ourselves that in prophetical and me- marriage, and to divide all his comtaphorical language, years and days pany into 100 families, to each of have not unfrequently been involved which he assigned a particular name. together, "times and half times," and This law still subsists, as there are now 1260 days have been after deep inves- only 100 vames to distinguish all the tigation discovered to mean years; and families of that vast empire. Fo-bi dethis interpretation has shown to the voted indefatigable pains in humanmodern nations of Christendom that the ising and polishing his people, and period to which they allude will termi- died in the 115th year of his reign at nale in A. D. 1866! Now the Chi- Tchin-tong; where he had constantly nese may likewise, in their prophetical held his court, and was buried at some books, have metaphorical terms of a distance from that city, which still similar kind, and ihus, computing by subsists under the name of Tchin-iche. the smallest numbers, have founded This 115 would bring down the petheir origin before the beginning of riod of his death to 2723 A.C. which time. This point is of great import- Calmet fixes as to Noah at 1994 A. C. ance, when it is recollected that they at the age of 950 years. Ching-nong do not carry their name earlier than to succeeded to Fo-hi, though at an early Fo-hi, which is their Noah, who be- age, according to them, 2723 A.C. came their founder immediately after which seems to be the date of the the dispersion of the race of mankind Chinese empire in its improved state. from the plains of Sennaar. Chin- This fact of the Deluge and the disnong is synonimous, and is constantly persion agrees with the history and used as well as Fo-hi, and seems to subsequent discoveries of all nations, correspond better with the name of and particularly of America in modern Noah, or King Nong.

times, whatever date they assume. All the traditions of every nation Froin that event of the Deluge, all have been satisfied to go up to that the early families of mankind lived 10æra, and if all would be content to gether in the plains between the Tiremain there, we should all be satis- gris and Euphrates and the neighbourfied of the truth of our own, and of ing regions. They spoke only one profane and of sacred history, which language, trusted themselves in very is my principal object of inquiry. short excursions, and erected the tower

The French editors of the laborious of Babel, as a land mark by which Dominican work “L'art de Verifier they should always know which way les Dates," of which a volume was to return home. This motive for the subjoined in 1820, for events “avant bu:iding is far more innocent than l'ère Chrétienne," have placed Fo-hi that ascribed to it by Moses, Gen. as founder of the nation of China at 11, 4. 2838 before our æra, which was A. M. Pagan Antiq. has confused the pa1166. Calmet places his birth at A.M. triarch Noah with Deucalion, Saturn 1056, Julian period, to which if 150 with Xisuthrus, and mingled their years be added for the subsequent De history with that of Pluto, that of Jaluge, and the descent of the family to phet with Neptune, &c. According the plains of Sennaar, it will agree io Seth Calvisius, the date of the Dewith them in the year 1166. But Bp. luge was A.M. 1656, and 2292 A. C. Usher's Bible Chronology dates the But I know that I must not prolong Deluge at 2349 ante Christ, 1655 A.M. these remarks ; let them, whether erand this dispersion at 2247 A. C. and roneous or correct, and the former is 1757 A.M.

the far greater probability, attract some The children of Shem, say these critical notice of your Correspondents. French editors, who do not enter upon I could on such a subject in days past the discussion of the date, left the plain have appealed for candour and liberal of Sennaar to seek an establishment at correction and reference to our venerathe extremity of the East ; they rested ble friend the late, though not I hope in the parts since called China, and the last of the race of, URBAN; on subsisted on the fruits of the earth. whose departed merit, veracity, learnConvinced of the necessity of having ing, and fidelity, aided by an exhausta chief Governor, they fixed on Fo-hi, less store of unshaken memory, I canwho had given soine proofs of valour not restrain a sigh of filial respect, as and skill; and the first use he made of I pass the relics of remote antiquity! his power was to provide security for Yours, &c.

A. H.

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