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1827.]
Review:-Croly on the Apocalypse.

423 was fixed, the well-known 'twelve hun- the general conception of the prophecy.”— dred and sixty years,' which in their turn (Introd. 41, 42.) were declared to mark the Papal supremacy from the time of its commencement until

The trumpets and vials, Mr. Croly the cessation of its power over the saints,' says, begin after the date of the Inits power of persecution.'

quisition; and by the fifth trumpet, he "This abjuration occurred in 1793, the says, is predicted the French Revolu. first year of the French Republic; reckon- tion. But a very curious part is, the ing 1260 years back, led to their commence- famous nuinber of the Beast, 666, ment in A.D.533. On referring to Bishop which in fact has been made to signify Newton's work, to ascertain whether this any thing. Mr. Croly shows that the date had been noticed, I found (vol. II, p. plain meaning of the original has been 305) a note containing the opinion of Dr. mistaken ; that it does not mean the Manp of the Charter-house, then deceased,

number of a man,” but “a number that the year 533 was to be considered as the true epoch of the Papal supremacy. On of man, a number, such as are in hureference to Baronius, the established au

man use, or simply a number.” (p. 226.)

He thority among the Roman Catholic an- says, therefore, that “the problem nalists, I found (cent. 6) the whole detail is to be solved by the discovery of that of Justinian's grant of supremacy to the peculiar number, which is at once" the Pope formally given.

number of the name of the beast," and « Baronius has been a suspected autho- equivalent to 666.” (p. 227.) Mr. Croly rity, where the honour of the Popedom is then says, concerned. But his statement was at least proof of the Romish opinion of the original bers are the frequent instruments of the

“ It is to be remarked that dates and numepoch of the supremacy; and it received an unanswerable support from the books of the Apocalypse ; obviously from their use in Imperial laws, in which the grant of pri- fixing facts. The 1260 years' is so hamacy and precedency over all the Bishops bitually applied to the Papacy, that the of the Christian world,' is registered, and re

number is almost a substitute for the title ; peated in a variety of forms. The entire the 666 similarly applies to the Inquisition. transaction was of the most authentic and The 666 is not the name of a man, nor conregular kind, and suitable to the importance

tained in a name of any kind : it is a date, of the transfer. The grant of Phocas was

and to a certain degree a description; its found to be a confused and imperfect trans- purpose is to mark the birth of the Inquisiaction, scarcely noticed by the early wri- tion, and to connect that birth with the ters, and, even in its fullest sense, amount

Papacy. ing to nothing beyond a confirmation of the

is The natural paraphrase of the verse grant of Justinian. The chief cause of its (18) is thus. The Inquisition has been in frequent adoption as an epoch by the com

the preceding vorses described and denouncmentators, seemed to be its conveniented by the Spirit of God; but to remove coincidence with the rise of Mahometanism. whatever doubt might arise from mere de

“ From this point I laid aside all com- scription, and to prove to posterity that it mentators, and determined to make my way

is the Inquisition which is here denounced alone, to form my opinions without bias, and held up to the abhorrence of Christians and discover whether the difficulties of the by the Divine Spirit ; the exact date of its prophecy could not be cleared off by an in- origin shall be given. That origin shall be

when the title of HEAD OF quiry in the common principles of interpretation. The difficulties were less stub- Churches, the impious name of the Beast, born than I had conceived; and the present

shall have reached its 666th year, shall arrangement and interpretation were soon

number 666.' That name was given in 533; decided upon.”-(Introd. pp. 12–14.)

the Inquisition shall be born in 1198. Mr. Croly then proceeds to give us

“ The prediction was exactly fulfilled. the substance of the new interpreta

In the first year of Pope Innocent III. the

first year of the complete supremacy, when tion in the following words :

the Papacy was enthroned spiritual and tem“ The Greek Church and Empire; the poral lord of the civilized world - in the Mahometan Invasion; and the late extinc- year 1198 was the portentous offspring of tion of the Germanic Empire, are usually its nature and its crimes, THE INQUISITION, presumed to be among the principal sub- issued to mankind !” pp. 227, 228. jects of the Apocalypse. The present in

Mr. Croly finds, in p. 450, that the terpretation excludes them all. It further differs from its predecessors in the whole three temptations of Christ also denote explanation of the trumpets and vials ; in

THE THREE GREAT ÆRAs of CRIME the solution of the number 666; in that of in the Church of Rome.” the very remarkable chapter, the vision of Our readers will plainly see that this the locusts ;' and, as may be supposed, in is a very curious and ingenious book,

ALL

THE

494

REVIEW.-Horsfield's History of Lewes. [May, and that its hypotheses are supported for its object the ancient and modern by remarkable coincidences. To the state of places, as connected with perdiscovery of these coincidences Mr. sons and events, and assimilates a picCroly is justly entitled. The subject ture gallery of ancient portraits, landof his work is one which like inhala- scapes, and historical subjects. One tion of certain gases, is suited to excite improvement we should like to see extraordinary dreams, but Mr. Croly adopted, viz. the descriptive part. has certainly brought historical evi. It is now in general vague and inde. dence to bear upon it, which may, in finite; but Mr. Fosbroke's Tourist's arguing à priori, be presumed com- Grammar, a cheap work, and containprehensible in the meaning of the Pro. ing all the marrow of the great writers phecy. For Prophecy is by no means of the picturesque, would with only limited to single interpretation; cer- common attention enable every topotain psalms, for instance, being known grapher to be tasteful, and discriminato refer both to Darid and to Christ. tive in his accounts of places. We Indeed it is the peculiar distinction of could mention the warm approbation the Bible from other books (as we have which it has received from professional before had occasion to notice), that landscape gardeners, but we deem it matters apparently indifferent are in unnecessary, and only regret that any reality prophetic. This is implied, as gentleman should engage in local dewe think, in the Scripture being the scription without first getting-op the dictate of inspiration ; for why should principles of the picturesque, and Mr. it interfere to dictate what was natu- Fosbroke has made it easy of acrally matter of course. Indeed Provi- quisition at no expence. The study dence, in even profane views of things, is not only easy, bui delightful ; and as acts in a most extraordinary prophetic no man would attempt to paint a landmanner. Who, for example, can look scape who had never learned to draw, upon the reverse of a Roman coin of so neither ought he to describe a place Britannia, and behold her sitting upon without being able to give its distinct a globe with the ocean at her feet, and character; for the words hilly, flat, not see that human invention could and woody, have as little precise meannot give a more extraordinary prophecy ing, as would be two eyes, a nose, and of the extent of her future naval supre- a mouth, for the specification of a pormacy? It certainly is singular, that trait. dates should be found to tally so mi- The places under notice do not prenutely with the prophecies ; and, as it sent many subjects of curiosity; but is not to be disputed that Popery is there is one certainly of a very extramost distinctly recognized in the Apo- ordinary kind, which we apprehend calypse, it is perfectly within the jus- is an unique, viz. a bibliomaniac tifiable limits of ratiocination, to make farmer,-a collector of splendid ediparticular applications to that point. tions. So odd a circumstance may be The book is, however, one evidently explained by craniologists; as to ourof study, of profound meditation. Of selves, we should be rash to offer an ingenuity it bears evident characteris- opinion ; indeed we should be afraid, tics, and very probably has many more for it might sanction the Pythagorean favourable points of view, than we are metempsychosis, viz. that print-colable to suggest, because we cannot af- lectors had and might again re-inhabit ford the time and room requisite for the earth in the incongruous form of minute and particular investigations. sturdy husbandmen.

Mr. Horsfield's account of this non72. The History and Antiquities of Lewes descript is as follows: and its Vicinity. By the Rev.

T: W. Lewes was a farmer of the old school, plain

“Mr. John Kimber of Chailey bear Horsfield, F.S.A. Vol. II. containing a Description of the Environs, 8c. 4to.

in his dress, and unassuming in his manners;

and though his unostentatious appearance, Pp. 268. Plates. WE had occasion justly to com

united with his many peculiarities, gained mend Mr. Horsfield's former volume, him the character of a miser, yet his taste and we willingly allow the same praise him to spend considerable sums of money

for scarce and expensive books prompted to the present. It is written upon in its gratification. Whilst some of his correct topographical principles; for it neighbours regarded him as the slave of is to be remembered that local history avarice; others, not more justly, considered belongs to the literature of record; has him as one of those whom much learning

1827.]
Review.-Horsfield's History of Lewes.

425 had rendered mad. His learning, however, « On the death of this literary and sciwas very superficial; and though, like many entific farmer, bis property, which was left other collectors, he was more gratified by to his brothers and nephews (and which possessing than by using his literary wealth, did not amount to more than 40001.), was the books that he most sought after were disposed of. His books and philosophical such as were highly embellished; scarce apparatus were disposed of by auction in editions he valued less than splendid co- Lewes ; and the competition was such as pies, and what was showy pleased him more to turn to good account the taste of the than what was useful.

worthy Bibliomaniac.” P. 57. A gentleman, to whom Kimber was The Downs are full of the earthpreviously unknown, informed me that on works of British villages; and the one occasion, entering his bookseller's shop: following account of the fortifications he was surprised to hear a plain and meanly about the Harbour of Newhaven, dressed farmer, whose conversation indicated a mind scarcely superior to that of the shows that they were very similar to humblest peasant, bargaining with the book

those on the Avon, near Clifton and

Bristol : seller for a copy of Macklin's Bible, published at about 80 guineas. With asto

“ The.parish of Iford is in the hundred nishment he soon bebeld him pay dowu the of Swanborough in the rape of Lewes. stipulated sum, and place the six ponderous This hundred is called in Domesday, Sovolumes in a sack, with which he had come

neberge, Soaneberg, and Suaneberge. It furnished, and staggering under his load, probably derived its name from an ancient carry them to the door, wliere an old cart- fort or berg, situated on the side of the horse stood ready to receive the burden. road, leading from the harbour of New With some assistance, the well-tied sack haven to the town of Lewes. The fosse was hoisted on the back of the animal, the and vallum, of a square or Roman form, stirrup leather fastened around it with cords,

were till lately visible on the manor farm, and the happy purchaser, balancing the which takes the name of the hundred. load with his hand, trudged along by the The fort was probably designed as a proside of his old servadt, apparently antici

tection for the country people (called Suanes pating the joy that awaited him, when the by the Saxons) in the event of any sudden treasure he had amassed should be safely de

invasion or surprise, till the strength of the posited amongst his bulky tomes at Chadley. country could be collected together at

“On entering the house of Mr. Kimber, Lewes Castle. A similar berg or fort was the visitor would perceive no trace of the constructed on av elevated piece of ground, owner's taste. Not a volume displayed its

called the Castle field, between Deans and gay covering, aut a shelf bent under the Piddinghoe. At the mouth of the anweight of literary labours ; all his books cient harbour of Newhaven, which then were neatly, packed in boxes, which, piled extended from headland to headland, were one upon the other, formed no inconsider

two other castles or camps, intended doubtalle part of the furniture of his bed-roum; less for the protection of the barbour, on these he gazed with pleasure, when the of a circular form, and supposed to be of morning beamed, and to them he had re

British construction ; the one, on the point course, when the evening twilight came,

of Castle-bill, overlooks the new harbour, to while away the hours till bed time. the other at the end is between Cuckmere Seated in his chimney corner he again and haveu and Seaford. Both are at present again turned over the leaves of his costly vo

of a semicircular form, having lost their lumes, exulting in the embellishments, for original shape by the reiterated action of the which they were valued, and on account of

sea and air on the crumbling cliff.” P.186. which they were bought, and though he

We must notice soine few unimcould be said to be intimate with the letter portant mistakes. Mr. Fosbroke havpress of the volumes which he possessed, he ing said that from the Wassail being was certainly not unacquainted with the en- mentioned by Plautus, and known gravinga by which they were illustrated. also in France, it could not originate

. But it was not on books alone that in a meeting of Vortigern and RowMr. Kimber expended large sums : he was

ena (Encycl. of Antiq.), Mr. Horsfield equally the patron of science. Costly maps says he does not see this, because it decorated the boxes, in which they were enclosed ; magnificent globes were safely

may have been known to the Romans packed in cases, which warned the carrier and Gauls, and yet the Britons be igto be wary of his charge; theodolites and

norant of it (p. 89). Does not Mr. telescopes, protractors and quadrants, pla- Horsfield recollect the Romanized Brinetariums, lunariums, and portable orreries, tons, and that they were not ignorant were sheltered in boxes from the dust of of the manners and customs prevalent . the chamber-maid, and ever ready for use in Italy and France ? Besides, how as soon as unpacked.

could a thing known before be said to Gent. Mag. May, 1827,

426

Review.-Napoléon dans l'autre Monde. (May, originate among those who happened Britain, but the contrary. Even unonly to exhibit a coincidence.

der success, the scheme would be on In p. 156 we have, among Church far too large a scale for the nation to furniture, cunetts for cruel, and sucumq support; and so it proved to Napo bell for sacring bell.

leon with much greater military means. In p. 224 is the following passage : The event has proved that the empire

“ An undoubted Roman road passed of the huge Usurper only terminated through the neighbouring parish of Clay- in a useless waste of blood and treaton. The direction of that road, as traced sure, and an enormous increase of unby Mr. Vine, is nearly parallel with the one necessary misery supposed by Mr. Elliot to pass through To a prejudiced Frenchman, howStreet; but as it does not seem probable ever, and numerous admirers of Nathat the labour of forming two parallel poleon, the work will bear a very difroads at the distance of not more than three ferent aspect, -that of the homage of miles from each other, and that too through' the world to a hero, and it would be the impervious Sylva Anderida, could have unjust to deny to the author the praise been compensated by any advantages which of talent. Of many French characters might be reaped from them, we must question the accuracy of Mr. Elliot's hypothe- Revolutionary tragedy, accounts may

who figured away as

actors in the sis." P. 224,

be seen, hitherto unknown to EnglishNow it is well known, that the Ro

men; and though there is something mans threw out roads parallel to those odd in calling ihe “immortal Fox of the Britons. In Mess. Lysons's the Aambeau of Great Britain, and Britannia, vol. 1. is an etching of two making Buonaparté say, that had he such roads running thus in the vici- lived in the barbarous ages he would nity of each other; and to show this have been calumniated as Antichrist parallelism is the specific object of the (p. 358), yet no man, though wellplate.

disposed to Government (and we can The Engravings in this book are safely say this concerning ourselves), very good; and upon the whole great will aver that Lord Castlereagh did in credit is due to Mr. Horsfield.

his diplomacy consult the interest of

his country, or give to England the 73. Napoléon dans l'autre Monde : rélation character of a benefactor, which would

écrite par lui-même, et trouvée à Ste. Hé- have showered down upon her the lène, au pied de son tombeau, par Zongo- blessings of the Continent. Napoleon Tee-Foh-Tchi, Mandarin de 3me classe. is made to say justly to Lord Castle8vo. Pp. 392.

reagh, WHEN Wilkes (we believe) was “ J'ai souffert, et ce n'est plus qu'un asked whether he had committed some songe ; mais il n'en est pas de même, lorstrifing faux-pas, he made answ'er- que je passe en revue les traces effray“ No! I never commit small sins, antes que votre système a laissées sur la only great ones.” In the same man- terre....Ange exterminateur vous n'avez ner we perfectly acquit Buonaparté of épargné personne; pas même votre propre the mean vices, connected with little pays. L'Italie vendue à la rapacité de

l'Autriche !! Gènes sacrifiée au desponess of mind, but consider his ambi

tisme ridicule de l'aristocratie Piémontaise tion to have been only short of that -La Belgique réunie maladroitement à la of Lucifer; and that he did not re

Hollande !! La France divisée en mille pargard, more than the fallen Archangel, tis; esclave du Jesuitisme!! La Prusse, how many peaceable happy beings he soupirant, après une constitution qu'elle converted into devils.

n'obtiendra jamais ! ! La Pologne assujettie The book before us is, however, a à sa persécutrice de tous les siècles, l'idesfuneral oration in honour of Napoleon, orable Russie !! L'Espagne dechirée par whom our author places in a heaven l'anarchie et la misère-la Russie prête à of his own (the author's) making, be

tout engloutir, et l'Angleterre spectatrice cause he consulted, as our author impuissante de tout ce qu'il plaira aux olimaintains (not we) the good of his garques d'entreprendre pour le malheur people rather than his own. Now we

des peuples....La negligence, que vous avez do not think that the Duke of Wels lors de la paix générale, vous a mérité jus

mise à veiller aux intérêts de votre pays, lington, if he wished to convert all

tement la réprobation de vos concitoyens. the youthful population of this country L'Angleterre avait droit à de grandes ininto soldiers, for the purpose of mak- demnités, pour la dépense enorme qu'elle ing a crusade againsi other nations, avait sapportée : à l'aide de ces resources, would be at all a benefactor to Great 'elle aurait pu se relever de l'immense far

vous

1827.] REVIEW.-Napoléon dans l'autre Monde.

427 deau qui l'accable, et dont celle sent peut-. homme ayant trouvé le bûcher prêt, ils n'ont être en ce moment les funestes conse- eu qu' à y jeter une étincelle pour en emqnences !!! Si vous avez préféré l'intérêt braser leurs états." P. 116. de votre pays à quelques rubans suspendis, Our author either forgot or did not à votre habit ; à quelques serremens de know, that Popery is favourable to main de la part de souverains ; eussiez saisi la seule occasion qui se soit

despotism; and that such a kvowledge offerte, et qui ne se presentera jamais plus serration by Buonaparté, as it has in

no doubt greatly contributed to its pre-les souverains, en vous flattant vous ont dupé ; ils savaient que plus ils enferaient other countries. votre amour propre, plus ils diminueraient

Our author does great justice to the -les prétentions de la puissance libéra- liberty, and consequent political power, ratrice, confier à votre administration. Ils which will ever attend Great Britain. y ont réussi !! se peut-il que l'Angleterre

He says, in a pretended vision, ait tout joué, tout gagné, et qu'elle n'ait

Deux aigles gigantesque (monstres à rien ? P. 357.

double tête et à quadruples serres) semblent In candour, we are bound to con- destiner à leur pâture les légions victofess that Lord Castlereagh could not rieuses de l'antique Britannia *....La Liberté have carried all these points, but he s'avance, elle montre sa redoutable égide! might have done much good. Inter les monstres effrayés s'envolent vers la caalia, he might have saved the Vau-, pitale du Danube.' dois and French Protestants from op

This work will, we understand, soon pression and persecution; but his great appear in an English dress. and grand error was permission to the Continental powers of possessing Su. 74. Histoire du Mariage des Prétres en gar Islands. The loss has been esti- France, particulièrement depuis 1789. Par mated in the Shipping Interest alone M. Grégoire, ancien Evêque de Blois. at an enormous annual sum.

Paris, 1826. 8vo. pp. xi, 156. “During the war, says Mr. Torrens (on

FEW Ecclesiastics of the present the Production of Wealth, p. 239), the day will bequeath to posterity so enUnited Kingdom was the entrepôt for the viable a pattern as the Constitutional colonial trade of Europe. The consign- Bishop of Blois. His letter to the Inments from all the colonies of produce for quisitor De Arce, exhorting him to the purchase of foreign goods, and from all abolish the holy office, is written in the countries of Europe of foreign goods the purest strain of philanthropy; and for the purchase of colonial produce, con

its only blemish is the dream of polistituted an immense mercantile capital, circulating throughout the ports of the United

tical fraternity, in which his countryKingdom, paying a regular commission to

men then indulged. At the same the British merchant, with dues, profits, time, he was the first person to proand rents for the use of docks, wharfs, and pose openly the emancipation of the warehouses. When peace returned, and Jews, which, under the Imperial goEngland resigned her colonial conquests, vernment, was carried into effect. His this immense floating capital was no longer share in the Revolution is more equiattracted to her ports. The British mer- vocal; but it is one thing to embark chant ceased to receive his accustomed com- in schemes with the ardour of convicmission, and the proprietor of docks and tion that they are beneficial, and anowarehouses the dues and rents paid by the ther to decide in the closet upon the colonial and continental consumer ; and the cessation of hostilities, instead of giving, as

prudence of their supporters. If in

the heat of that feeling he pronounced some persons seemed to expect, a new impulse to commercial prosperity, was followed England the tyrant of the sea (for by a diminution of trade and a loss of England he may be presumed to have wealth."

meant), the society of the patron of The fact is, that Lord Castlereagh Cowper taught him otherwise, and he was not a statesman,

only a House of made our land ample amends, by styl

ing her the couniry in which, of all Commons minister. Buonaparté, however, had his errors Europe, the most religion is to be

found. also. Our author enumerates among

At the Restoration, M. Grégoire was these his omission to extinguish Po

removed from the see which he had pery.

held under the Constitutional and Im. “ La conservation du Papisme a entretenu chez les peuples d'Espagne, de France, perial Governments. He wished to et d'Italic, un tel germe d'ignorance et de * A curious Frenchification this of Old servilisme, que les successeurs du grand England."-Rev.

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