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P. 34. Cinna, Pompey, Polieucte. Tragedies by Corneille.
P. 35. The Maid's Tragedy. By Beaumont and Fletcher.
The Alchemist, The Silent Woman, The Fox. By Jonson.
P. 37. extreme severity in his judgment on Shakspeare. No

passage in Jonson bears out this statement. The criticism of Shakspeare's overfacility and occasional carelessness in the Discoveries-Jonson's only direct censure of Shakspeare--is certainly not marked by “extreme severity.”

P. 38. Philipin. The common name for the comic servant, a stock character in French imitations of Spanish comedy.

P. 49. that person from whom you have borrowed your strongest arguments. Howard.

P. 52. Pindaric way. Irregularly, as regards both the length of the lines and the disposition of the rhymes; as in the so-called Pindaric” odes of Cowley, and in Dryden's Alexander's Feast.

The Siege of Rhodes. A play by Davenant, interesting as the first performed on the reopening of the theatres in London after the Commonwealth.

P. 54. Mustapha By Sir Roger Boyle.

Blank verse is acknowledged to be too low for a poem. At this same time Milton was completing his Paradise Lost. That he was conscious of making an innovation in using blank verse for it, is shown in his prefatory note.

P. 57. the Water-poet. John Taylor, an industrious writer of poor verse, who owed his nickname to the fact that he had been a Thames waterman.

A DEFENCE OF AN ESSAY OF DRAMATIC POESY P. 60. The Great Favourite, or The Duke of Lerma By Howard. The supercilious tone of Howard's criticisms of Dryden accounts for the pungency of the present rejoinder.

an infant Dimock. The Dimocks (or Dymokes) were hereditary champions of England.

P. 63. Catiline, Sejanus. By Jonson. P. 67. My Lord L. According to Malone, John Maitland, then Earl, afterwards Duke, of Lauderdale.

P. 68. as Homer reports of little Teucer. Iliad, viii. 267

ON COMEDY, FARCE, AND TRAGEDY P. 81. Mr. Cowley tells us. “ Rather than all things wit, let there be none (Of Wit).

the liar. Dorante in Corneille's Le Menteur.
The Chances, Wit without Money. Comedies by Fletcher.

P. 85. Most of Shakspeare's plays . . Cinthio. Dryden is writing carelessly. Shakspeare's indebtedness to Cinthio is limited to Othello and Measure for Measure. The Italian tale of “ Romeo and Juliet” to which Dryden refers was the work not of Cinthio but of Bandello.

P. 90. The oracle of Appius. Pharsalia, v. 86 f.
Erictho. Pharsalia, vi. 420 t.
Polydorus. Æneid, iii. 22 f.
Enchanted Wood. Gerusalemme Liberata, books xiii. and xvi.
the Bower of Bliss. Faery Queene, book ii. canto xii.
P. 91. Mr. Cowley's verses.

“ Methinks heroic poesy till now

Like some fantastic fairy-land did show;

Gods, devils, nymphs, witches, and giants' race,
And all but man, in man's best work had place.
Thou, like some worthy knight, with sacred arms,

Dost drive the monsters back and end the charms."
Godfrey. That is, Gerusalemme Liberata.
P. 92. Almanzor.' The hero of The Conquest of Granada.
Artaban. In Cléopatre, an heroic romance by La Calprenède.
P. 93. Cyrus. In Artámène, ou le Grand Cyrus, an heroic romance by
Mlle. de Scudéry.

Oroondates. In Cassandre, another heroic romance by La Calprenède.

Cethegus. In Catiline. To look Cato dead," however, is spoken by Catiline, not by Cethegus.

P. 94. the late Duke of Guise. Henri de Lorraine, fifth Duc de Guise (1614-64), who on the overthrow of Masaniello in 1647, marched into Naples with a handful of followers, and was for a short time master of the city.

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THE DRAMATIC POETRY OF THE LAST AGE P. 100. The preposition at the end . : : in my own writings. His Essay on Dramatic Poesy, published in 1668, was reprinted sixteen years afterwards, and it is curious to observe the changes which Dryden made in the expression. Malone has carefully noted all these: they show both the care the author took_with his own style, and the change which was gradually working in the English language. The Anglicism of terminating a sentence with a preposition is rejected. Thus ' I cannot think so contemptibly of the age I live in,' is exchanged for 'the age in which I live.' able periwigs of the day, and appears to have been derived from their maker."


A deeper expression of belief than the actor can persuade me_to' is altered to can insinuate into me.' (Hallam, Literature of Europe, part iv, chap. vii.)

P. 104. a famous Italian. The reference is uncertain.

P. 105. Fletcher's Don John. In The Chances. Dryden refers to the revision of the play by the Duke of Buckingham.

the Black Friars. One of the most famous of the early London playhouses. It was built by James Burbage in 1596.

the Apollo. The meeting-room of Ben Jonson's club in the Old Devil Tavern, Temple Bar. His Leges Conviviales, or Rules for a Tavern Academy, were engraved in marble over the chimney-piece in this room.

HEROIC POETRY AND HEROIC LEGEND P. 108. a Princess. Mary of Este, second wife of the Duke of York, afterwards James II.

my friend. Nat Lee, the dramatist.
P. 111, the author of the Plain Dealer. Wycherley.
P. 112. Cleopatra. Carminum, i. 37
P. 113. Polyphemus. Æneid, iii. 664
Goliath. Davideis, book iii.
the swiftness of Camilla. In the seventh, not the eighth, Æneid.
P. 114. Lucretius. De Rerum Natura, iv. 737 f.
P. 115. Virgil from whom I took the image. Æneid, ii. 265.
Mr. Cowley. Davideis, book i.
P. 116. the translator of Du Bartas. Joshua Sylvester.

P. 119. Montaigne. Essais, ii. 17.
P. 120. their Hippolytus. In Racine's Phèdre, act v.
Chedreux. Scott explains that “ Chedreux was the name of the fashion-

P. 123. that grinning honour. The phrase is Falstaff's. See Henry IV.

P. 124. that rhyming judge of the twopenny gallery. The reference is to an attack on Dryden in an imitation of Horace entitled An Allusion to the Tenth Satire of his First Book. Dryden probably knew that this, though published anonymously, was really the work of the Earl of Rochester; but he chose to ascribe it to one of the “ small fry" of literature.

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THE GROUNDS OF CRITICISM IN TRAGEDY P. 126. Lollius. Nothing is known of the Lollius to whom Chaucer expresses indebtedness for the ground-work of his poem. According to Lydgate, Boccaccio was actually meant. The matter is still one of controversy among Chaucer students.

P. 128. Amintor and Melantius. In The Maid's Tragedy by Beaumont and Fletcher.

Iphigenia. The Iphigenia in Aulis is referred to.
P. 130. The Slighted Maid. A comedy by Sir Robert Stapylton, 1663.
P. 132. King and No King. By Beaumont and Fletcher.
P. 138, that strange mixture of a man. Bessus.
P. 139. a learned critic. Bossu, in Du Poème Épique.
P. 140. Ovid. Metamorphoses, xiii. 5.

OVID AND THE ART OF TRANSLATION P. 150. translated by divers hands. The “hands ” were those of Dryden himself, Cooper, Rhymer, Settle, Tate, Butler, and Mrs. Behn.

P. 151. All translations three heads. The reader interested in the general question of translation should turn to Tytler's Essay on the Principles of Translation, published in Everyman's Library.

to run divisions on the ground-work. An old technical phrase, meaning to introduce variations on a musical theme.

P. 155. the author, who is of the fair sex. Mrs. Behn.

P. 157. Bussy D'Amboys. A tragedy by George Chapman, 1607.

A famous modern poet. According to Malone, this is an inaccurate recollection of a passage in Strada's Prolusiones, in which it is related that Andreas Navagero annually sacrificed a copy of Martial (not Statius) to the manes of Virgil.

PREFACE TO SYLVÆ P. 161. History of the League. Translated in 1684 from the French of Maimbourg.

P. 162. Our Oglebys. John Ogilby (1600-76), translated Homer and Virgil.

P. 167. a late noble painter. Sir Peter Lely (died 1680), who was painter to Charles II., and was famous for his portraits of the beauties of that monarch's court.

P. 169. Essay on Poetry. By Lord Mulgrave.

P. 170. the ingenious and learned translator of Lucretius. Thomas Creech.

P. 173. too nearly related to me. Dryden's eldest son, Charles, then about twenty, was a contributor to Sylva.

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P. 177. Pastor Fido. Produced at the marriage of Duke Charles
Emanuel in 1585.

P. 178. Ben Jonson tells us in the Alchymist. See act iv. scene 3.
P. 181. Spanish plays. These were habitually in three acts (jornadas).

P. 132. Monsieur Vossius. Settled in England in 1670, and, though a scoffer at religion and a man of profligate life, was made a Canon of Windsor by Charles II.

RHYME AND BLANK VERSE P. 184. Xenophon a romance. The Cyropedeia, of Education of Cyrus, a kind of didactic romance with an historical basis.

Augustus Cæsar, a tragedy. On the subject of Ajax.

P. 186. Queen Gorboduc. An example of Dryden's carelessness. Gorboduc was king, not queen, of Britain; and the play in question (the choruses excepted) was written in blank verse.

THE PROPER WIT OF POETRY P. 189. a Royal Admiral. The Duke of York.

two incomparable Generals. Pri..ce Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle“ two such as each seemed worthiest when alone” (Annus Mirabilis, stanza 47).

P. 190. I have chosen to write my poem in quatrains. Dryden took the quatrain directly from Davenant's Gondibert, a poem which enjoyed considerable vogue at the time. The heroic couplet had not yet established itself as the recognised form for all dignified poetry. Paradise Lost was published in the year of this essay, but in regard to its use of blank verse see note to p. 54. female rhymes. Feminine, or double rhymes, like ever

and“ never in the opening couplet of Kéats's Endymion.

Alaric. A poem by Georges de Scudéry, brother of the better known Mlle. de Scudéry.

Pucelle. By Jean Chapelain.

the old translation of Homer by Chapman. Dryden is in error in stating this to be in Alexandrines. The Iliad is in “ fourteeners"

“For Hector's glory still he stood, and ever went about,” etc. The Odyssey is in rhymed iambic pentameters, or heroic couplets.

P. 191. in the preface to Gondibert. “I shall say a little why I have chosen my interwoven Stanza of four, though I am not obliged to excuse the choice, for numbers in verse must, like distinct kind of Music, be exposed to the uncertain and different taste of several Ears. Yet I may declare, that I believ'd it would be more pleasant to the Reader in a Work of length, to give this respite or pause, between every Stanza (having endeavoured that each should contain a period) than to run him out of breath with continued Couplets.

EXAMEN POETICUM P. 198. the best poet and the best patron. Lord Dorset, in a poem addressed to Edward Howard on that writer's British Princes.

Zoili and Momi. The name of Zoilus the grammarian became a synonym for a captious critic. Momus was the god of ill-tempered mockery.

he who endeavoured to defame Virgil. Virgil had numerous detractors arnong his contemporaries, notably the poetasters Bavius and Mævius. Possibly Dryden is thinking of one of these; possibly of a certain Carvilius Pictor, who wrote an Æneidomastix.

P. 201. their scriptions. This passage remains unexplained. P. 202. the daughter of a king. Lord Radcliffe's wife was the daughter of Charles II. and Mary Davies.

Mr. Chapman, in his translation of Homer. In the verses prefixed to his Wiad Chapman condemns “ word for word traductions.”

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VIRGIL AND THE ÆNEID P. 207. the trifling novels. The episodical stories numerous in Orlando Furioso. Novel then meant a short story (Italian novella).

P. 212. the ruelle. Originally, the space between the bed and the wall; hence used for a fashionable gathering or literary coterie at a time when fine ladies received visitors while at their toilets. my two masters.

Homer and Virgil.
P. 214. the Jerusalem. Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata.

Machinery persons. The supernatural agents, or, in the current technical phraseology of the time, the machinery, machines."

P. 215. another whom I name not. Probably St. Évremond, whom Dryden admired, and therefore preferred not to mention in the present context.

P. 223. the author of the Dauphin's Virgil. Charles de la Rue (Ruæus), whose edition of Virgil appeared in 1675. See p. 243.

P. 226. Achilles invulnerable, Dryden had forgot, what he must certainly have known, that the fiction of Achilles being invulnerable, bears date long posterior to the days of Homer. In the Iliad he is actually wounded” (Scott).

the two Tassos. Torquato Tasso's father, Bernardo, wrote an epic poem on Amadis of Gaul.

P. 234. an ambassador .. as Sir Henry Wotton has defined. Dryden alludes to Wotton's pungent remark: “An ambassador is a honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country.”

P. 240. another French critic, whom I will not name. Probably, St. Évremond again, though Scott suggested Dacier.

P. 246. which Tasso has not ill copied. Gerusalemme Liberata, xviii. 92-97.

P. 253. Ariosto. Orlando Furioso, xxxv. 26.
P. 254. the two brothers. Robert and Antione le Chevalier d'Agneaux.
P. 255. in a former dissertation. The Parallel of Poetry and Painting.
P. 257. as a wit said formerly. Lord Rochester. See p. 280.
P. 260. the Pindaric line. The Alexandrine.
P. 261. staff. That is, stave or stanza.

the excuse of Boccace. In the Conclusione dell' Autore, or Epilogue to the Decamerone.

P. 264. the late Earl of Lauderdale . his new translation of the Æneis. The translation in question was made by the Earl while living in exile in Paris.

P. 265. Two other worthy friends of mine. Dr. Knightly Chetwood wrote the Life and the preface to the Pastorals ; Addison, the preface to the Georgics.

P. 267. A Sixth Pastoral. The Silenus, translated by Lord Roscommon. See p. 271.

a Pharmaceutria. The eighth Pastoral.

a single Orpheus. The episode of Orpheus, translated by Lord Mulgrave from the fourth Georgic.

P. 271. Whoever has given the world the translation of part of the Third Georgic. Malone conjectures that this may have been Lord Lansdowne.

Mr. Addison ... his Bees. Alluding to a translation of the third book of the Georgics, exclusive of the story of Aristæus by the famous Addison, then of Queen's College, Oxford” (Scott). Scott writes “ third ”

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