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and the mines of Alotepéque to the point at the beginning of the chain of mountains which separates Guatemala from Honduras.

(7) The mountains of Azulco, Conguaco, and Moyuta, form an iso. ited group of the Cordilleras; their culminating point is the volcano of Tecuamburro.

There are in Guatemala more than thirty volcanoes, some in the Cordilleras and others outside of them. The most remarkable are:

(1) The volcanoes of Tacana and Tajumulco, in the department of San Marcos, those of Zunil, Santo Tomas, and Santa Clara. (2) The volcano of Santa Maria, near Quezaltenango is 11,374 feet high, and that of Quezaltenango 10,104 feet.

(3) The volcano of Atitlan, in the department of Solola on the lower part of the lake of the same name, and the volcano of San Pedro.

(4) The volcanoes of Agua and Fuego in the neighborhood of Antigua Guatemala, the first is 12,197 feet high, and the second 13,487 feet.

(5) The Acatenango, in the department of Chimatenango, has an altitude of 14,072 feet, and the Pacaya, in the department of Amatitlan, 8,287 feet.

The following volcanoes are found outside of the Cordilleras:

The Colima, Amayo, Chingo, Santa Catarina or Mita, Suchitan, and Moyuta, in the department of Jutiapa; the Monterico, Jumay, Ticantic, and Tombon, in the department of Chiquimula; the Yumatepeque and Alzataté, in the department of Santa Rosa; the Pocochil near Sololá, and the Mamus, in La Verapaz. Of these volcanoes the Fuego is the only one still in activity.

The principal rivers of Guatemala are:

(1) The Usumacinta, a part of which serves as a boundary between Mexico and Guatemala and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. It is formed by the Lacandon and Pasion rivers. Its

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course is sinuous toward the north, and it receives the waters of the San Pedro. On leaving the territory of Guatemala it is subdivided in several branches, some of which flow into the lagoons of Terminas and the others into the Bay of Campeche. This river is navigable for small vessels as far as Ténocique. Upon the banks of the Chacomel, one of its affluents, are seen the celebrated ruins of Palenqué.

(2) The Motagua is the most important water course after the Usumacinta. It has its source in the department of Quiché, goes up again toward the east, where it takes the name of Rio Grande, makes a circuit of the city of Gualan, in the department of Chiquimula, runs northeast, and empties in the Gulf of Honduras after receiving numerous affluents.

(3) The Polochic, after leaving its source in the department of Verapaz, runs eastward, then, increased by the waters of the Rio Cahabon, its principal affluent, it flows from southeast to westward, and falls into Lake Izabal, after running 150 miles.

(4) The Sarstoon starts from the Sierra Chama (Alta Verapaz) and empties into the Gulf of Amatique, after forming the boundary between Guatemala and the territory of Belize. The length of this river is 90 miles, and it is navigable for 24 miles into the interior.

(5) The Lacandon, also called Rio Negro, has its source in the department of San Marcos, flows in an eastern direction, and, after a course of 60 miles, receives the Rio Salama, then, making a turn north and northwest, it meets the Pasion River, to form the Usumacinta. At a point called Chisoy, or Chixoy, the Lacandon is crossed over by a suspension bridge.

(6) The Pasion River begins at the Lake of Pusila, in the department of Peten, which it separates from Verapaz, then runs westward to join the Lacandon, to form the Usumacinta.

(7) The San Pedro, the most considerable affluent of the Usumacinta, finds its source north of the Peten Mountains, goes

westward, makes a circuit, then resumes the same direction, and empties into the Usumacinta.

(8) The Rio Paz, or Pazaco, begins in the vicinity of the volcano of Chingo, in the department of Jutiapa; it runs first toward the southwest, then 18 miles further it inclines in a southeast direction toward the Pacific Ocean.

(9) The Rio de los Esclavos, which has its source near Mataquescuintla, in the department of Santa Rosa, falls into the Pacific Ocean. It serves as a boundary between Guatemala and Salvador.

(10) The Rio Michatoya, which comes from Lake Amatitlan. A part of its course separates the department of Escuintla from that of Santa Rosa; then its waters, after forming a high cataract, near San Pedro Martir, are lost in the Pacific Ocean.

To this list must also be added the following water courses: The Rio Guacalaté, beginning in the Chimaltenango Valley, the Naguacalaté, which has its origin in the department of Sololá, the Salama, from the department of Totonicapan, and the Telapa, which has its source in the department of Quezaltenango. All these rivers flow into the Pacific Ocean.

The hydrographic system of Guatemala includes also a great number of lakes, of which the most important are:

(1) Lake Izabal or Gulf Dulce, in the department of Izabal, between the Sierra of Santa Cruz and that of Las Minas. It communicates with the Atlantic Ocean by means of a canal called Rio Dulce which, widening after half its course, takes the name of Golfete. The length of Lake Izabal, from north to south is 30 miles, and its width 12 miles. Its depth is sufficient to admit large ships, but a sand bar, at the mouth of Rio Dulce, prevents other than small vessels from entering in it.

(2) Lake Petén or Itza, in the department of Petén, is between 45 and 50 miles long, and 3 miles in average width. It contains several islands; on the largest of them is built the city of Flores,

the chief town of the department. The waters of that lake swarm with crocodiles of a peculiar species (crocodilus Moselite), and a great variety of fish and turtles. During the rainy season the Petén communicates with numerous small lakes, thus enabling canoes to navigate it. The southern shore is remarkable for its caves and grottoes in which are many beautiful stalactites.

(3) Lake Tazalcuapa is situated in the northern part of the department of Huehuetenango, and forms the center of the great curve made by the Lacandon.

(4) The department of Sololá contains Lake Atillan or Panahachel, in the cordilleras of the Andes, situated at a height of 423 feet above the sea. A great number of rivers empty their waters into that lake, which, owing to its picturesque situation, adds its beauty to the imposing aspect of the landscape.

(5) Lake Amatitlan, in the department of the same name, forms the Rio Mitchatoya. It produces in abundance a very delicate fish called Mojarra.

(6) Lake Ayarza, in the department of Jutiapa, is circular and and 9 miles in diameter. It empties through the Rio Ostica into Lake Guija.

(7) In the department of Petén there are less important lakes, such as those of Lacandon, San Diego, San Pedro, Martir, Chitunqui, Ratcal-Caspin, Equesil, Macanché, Sacpeten, Aquise, San Pedro Yahsa, and Musal, and,

(8) The lakes Custumé and San Carlos, in Verapaz; Lake Uria in the department of Sacatepequez; lakes Altes, Catempa, Retana, San Pedro, and Hoyo in the department of Jutiapa.

The principal ports of Guatemala on the Atlantic coast are: Izabal, on the southern shore of the lake of the same name, 15° 24' latitude north, by 91° 31' longitude west; Santo Tomas, on the southern extremity of the Bay of Amatique, in the Gulf of Honduras which is considered one of the best in Central America, and being protected from the southeast winds, is easy of access, and

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