Sivut kuvina

sufficiently deep to receive vessels of the largest tonnage; Livingston at the mouth of the Rio Dulce, 15° 48′ latitude north by 91° 61' 24" longitude west.

On the Pacific coast are situated: San José, in the department of Escuintla, 13° 56' latitude north by 93° 2' 24" longitude west. The importance of this port is due to its proximity to the capital, but its anchorage offers little security to vessels. Champerico, on the coast of Suchitepequez, is 14° 17' latitude north by 94° 17′ 24′′ longitude west. The ports of San Geronimo, Tejocaté, and San Luis, in the department of Escuintla, and that of the Esclavos, in the department of Santa Rosa. They are used only for exportation. We must also mention the inland ports of Gualan, upon Motagua, and Panzos, upon the Polochic.


Chapter III.


The Republic of Guatemala is divided into 22 departments, comprising to important cities, 22 smaller ones, 304 pueblos or villages, more or less considerable in size, and a great number of hamlets and haciendas or estates. The following table shows the name of the different departments and their principal towns, with their population in 1890.

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Total population of the 22 departments of the Republic, to De-
cember 31, 1890.

II, 100

12, 200

50, 058

2, 800


I, 460, 017

The indigenous race is still very numerous in the country. Gentle and docile by nature, it accepts readily the benefits of civilization. The Government watches with paternal care its mental improvement and material progress. In general the natives, as well as those of European descent, are honest, laborious, orderly, and particularly industrious.

In the cities the manners and customs are nearly like those of Europe, and civilization has attained as high a degree of refinement, but in the interior, among the Indians, it is not yet so far advanced, though every day there are signs of a progress.

Spanish is the language of the country, and is understood by every Indian, although that race still preserves a special idiom of its own. French, English, and German are generally known by the educated classes.


This department is situated in the very center of the Republic, and has 143,581 inhabitants. Its principal city, Guatemala, is the capital of the Republic. Guatemala City contains 70,000 souls, is the most important of Central America and one of the largest in Spanish America. After the destruction of Antigua Guatemala by an earthquake in 1773, formerly the capital of the country, Guatemala la Nueva (New Guatemala), the present capital, was built in 1776, in the Ermita Valley, surrounded by green hills, pastures, sugar and coffee plantations, and favored with a temperate and healthful climate. The situation and aspect of the city are very beautiful. When seen from the heights of Cerro del Carmen the eye wanders over a lovely landscape, reaching from the Guarda de Buena Vista to a vast horizon, bounded on the south at a distance of 27 miles by a range of the Cordilleras of the Andes, while in the background is seen the colossal outline of the volcanoes of Agua and Fuego, whose craters are constantly crowned with everchanging clouds.

The city covers a large area and is well built. Many of the houses are elegant and spacious, surrounded by courts and gardens adorned with fountains, objects of art, and tasteful ornaments. The streets are wide, straight, well paved, lined with fine sidewalks, and lighted by electricity.

Guatemala contains several noticeable public buildings. Among these may be mentioned the Palace of the Executive, the City Hall, the Court-House, the Post and Telegraph Office, the CustomHouse and Revenue Building, the Liquor and Tobacco Bureau, the National Theater, the College of Medicine and Pharmacy, the University, the School of Arts and Trades, the Polytechnic School, a number of national and private schools and colleges, the general and military hospitals, the Palace of the Archbishop, several magnificent and richly decorated churches, such as the Cathedral, San Francisco, Santo Domingo, Santa Catalina, La Merced, La Recoleccion, and Santa Teresa. In every ward there are fountains, baths, and public places for washing clothes, and scattered through the city are public gardens, military barracks, large hotels, printing establishments, etc.; among other buildings are a penitentiary, two forts and the Internacional and Colombiano banks. There are also various private asylums and charitable institutions, national and foreign. Public instruction is placed within the reach of everyone without any distinction of race or social standing, in numerous schools where teaching is advanced to a high degree. The tramway lines are perfectly well organized, and, as the city is in direct communication with the port of San José by means of a railroad, provisions are abundant and cheap. The telephone is also in operation, and the mail, as well as the telegraph systems, are equal to those of the most civilized countries.

The capital is garrisoned by a detachment of the standing army, which attracts attention by the fine appearance of its officers and men. In every barrack courses of military instruction are given, besides fencing and marksmanship. Besides the municipality

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