Sivut kuvina

The city of Flores, its chief town, is built on the island of Peten, on Lake Itzal. This lake, irregular in shape, is 42 miles long by 4 miles and a half wide, with a depth calculated at 155 feet. The climate is healthy both on the plains and in the highlands. The soil is very fertile and generally level; but here and there it is covered with virgin forests rich in every kind of timber.

Balsam, sarsaparilla, gutta-percha, cacao, etc., grow wild and in abundance. Vanilla, several species of resin, and medicinal plants are also found there, besides canes and rushes for hats and furniture. This department contains several species of animals still un

known to naturalists.


This department, which is to-day included in that of Livingston, is 1,500 square miles in superficies, and has but three municipalities. Its chief town is the city of the same name, and contains 5,067 inhabitants. The immense valleys in this department, watered by numerous rivers, are extremely fertile and produce every known fruit; its mountains are covered with all kinds of timber, and in the forests are numberless varieties of birds. There are many extensive banana plantations, the products of which form an important item of exports. The principal industries of the inhabitants are fishing, building boats and small schooners, timber cutting, and extracting gutta-percha and sarsaparilla.


This department has a superficial area of 1,400 square miles, 11 municipalities, and a population of 44,216 inhabitants. The chief town, Zacapa, situated 536 feet above the level of the sea, is an ancient city which formerly was a great commercial center. The climate is changeable but healthy. Coffee, cacao, and sugar cane are cultivated, but the principal product consists of tobacco, which is abundant and of a very good quality. For this reason

the cigars and cigarettes manufactured there have an almost universal reputation. Public instruction is given in 36 elementary schools. 26 for boys, 8 for girls, and 1 night school for adults.


This department, with an area of 2,200 square miles, contains 62,878 inhabitants and nine municipalities. Its chief town bears the same name. The city of Chiquimula is the most ancient in the eastern region of Guatemala. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 1773, and there are still some ruins dating from that time. The city of Esquipulas is within its jurisdiction and is celebrated for its sanctuary, which is a building of a beautiful style of architecture, crowned with a dome and flanked by a high tower at each angle. It was formerly the object of frequent pilgrimages, and fairs were held in the city, which gave a great commercial impulse throughout the country. This department contains silver, iron, lead, copper, antimony, and coal mines. The climate is healthy, though generally hot. Public instruction is represented by 38 elementary schools, of which there are 27 for boys, 8 for girls, and 3 night schools for adults.


This department, with an area of 450 square miles, has seven municipalities and a population of 35,954 inhabitants. The city of the same name, which is also the chief town, is situated in a large valley, at a height of 5,525 feet above the level of the sea, and surrounded by small hills, which give it a very picturesque appearance. The climate is healthy and pleasant, without any noticeable change of temperature during the year. Agriculture is the principal occupation of the inhabitants. On the mountain of Jalapa wheat, sweet potatoes and sugar-cane are of the first quality, but they are cultivated only on a small scale. In the temperate zones of the department various medicinal plants, such

as ipecacuanha, rhubarb, jalap, mechoacan, croton, and others are found in great quantities. The department contains also hot springs and gold and talc mines. The tepemechin, the most delicate and finest fish throughout the Republic, is caught in the Guija River.

The department supports for public instruction 41 elementary schools, 29 for boys, 10 for girls, and 1 night school for adults.


This department has an area of 1,700 square miles, sixteen municipalities, and a population of 50,058 inhabitants. Its chief town is the city of the same name. The climate is hot, but

healthy. The principal wealth of the country consists in horse and cattle breeding, which supplies the whole Republic. In addition to this the inhabitants are engaged in the cultivation of coffee and sugar cane. There are two plantations of the latter, known by the names of Quezada and Sitio, that are mentioned as producing sugar of an excellent quality. Gutta-percha, vanilla, sarsaparilla, and other natural products are found in the mountains, besides great quantities of timber of every kind suitable for building and furniture. Fishing and salt making are also among the industries of the country. The department contains mineral springs of curative properties and mines of different metals, but these are not worked. There are 66 primary schools, 46 for boys and 20 for girls.


This department has an area of 1,100 square miles and fifteen municipalities, with a total population of 38,950 inhabitants. Its chief town is the city of Cuajiniquilapa, situated 4,000 feet above the level of the sea and at a distance of 45 miles from Guatemala. Near Cuajiniquilapa is found the ancient city of Los Esclavos, watered by the river of the same name. This stream is crossed

by a bridge in masonry, dating from the time of the Spanish conquest. Its length is over 195 feet, divided by ten arches nearly 24 feet high and wide in proportion. The climate is somewhat variable. Fishing, the manufacture of salt, agriculture, and cattle raising are the principal occupations of the people. Coffee, sugar cane, rice, maize, beans, wheat, cacao, manioc, tobacco, bananas, etc., are cultivated, but generally on a small scale. Public instruction is given in 42 primary schools, 25 for boys and 17 for girls.

Chapter IV.


The following are a few of the fundamental provisions of the constitution of 1879, amended in 1885 and in 1887:

Guatemala is a free, sovereign, and independent nation. It delegates its sovereign powers to the authorities established by the constitution. It cultivates and maintains with the other republics of Central America relations due to a common origin and mutual desires for reciprocity; and should a Central American nationality be ever proposed, offering guarantees of stability, justice, peace, and progress, the Republic of Guatemala will hasten to join it. The supreme power of the nation is divided into three parts, viz, legislative, executive, and judiciary, each acting with perfect independence.

The rights of citizens are the electoral franchise and the right to occupy public offices for which the law requires citizenship.

In case the law exacts the quality of citizenship to exercise a public function, the latter may be conferred upon foreigners who possess the other qualities required by law, and these foreigners may be naturalized and become citizens in consequence of their acceptance of said function. The right of citizenship is suspended, lost, or restored according to law. The obligations of the Guatemalians are to serve and defend the country, to obey the laws, respect the authorities, and observe police regulations, and to contribute to public expenses as prescribed by law.

Foreigners on arriving in the territory of the Republic are strictly enjoined to respect the authorities and to obey the laws, for

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