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The collection of the state revenues in general is intrusted to a special bureau, but there is a separate one for the tax on alcoholic liquors and tobacco.

The government of every department is exercised by a political chief, who is at the same time the commander of the local forces. The judge of first instance and the receiver of taxes are assisted by the subtreasurers and a certain number of clerks. The municipalities are under the control of the political chief of the department. Every municipality is composed of a first and second alcaldes and of a number of regidores (aldermen), according to the population.

The general post-office, telegraphs, railroads, and means of communication are placed under the supervision of the Department of Fomento.

EDUCATION.

For some years past the Government of Guatemala has cultivated with the greatest care the development of public instruction, which is free of charge and compulsory.

PRIMARY EDUCATION.

There are 1,252 schools throughout the Republic, divided as follows: 462 country schools, 760 city schools, and 30 private schools, 691 for small boys, 369 for small girls, 48 mixed, 89 for workmen, 15 additional for small boys, and 10 for small girls, employing 1,531 teachers, being 987 males and 544 females. The average daily attendance in the national schools was 32,958 boys and 19,330 girls, 3,232 adults, and 1,860 of both sexes in the private schools, giving a total of 57,386 in 1890. In addition there are 13 kindergartens, and several others are being organized in the principal cities of various departments where, for want of proper accommodations, none were established in previous years. The appropriation for primary instruction for the fiscal year

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1890-'91 was $475,092, expended as follows: $372,744 for salaries, $87,744 for repairs, furniture, and purchase of lands for the use of schools, and $14,604 for rent of buildings. The municipalities applied $27,546 for salaries and $3,011 for rent of buildings; to this amount, $7,740 for salaries and $540 for rent were contributed by private persons, besides $20,215 given by them for private schools, showing a total of $534,144 expended for primary instruction.

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There are, in addition to the above, 6 high and normal schools, with 159 professors and an average daily attendance of 1,565. Like the primary schools they receive every attention and solicitude on the part of the government. The expenses for their support was $67,333.87.

Besides the above, which refer exclusively to public educational establishments in the Republic, there should be added 30 private schools, divided as follows:

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These schools were attended by 850 boys and 1,016 girls, and the cost for their maintenance was, approximately, $20,215. So that the total attendance of children, both in public and private schools, was 57,386, and the total expense $446,390.

TECHNICAL AND COLLEGIATE EDUCATION.

The government has established 6 central technical and collegiate institutions, viz: the law school, the college of medicine and pharmacy, and that of engineers, with the same number in the western part, in the city of Quezaltenango. There are 25 professors for the two first of these institutions, which were attended by 171 students during the year.

SPECIAL ESTABLISHMENTS.

National Library.—During the year 1890 this establishment received many important improvements. Its eminent director has devoted his efforts to enrich it with new works for every section. No expense has been spared to adorn the building and endow this important center of education. It contains over 30,000 volumes and about 100 of the principal newspapers of the world.

Conservatory of Music. This is one of the institutions which, at a relatively small cost, have given remarkable results. It is directed by 12 capable professors of that art and its branches. The people of Guatemala are particularly fond of music and show the greatest disposition to learn it. There are 53 pupils, who are provided by the government with every facility to obtain proficiency in that art. In addition to the above there are 14 schools of music, with competent teachers, at an expense to the state of $6,090.

Schools of Arts and Trades.-There are three of these schools: one in the capital, one in Totonicapan, and one in Quezaltenango. The first and the last one are supported by the national treasury, the second by funds allowed by some municipalities of the department of Guatemala and by a monthly subvention of $200 granted by the Government.

These three schools employ 10 professors and 30 foremen in the workshops and are attended by 254 pupils. By an act of the 3d of December last, the Government has been authorized to establish a school of arts and trades for women.

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