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working classes, and the officers, to whom all the foregoing applies in a much greater degree than to the A.B., are, as a rule, just as able as any class in the country, and they number several hundreds.

It has always seemed a curious thing to me that although the shipowner, according to a great many people, is always trying to murder us for gain, still we are not allowed to look after ourselves a little, but must be treated like infants.

We ought to have a vote. Yes, more than a vote ; we ought to have a member to look after our particular interests and then we should have someone who understood our wants, and not be dependent on people whose only experience of sea life is Battersea life, and their only knowledge of a ship the penny boat that takes them there.

obedient servant,

A SEAMAN WITHOUT A VOTE. Southampton, April 7, 1880.

I am,

Sir, your

APPARENT AND TRUE DIRECTION OF WIND WHEN SAILING.

To the Editor of the Nautical Magazine." SIR, -I am very much obliged to you that you admitted my note into your March number.

I see in the April number of your esteemed journal a paper "On the Apparent and True Direction of the Wind when Sailing." Long ago I proposed a small apparatus for finding mechanically, as the author does by reckoning and by a table, the true direction and force of the wind, and I have given it to some of our ships for application.

Take a four-foot rule with flat hinges as shown at A and B. Let A B represent the velocity per hour of the ship, say 12 knots, turn the rule B E in the line of the apparent direction of the wind, and then mark off at C the apparent velocity in knots per hour, say six, then apply the double length rule A D so that it crosses the rule B E at C, A C will then represent approximately the force and the velocity of the wind, and B A C the angle of its true direction with the course of the ship.

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It was especially desirable to reduce in this manner the apparent direction on board of steam vessels.

I should be greatly obliged if any of your subscribers would assist me to procure some reliable observations concerning the winds in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean which are traversed by some steamers at nearly the same periods in one or the other direction. I have the honour to be, &c., Utrecht, 5th April, 1880.

BUYS BALLOT.

GRAIN LADEN SHIPS FROM UNITED STATES' AND CANADIAN

PORTS. To the Editor of the Nautical Magazine." Sir, I beg you will afford me space in your next issue for a few remarks upon the tabular statement of vessels lost from United States' ports compared with those from Montreal, as furnished by Mr. W.J.Patterson, Secretary of Montreal Board of Trade.

He says that from 1873 to 1879 not a single vessel has been lost through cargo shifting. This is satisfactory, and it is only fair to accept his statement as correct, as no doubt it is the result of careful investigation. But the statement marked “F,” giving the losses of vessels from United States' ports, seems to me very unfair and misleading, and it is this I wish to correct.

It appears to me that to draw a fair comparison between

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Montreal and United States' ports, the losses in the same months should be used in both cases, not the winter months from United States and summer months from Montreal. It must be remembered that the St. Lawrence is frozen up from, say, November till May, the worst times of the year, and no grain is shipped between these months, so that the freedom from losses enjoyed by Montreal cannot serve to show it is owing to the system of loading, but chiefly because the vessels cross the Atlantic mostly during the summer months, and I venture to say if grain was shipped during the winter from Montreal, there would be as many losses as from United States' ports, in proportion, of course, to the amount of tonnage leaving either place. It must also be remembered that vessels from Montreal have the advantage of nearly five days' steaming in comparatively smooth water until clear of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while those from United States have to cross the most dangerous portion of the Gulf Stream.

Condensing statement “F,” the losses in each month, according to that, would be as follows :1878. September 6 October

7 November 2

December 8
1879. January

7
February 8 Montreal navigation closed.
March

1
April

1 May

1 June

0 I have loaded grain both at Montreal and the different United States' ports, and most certainly give the former the credit of exercising more care and watchfulness over the loading of cargoes. But the system used there is to a great extent now adopted in United States' ports, yet vessels still shift their cargoes and founder, and I fear if Montreal were able to ship grain during the winter, the losses from the latter port would be equally heavy as those from the United States.—Yours truly, Newcastle, April 15th, 1880.

WM. M. YOUNG.

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He says that from 1873 to 1879 not a single vessel has bei ere to lost through cargo shifting. This is satisfactory, and it is only asorer

VELOCITY OF SHIP-ONE HOUR.

10 11 E It was especially desirable to reduce in this manner the apparent direction on board of steam vessels.

I should be greatly obliged if any of your subscribers would assist me to procure some reliable observations concerning the winds in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean which are traversed by some steamers at nearly the same periods in one or the other direction. I have the honour to be, &c., Utrecht, 5th April, 1880.

BUYS BALLOT. GRAIN LADEN SHIPS FROM UNITED STATES' AND CANADIAI

PORTS. To the Editor of the "Nautical Magazine." Sir, I beg you will afford me space in your next issue for few remarks upon the tabular statement of vessels lost fr United States' ports compared with those from Montreal, asf nished by Mr. W.J.Patterson, Secretary of Montreal Board of Trs to accept his statement as correct, as no doubt it is the rest careful investigation. But the statement marked "T," g the losses of vessels from United States' ports, seems to me unfair and misleading, and it is this I wish to correct.

It appears to me that to draw a fair comparison bet

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Montreal and United States' ports, the losses in the same months should be used in both cases, not the winter months from United States and summer months from Montreal. It must be remembered that the St. Lawrence is frozen op from, say, November till Jay, the worst times of the year, and no grain is shipped between these months, so that the freedom from losses enjoyed by Montreal cannot serve to show it is owing to the system of loading, but chiefly because the vessels cross the Atlantic mostly during the summer months, and I venture to say if grain was shipped during the winter from Montreal, there would be as many losses as from United States' ports, in proportion, of course, to the amount of tonnage leaving either place. It must also be remembered that Tessels from Montreal have the advantage of nearly five days' deaming in comparatively smooth water until clear of the Gulf of

St Lawrence, while those from United States have to cross the
most dangerous portion of the Gulf Stream.

Condensing statement “F,” the losses in each month, according
to that, would be as follows :-
1878. September
October

7
November

December
1879. January

February 8 Montreal navigation closed.
March
April
May

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0 Iba luded grain both at Montreal and the differen: United e para, and most certainly give the former the credit of

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