Sivut kuvina

No. 411. SATURDAY, JUNE 21.


"The perfection of our sight above our other senses. The pleasures of the imagination arise originally from sight. The pleasures of the imagination divided under two heads. The pleasures of the imagination in some respects equal to those of the understanding. The extent of the pleasures of the imagination. The advantages a man receives from a relish of these pleasures. In what respect they are preferable to those of the understanding.'

Avia Pieridum peragro loca, nullius ante
Trita solo; juvat integros accedere fonteis;
Atque haurire :

Lucr. i. 925.

Inspird I trace the inuses' seats,
Untrodden yet; 'tis sweet to visit first
Untouch'd and virgin streams, and quench my thirst.


* Our sight is the most perfect and most delightful of all our

It fills the mind with the largest variety of ideas, converses with its objects at the greatest distance, and continues the longest in action without being tired or satiated with its proper enjoyments. The sense of feeling can indeed give us a notion of extension, shape, and all other ideas that enter at the eye, except colours; but at the same time it is very much straitened and confined in its operations, to b the number, bulk, and distance of


1 These papers suggested Akenside's beautiful poem on “The Pleasures of the Imagination, and were selected by Blair for a minute examination of Addison's style in his Lectures on Rhetoric, &c. (lect. xx. et seq.) The reader who wishes to form a correct estimate of their philosophical merit, will do well to compare them with the seventh chapter of Stewart's Elements of the Phil. of the Human Mind, and Brown's twentieth lecture.-G.

a This essay on the pleasures of the imagination, is by far the most Masterly of all Mr. Addison's critical works. The scheme of it, as the motto to this introductory paper intimates, is original; and the style is fin. ished with so much ease, as to merit the best attention of the reader. Some inaccuracies of expression have, however, escaped the elegant writer and these, as we go along, shall be pointed out.-H.

b He should have, with regard to.-H.

its particular objects. Our sight seems designed to supply all these defects, and may be considered as a more delicate and diffusive kind of touch, that spreads itself over an infinite multitude of bodies, compreher.ds the largest figures, and brings into our reach some of the most remote parts of the universe.

It is this sense which furnishes the imagination with its ideas; so that by the pleasures of the imagination or fancy' (which I shall use promiscuously) I here mean such as arise from visible objects, either when we have them actually in our view, or when we call up their ideas into our minds by paintings, statues, descriptions, or any the like occasion. We cannot, indeed, have a single image in the fancy that did not make its first entrance through the sight; but we have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images, which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision that are most agreeable to the imagination ; for by this faculty a man in a dungeon is capable of entertaining himself with scenes and landscapes more beautiful than any that can be found in the whole compass of na


There are few words in the English language which are employed in a more loose and uncircumscribed sense than those of the fancy and the imagination. I therefore thought it necessary to fix and determine the notion of these two words, as I intend to make use of them in the thread of my following speculations, that the reader may conceive rightly what is the subject which I proceed upon. I must therefore desire him to remember, that by the pleasures of the imagination, I mean only such pleasures as arise originally from sight, and that I divide these pleasures into

| Philosophers, since Stewart, have made a distinction between fancy and imagination, which was unknown to Addison. A brief sketch of modern opinions upoi. this subject is given in Mahan's Intellectual Philosophy,' ttt. xi.--G.

two kinds : my design being first of all to discourse of those

primary pleasures of the imagination, which entirely proceed from such objects as are before our eyes; and in the next place to speak of those secondary pleasures of the imagination which flow from the ideas of visible objects, when the objects are not actually before the eye, but are called up into our memories, or formed into agreeable visions of things that are either absent or ficti


The pleasures of the imagination, taken in their full extent, are not so gross as those of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding. The last are, indeed, more preferable, because they are founded on some new knowledge or improvement in the mind of man; yet it must be confest, that those of the imagi. nation are as great and as transporting as the other. A beauti. ful prospect delights the soul, as much as a demonstration; and a description in Homer has charmed more readers than a chapter in Aristotle. Besides, the pleasures of the imagination have this advantage above those of the understanding, that they are more obvious, and more easy to be acquired. It is but opening the eye, and the scene enters. The colours paint themselves on the fancy, with very little attention of thought or application of mind in the beholder. We are struck, we know not how, with the symmetry

Stewart says that “philosophical precision indispensably requires an exclusive limitation of that title (pleasures of the imagination) to what Mr. Addison calls secondary pleasures-V. Philos. Essays, Part second, Essay first Introduction. In a note he adds What Mr. Addison has called the Pleasures of the Imagination might be denominated, more correctly, the pleasures we receive from the objects of Taste. Ut sup. p. 182. note. See also a note in Beattic's Essay on Truth, ch. ii. s. 4. p. 61, ed. in 4to.-G.

& The degree of comparison is expressed in the adjective itself. The comparative, more, is then to be struck out, as a manifest blunder of the compositor. It is impossible that such a expression should come from Mr. Addison.-H.

of any thing we see, and immediately assent to the beauty of an object, without inquiring into the particular causes and occasions of it.

A man of polite imagination is let into a great many pleasures, that the vulgar are not capable of receiving: He can converse with a picture, and find an agreeable companion in a statue. He meets with a secret refreshment in a description, and often feels a greater satisfaction in the prospect of fields and meadows, than another does in the possession. It gives him, indeed, a kind of property in every thing he sees, and makes the most rude uncultivated parts of nature administer to his pleasures : so that he looks upon the world, as it were in another light, and discovers in it a multitude of charms, that conceal themselves from the generality of mankind.

There are, indeed, but very few who know how to be idle and innocent, or have a relish of any pleasures that are not criminal; every diversion they take is at the expence of some one virtue or another, and their very first step out of business is into vice or folly. A man should endeavour, therefore, to make the sphere of his innocent pleasures as wide as possible, that he may retiret into them with safety, and find in them such a satisfaction as a wise man would not blush to take. Of this nature are those of the imagination, which do not require such a bent of thought as is necessary to our more serious employments, nor, at the same time, suffer the mind to sink into that negligence and remissness, which are apt to accompany our more sensual delights, but, like a gentle exercise to the faculties, awaken them from sloth and idleness, without putting them upon any labour or difficulty.

We might here add, that the pleasures of the fancy are more conducive to health, than those of the understanding, which are worked out by dint of thinking, and attended with too violent à labour of the brain. ) Delightful scenes, whether in nature, painting, or poetry, have a kindly influence on the body, as well as the mind, and not only serve to clear and brighten the imagination, but are able to disperse grief and melancholy, and to set the animal spirits in pleasing and agreeable motions. For this reason Sir Francis Bacon, in his Essay upon Health, has not thought it improper to prescribe to his reader a poem or a prospect, where he particularly dissuades him from knotty and subtile disquisitions, and advises him to pursue studies that fill the mind with splendid and illustrious objects, as histories, fables, and contemplations of nature.

& This is an instance, among many others, of that curious felicity, which directed Mr. Addison in the choice of his terms. But the whole paragraph is a master-piece of fine writing.-H.

it Another of lis inimitable words.--H.

I have in this paper, by way of introduction, settled the notion of those pleasures of the imagination, which are the subject of my present undertaking, and endeavoured by several considerations, to recommend to my reader the pursuit of these pleasures. I shall, in my next paper, examine the several sources from whence these pleasures are derived.


But the

a In his Essay upon Health. Where. i. e. in which essay. whole paragraph is a little incorrect. There should be a full stop at prospect. And what follows should stand thus: He particularly dia suales, &c.H,

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