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s. 15.

COIN-continued.
129. Knowingly tendering, &c. false or counterfeit coin re- M. 24 & 25 Vict. c. 99,

sembling current copper coin,-or knowingly having in
custody or possession (Note 32) three or more pieces of

such counterfeit coin with intent to utter same.
130. Foreign Coin.] Making or counterfeiting foreign gold or F. Id. 8. 18.

silver coin.

[MEX. Making or procuring dies for the purpose is a

misdemeanor at common law (Reg. r. Roberts, 23
L. J. (.V. S.) M. C. 17; 26 Law T. 126.

131. Bringing such counterfeit coin into the United Kingdom.

F. Id. 8. 19.

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M. Id. 8. 22.

135. Making or counterfeiting foreign copper coin, or any other

metal coin, of less value than silver foreign coin.

M. Id. 8. 8.

136. General Offences.] Knowingly exporting, or putting on

board to be exported, any counterfeit coin resembling,
&c. current coin.

M. Id. s. 16.

137. Defacing current gold, silver, or copper coin, by stamping

thereon any names or words.

misdemeanor in this title is "discretionary”! when the prosecution is conducted by the treasury, and “compulsory," when otherwise conducted. In the latter case no certificate of the expenses incurred by the prosecutor before them can be given by the magistrates until after the conviction of the accused. Bail in cases of felony, which is regulated solely by 11 & 12 Vict. c. 42, s. 23, is unaffected by the 24 & 25 Vict. c. 99; but the allowance of costs in felonies, like in misdemeanors, will be wholly regulated by the latter act, and not the 7 Geo. 4, c. 64, s. 22.

38 Evidence of previous Conviction—" Prevention of Crimes Act, 1871."] 24 & 25 Vict. c 99, s. 37, as to the evidence of a previous conviction, and at which stage it is to be

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proved at the trial, is a similar enactment to 24 & 25 Vict. c. 96, s. 116, in Note 81, post, tit. “Larceny" [see Reg. v. Martin, 39 L. J. (N. S.) M. C. 31 ; 21 Law T., N. S. 469]; and so is sect. 9 of the “Prevention of Crimes Act, 1871,” '34 & 35 Vict. c. 112, Note 1, ante, p. 1006, on the latter point.

39 “COMBINATIONS :” Jurisdiction of Quarter Sessions in some Cases.] Vide 5 & 6 Vict. c. 38, s. 1, paragraph 16, ante, p. 973. An indictment for conspiracy in the geveral form to obtain money by false pretences, is within the jurisdiction of the quarter sessions (Latham v. Reg., 9 Čox, c. c. 516; 10 Law T., N. S. 571).

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COIN-continued.
138. Knowingly or without authority making, mending, buy. F. 24 & 25 Vict. c. 99,
ing, selling, or haviug in custody or possession (Note 32,

8. 24.
as to possession, and Cases), any coining tools, presses,
machine, &c.
[MEM. A galvanic battery is a " machine” Reg. v.

Gover, 9 Cox, C. C. 282).
139. Conveying coining tools, monies, or metal out of the Mint F. Id. s. 25.

without authority.

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140. Principal in second degree and accessories before the fact.

[See Reg. v. Greenwood, 21 L. J. (N. S.) M. C. 127 ;

2 Den. C. C. 453.]

141. Accessory after the fact to any felony under the act.

Id.

COMBINATIONS. See “Conspiracies."
142. Unlawful combinations and confederacies.

M. 39 Geo. 3, c. 79,
[By 9 8 10 Vict. c. 33, s. 1, proceedings under 39 Geo. 3, s. 2; 57 Geo. 3, c. 19.

c. 79, and 57 Geo. 3, c. 19, for seditious practices and
meetings must be commenced in the name of the law
officers of the crown. See tit. “Oaths (Unlawful.”]

S. 25.

COMPANIES, Offences by Directors of. [See tits. “Fraudu

lent Trustees,'' “ Trading Companies.”]

COMPOUNDING.
143. Compounding a felony. [1 Hawk. c. 59, s. 5, 8c.]

M. Common Law.

Id. 144. Compounding a misdemeanor, without legal sanction.

[See 5 East, 298, 302.] 145. Compounding informations on penal statutes, without M. 18 Eliz. c. 5, 8. 4 ; leave of court.

56 Geo. 3, c. 138, s. 2.

a

CONCEALING BIRTH (Note 40).
146. If any woman shall be delivered of a child, every person M. 24 & 25 Vict. c. 100,
who shall, by any secret disposition of the dead body of

8. 60.
the said child, whether such child died before, at, or
after its birth, endeavour to conceal the birth thereof,

40 “ CONCEALING BIRTI: EnactmentDecision.] If any person tried for the murder of any child shall be acquitted thereof, it shall be lawful for the jury by whose verdict such person shall be acquitted to find, in case it shall so appear in evidence, that the child had recently been born, and that such person did, by some secret disposition of the dead body of such child, endeavour to conceal the birth thereof, and thereupon the court may pass such sentence as if such person had been convicted upon an indict.

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ment for the concealment of the birth” (24 & 25 Vict. c. 100, s. 60). The cases upon this enactment are Reg.v. Perry, 1 Dears. C. C. 471 ; 24 L. J. (N. S.) M. C. 137; Reg. * Opie, 8 Cox, C. C. 332; Rey.v. Sleep, 9 Cox, C. C. 559 ; Reg. v. May, 16 Law T., N. S. 362; Reg. v. Brown, 39 L. J. (N. S.; M. C. 94 ; 22 Law T., N. S. 481 ; Reg. v. George, 11 Cox, C. C. 41; Reg. v. Richards, Id. 43; Reg. v. Cook, Id. 542 ; 22 Law T., N. S. 216; Reg. v. Williams, 11 Cox, C. Ć. 684.

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CONSPIRACIES (Note 41).
147. By two or more persons ;-1. To charge another with M. Common Law.

crime ; 2. To defraud or injure others ; 3. To commit an
offence ; 4. To prevent the course of justice; 5. To effect
legal purposes by improper means; and 6. Of journey.

;
men to raise wages. [1 Hawk. c. 72, s. 2.]
148. To commit an offence which the quarter sessions have

Id.
jurisdiction to try when committed by one person.
[MEM. Indictments cannot be preferred for conspiracies

without a previous inquiry before justices or the order of
a judge, fc.; see 22 f 23 Vict. c. 17, ante, pp. 876,
877.]

[Conspiracy to murder. See Offence 393, tit. “Murder.”]

148a. Wilfully and maliciously breaking a contract of service, or M. 38 & 39 Vict. c. 86, of hiring, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe

s. 5.
that the probable consequences of his so doing, either
alone or in combinatiou with others, will be to endanger
human life or cause serious bodily injury, or to expose
valuable property, whether real or personal, to de-
struction or serious injury.

[MEM. See Note 70, ante, p. 349. The parties and their

husbands or wires are competent witnesses, s. 11. See
Note 71, p. 350.]

M. Common Law.

CONSTABLES.
149. Refusing to execute the office when required by law to

do so (e.g. as chief or petty constable, overseer of the
poor, &c.], -or neglecting duty. (See R. v. Bower,
i B. s. C. 585; 2 D. & R. 812.]

Id.

150. Any person refusing to assist a constable when called upon

to do so.
[Constables embezzling monies, see tit. “Public Ser-

vice.”]
[Assaults on them, sce tit. “ Assaults," Offence 54.]

41 “ CONSPIRACIES :" Cases of Offences which are or are not Conspiracies-Offenders subject to Supervision of Police.] As to what are conspiracies punishable criminally or not, see Arch Cr. Pl. by Bruce, 16th ed. p. 870 : 3 Russell on Crimes, 4th ed. p. 116. The most recent cases are Reg. v. Lewis (Mock Auctions), 11 Cox, C. C. 404 ; Reg. v. Gurney f others (Overend, Gurney & Co.), 11 Cox, C. C. 414 ; Reg. v. Warburton (to defraud partner), 40 L. J. (N. S.) M. C. 22; 23 Law T., N. S. 473: Ex parte Wason (statements in Parliament), 40 L. J. (N. S.) M. C. 68. Persons convicted of "the offence of conspiracy to defraud," are, upon a subsequent conviction, subject to the supervision of

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