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Meteorological Register during the month of The Equinox, which for 1855 is on 21st March, at 48m. past 1 P.M., is March in each of the Years 1846-1851
Inches. 1846 30-033
Degrees. Degrees. Inches. 64.06 63.09 1.30 64 01 63.51 2.10 30.239 65.51 65.58 1.61 29.869 61.57 62.54 2.53 29.926 64.51 62.16 0.65 30.649 63.85 62.48 1.43
MARCH in Victoria corresponds with September in Great Britain. vernal in northern, and autumnal in southern latitudes. The strong winds which prevail during this month are known generally as the Equinoctial gales. During the period from 1846 to 1851, there were 186 March days, and of these the wind was southerly for 103 days. For upwards of 50 other days the winds were variable, blowing one part of the day from a southerly direction, and during the rest of the day from the northward. It has been remarked, that in the early part of the day the prevalent winds are from the northward, and during the afternoon and evening they are generally from the southward. The latter, when from the south-west, are usually very cold; while those from the north-west during this portion of the year are mostly hot or warm winds. This is a very dry month, the average fall of rain in it, during six consecutive years, being only 1-60 inches, or about two-thirds of the annual monthly average. The greatest quantity of rain which fell in March, during any one year, was in 1849, when 2:53 inches fell. The year 1850 was that when the least quantity of rain fell, there being only 0.65 of an inch. There are generally heavy thunderstorms during this month; they usually commence when the wind is blowing from a northerly direction, and it appears that, by the time of their termination, the wind ordinarily veers to the southward. As an example of the character of these storms, that which occurred on the 12th of March, 1848, may be cited. At 8 A.M. there was a fresh breeze
from N.E. by N. and N.W. The sun was powerful, the atmosphere close, the wind decreasing, till 4 P.M., when there was much thunder and lightning. After sunset, there were several light showers, and the wind veered to W.S.W.
St. Babid. Tremendous dust storm and hot wind, at Melbourne, 1853.
SECOND SUNDAY IN LENT. Convict insurrection at Castlehill, and Martial Law
THIRD SUNDAY IN LENT. Kororarika, in New Zealand, burnt, 1845.
The Penal Settlement of Norfolk Island founded, 1790.
1. Land Regulations, fixing the price at £1 per acre, 1841.
13. The boundaries of Melbourne, under the Electoral Act, gazetted, 1843. 18. Circuit Courts app. to be holden (1st time) at Geelong and Portland, 1852. St. Patrick. 8. General Post established in New South Wales, 1828.
༈ FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT. Royal Hotel, Sydney, destroyed by fire, 1840. Captain Cook's monument erected at Botany Bay, 1822.
29 Th 30 F
The foundation stones of Prince's Bridge and Melbourne Hospital laid, 1846. 20. Great flood in the Hawkesbury, New South Wales, 1806.
The Squatting Act (2 Vic., No. 27) passed the Legislature of N.S.W., 1839. Trinity House Regulations for Steam Navigation promulgated in N.S.W., 1846. 23. A stone jetty completed at Williamstown, 1839.
ANNUNCIATION. FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. Lady Day.
Trial between Banks of Australasia and Australia commenced, 1845.
MARCH is the third month of our year; with the ancients it was the first. Ovid says, the Romans named it from Mars. Verstegan says of our Saxon ancestors, "the month of March they called length-month, because the days did then first begin in length to exceed the nights. And this month being by our ancestors so called when they received Christianity, and consequently therewith the ancient Christian custom of fasting, they called this chief season of fasting the Fast of Lenct; and hereof it cometh that we now call it Lent, though the former name of Lenct-monath be long since lost, and that of March borrowed instead thereof." The Saxons also called it Hlyd-monath, or stormy month.
FIRST AND LAST QUARTERS OF THE MOON.-When the Sun and Moon have a difference of 90 degrees, or six hours, in right ascension, the Moon is then said to be dichotomized, being apparently divided into an illuminated and a dark semicircle. The former during the First Quarter is invariably on the western limb of the Moon, but when the Moon is waning, and arrives at the Third Quarter, it is then 270 degrees, or eighteen hours, in right ascension, distant from the Sun, and again appears dichotomized; but at the Third Quarter the illuminated semi-disc is on the eastern limb of the Moon. At the First Quarter, the Moon does not cross the Meridian till six hours after the Sun; but at the Third Quarter, it culminates or crosses the Meridian six hours before the Sun arrives at the same vertical.
Meteorological Register during the month of April in each of the Years 1846-1851 inclusive.
Degrees. Degrees. Inches. 60 62 60-30 2.27 60-66 5.09 62.46 1.61 29.947 56.13 5.45 1850 30.063 60.29 59.56 3.12 1851 30.098 64.09 63.30 1.23
will be seen by the registered fall of rain for April, during six years, that there is a great variation in the quantity for consecutive years; thus, in 1847, there fell 5:09 inches, while there was only 161 inches in the same month in 1848. In like manner, there fell 545 inches in 1849, 3-12 in 1850, and only 123 inches in 1851. The means of the Thermometer also vary considerably in the different years; for example, the mean for April, 1849, is 56 13; that for 1850, 60-29; and that for 1851, is 64.09.
APRIL in Victoria answers to October in Great Britain. It
Earthquake.-On the 28th April, 1847. The Barometer shewed 300 inches at half-past eight, 29.98 at half-past two, and the same at sunset and nine P.M.; while the Thermometer in shade showed 52, 58, 52, and 53 degrees; and the Wet Thermometer 56 degrees. The winds were S.E. by E., and S. by E., the sky covered by cumuli and thin cirro stratus; great refraction, the wind blowing S.E. by E. till noon, and a light air S. by E. afterwards. At twenty minutes to five P M., the Flagstaff Station, with the whole Town and vicinity of Melbourne, were visited by a smart shock of an Earthquake, of about five seconds duration, attended by a hollow rumbling sound, apparently from the north east. It was felt by vessels at anchor in Hobson's Bay.
Refraction. During the 15th, 16th, and 17th of the same year (1847), the refraction was unusually great; so much so, that on the 17th, when the wind was north by east, and cirro stratus were crossing from the west, the chalk cliffs, about fifteen miles inside the Heads, were distinctly seen inverted above the horizon. The place of observation was the Flagstaff Station, Melbourne, which is situated 130 feet above the level of the sea.
ཅ PALM SUNDAY. All Fools' Day. The Nelson boarded in Hobson's Bay, and M New Squatting Regulations issued, 1844. [8183 oz. of gold stolen, 1852.
First arrival of Stock overland from Sydney, at South Australia, 1838.
EASTER SUNDAY. Bank of New South Wales established, 1817.
Mrs. Chisholm presented with a testimonial at Sydney, 1846.
LOW SUNDAY. First free Colonists from V.D.L. arrived at Port Phillip, 1835.
The N.S.W. Corps (102 Regt.) embarked from Sydney for England, 1810.
SECOND SUNDAY AFT. EASTER. 23. The Ports of W. Australia decl. free, 1846. St. George. C.J. Tyers, C.C.L., sent to select site for Lighth. at C. Howe, 1846. 30. Superintendent of Port Phillip assumes temp. government V.D.L., 1846. W ST. MARK. H.M.B. Electra, and Harbinger steamship, arrived in Hobson's 26 Th Wreck of the Sacramento, on Point Lonsdale, 1853. [Bay, 1853. 29. Second selection of Immig. arr. at Pt. P. from Sydney, per John Barry, 1839. Mutiny of the Bounty (Commdr. Capt. Bligh, afterwards Gov. N.S.W.), 1789.
THIRD SUNDAY AFTER EASTER.
First marriage, and christening in P.P.
Child named "Melbourne," 1837.
APRIL is derived from the Latin name Aprilis, which comes from aperio, to open or set forth. The Saxons called it Oster, or Easter month, in which month the feast of the Saxon Goddess Eastre, Easter, or Eoster, is said to have been celebrated. The Romans consecrated the first of April to Venus, the goddess of beauty, the mother of love, the queen of laughter, the mistress of the graces.
The festival of Easter is called in French Paque, a word derived from the Greek Pascha, which comes from the Hebrew Pesech, signifying Passover. Hence the English word Paschal.
FULL MOON. When the right ascension of the Sun and Moon differ 180 degrees, or twelve hours, the Moon is said to be full. The Full Moon always appears opposite the Sun; consequently, the Earth is between them. When the centres of the Sun, Earth, and Moon are in a straight line, the shadow of the Earth crosses the Moon's path, and obscures her disc, thus producing an Eclipse of the Moon. The difference between an Eclipse of the Moon and one of the Sun is, that, in the case of the Moon, its disc, or face, is merely darkened by passing through a shadow; but in an Eclipse of the Sun, its disc appears covered by the solid body of the Moon, which is then between the Earth and Sun.-Lunar Eclipses are caused by the Moon passing through the shadow of the Earth.-Solar Eclipses are produced by the intervention of the substance of the Moon.
54.91 55-26 3.67
MAY in Victoria corresponds to November in Great Britain. During the greater part of this month the wind blows from the North, veering occasionally East and West. The average number of days in May in which northerly winds prevail is about sixteen. The mean number of days on which rain has fallen, from 1846 to 1851 inclusive, has been about fourteen. In 1846 and 1848, rain fell on seventeen days of each year; but in 1849, there was rain on eight days only in this month. It appears that in May, 1848, nearly seven inches fell, being almost twice the average of the month during a period of six years; but half of that quantity fell in one day. In 1850, there was a fall of 143 inches only, and this quantity was distributed over thirteen days. The month of May is generally clear, cool, and mild, but occasionally there is very vivid lightning, as on the evening of the 17th May, 1846, when the wind veered from N.N.W. to W.S.W.. which increased to a gale, and there was a great deal of sheet lightning, accompanied with rain; so again on the 9th of May, 1851, when the wind was veering between N. by E. and W.; after sunset, the sky became suddenly overcast, and soon after there were several smart showers of rain, accompanied by vivid lightning in the S. and W. There is but little foggy weather in May, and then it is principally in the morning, and generally clears off soon after sunrise. The same remarks hold with regard to frosts in May. During this month, also, the refractive power of the atmosphere is generally in excess.
Observations taken at Melbourne Flagstaff, 130 feet above the level of the sea.
Tu ST. PHILIP and ST. JAMES.
W Last N.S.W. Legislative Council, in which Port P. Members sat, closed, 1851.
5. Despats. by Harbinger (25 Apr.) pub. respect. New Const., &c., for Vict., 1853.
THIRD SUNDAY AFT. EASTER. 5. Gov. House at Russell, New Zeal., burnt, 1844.
Tu Great influx of the sea at Norfolk Island, 1805.
10. Scarlatina, for the first time, prevalent in Sydney, 1841.
10 Th Ground sold in Melb., corner of Swanston and Bourke st., at £210 per ft., 1853. Foundation stone of the Wesleyan Chapel laid in Melbourne, 1840.
10. Last day of application for male convict assign. received in N.S.W., 1841. ROGATION SUNDAY. 11. Great Native Feast at Remuera, New Zealand, 1842. 8. A Court of Petty Sessions estab. at Alberton, Gipps' Land, Victoria, 1844. 16. Major Mitchell arrived at Weyeba, on the Murrumbidgee, 1836. Foundation stone of St. Andrew's Cathedral, laid at Sydney, 1837.
Th ASCENSION DAY. Holy Thursday. Charter of N.S.W. promulgated, 1844. 17. Mr. Justice Barry elected Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, 1853. No cases for hearing at the Melbourne Police Court, 1848.
18. Shanghae arrived with news that J. Foster, Esq., was appointed Col. Secy. New Zealand proclaimed a British Colony, 1840.
Tu 26. The Thetis schooner wrecked on Point Nepean, and four lives lost, 1848. 27. Major Mitchell arrived at Mount Dispersion, 1836.
Birth of Q. Victoria, 1819. Celeb. at Melb. by a review, levee, and ball, 1853.
25. George Stewart, Esq., from Sydney, arrived in the cutter Prince George,
Mr. Batman arr. from V.D.L. to inspect the grazing capabilities of P.P., 1835.
MAY is said to have derived its name from Maia, one of the brightest of the Pleiades. Verstegan affirms of the AngloSaxons, "that the pleasant month of May they termed by the name of Trimilki, because in that month they began to milk their kine three times in the day." In the month of May, says an old Chronicler, "On May Day, in the morning, every man, except impediment, would walk into the sweet meadows and green woods, there to rejoice their spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet flowers, and, with the harmony of birds, praising God in their kind." "Going-a-Maying' is a very ancient English custom, and the May-pole games and dances were very popular for ages.