Palladium Emissions in the Environment: Analytical Methods, Environmental Assessment and Health Effects

Etukansi
Springer Science & Business Media, 2006 - 639 sivua
In 2004 an amount of 187 tons of palladium has been sold in world market. The main demands were automotive catalyst (58%), electronics (14%), jewellery (14%) and dental practises (13%). Especially, the increasing use of palladium in catalytic converters is a reason for substantial research in this field. Emission, environmental distribution and possible health effects of pla- num have been summarized detailed in two recent books “Emissionen von Platinmetallen: Analytik, Umwelt- und Gesundheitsrelevanz” and “Anth- pogenic Platinum Group Emissions – Their Impact on Man and Envir- ment” published by Springer in 1999 and 2000 (Zereini & Alt (Eds)). But there is a clear lack of information concerning palladium. It is very imp- tant to condense the present state of research findings from emission to potential health risks for the environment and humans. Very important is the chapter about analytical determination of pal- dium, which shows clearly the problems of several analytical techniques. Some data published during the last decade have to be re-evaluated because of insufficient analytical techniques. Also the finding that palladium c- pounds are relatively soluble and mobile in environmental settings is a great issue for further investigations. I think it is the right time for such a comprehensive book about palladium research and I am sure that readers with different scientific background like chemists, biologists, geologists medical doctors e.g. will benefit very much from reading this book.
 

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Sisältö

Sources of Palladium Emissions
1
11 Automotive Catalysts
3
12 Release of Particulate and Acid Soluble Palladium from Catalytic Converters into the Environment
25
13 Use and Demand of Palladium for the Industry
39
14 Regional Distribution of Pd Pt and AuEmissions from the Nickel Industry on the Kola Peninsula NW Russia as Seen in Moss and Humus Samples
53
Analytical Methods for Determination of Palladium in Biological and Environmental Materials
71
21 Analysis of Palladium by High Resolution ICPMS
73
22 Determination of Palladium in Environmental Samples by ICPMS after Preconcentration Separation
83
34 The Importance of Assessing Variability in the Distribution of Anthropogenic Palladium Platinum and Rhodium in Fluvial Sediments
343
35 ManInduced Changes of Palladium in Polar and Alpine Snow and Ice Archives
355
36 Palladium in a Mountain Ecosystem Aspe Valley Pyrenees France
369
37 ShortTerm Variation of Palladium in Airborne Participate Matter
381
Total Concentrations and Particle Size Distribution
397
39 Source Characterization of Platinum Group Elements Using the Isotopic Composition of Osmium
407
310 Temporal and Spatial Variation of Palladium in the Roadside Environment
419
311 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Anthropogenic Palladium in the Environment
433

23 Sources of Error and their Elimination for Spectrometric Determination of Palladium in Environmental Samples
97
24 Collision Cell ICPMS as Tool for the Determination of Palladium
111
25 Solid Sampling GFAAS and ICPMS for the Determination of Trace Amounts of Palladium
119
26 Preconcentration and Separation Methods for the Determination of Trace Palladium in Environmental Samples
135
27 Analytical Problems and Validation of Methods for Determination of Palladium in Environmental Materials
145
28 ICPMS and Te CoPrecipitation after Nickel Sulphide FireAssay Collection for Pd Determination in Roadside Soils
163
29 Determination of UltraTrace Levels of Palladium in Environmental Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Spectrometry Techniques
173
210 Determination of palladium in road dust and sewage sludge ashes
191
Method Development for Investigating Metabolic Changes
203
212 Analytical Procedure for the Quantification of in vitro Induced Pt and PdDNA Adducts in Human Lung Cells
215
213 HPLC Extraction and Solubilities of Pd II und Rh IIIDialkyldithiocarbamates and Other Chelate Chemistry
229
A Review
245
Occurrence Chemical Behaviour and Fate of Palladium in the Environment
293
31 Regional and Global Transport of Platinum Group Elements from Automobile Catalysts
295
32 Palladium in Waste Waters and Surface Waters of North RhineWestfalia
307
33 Anthropogenic Emission of Pd and TrafficRelated PGEs Results Based on Monitoring with Sewage Sludge
325
A Review
455
Bioavailability and Biomonitoring of Palladium
487
41 Biological Effects of Palladium
489
42 Uptake of Palladium by the Fauna
501
43 Biomonitoring of Palladium in the Environment Using Different Accumulation Indicators
513
44 Biomonitoring of Pt and Pd with Mosses
525
45 Distribution of Palladium Platinum and Rhodium in Birds of Prey
537
Health Risk Potential of Palladium
549
51 Contact Dermatitis to Palladium
551
52 Palladium Occupational Exposure
557
Exposure Levels and Human Risk
565
54 Palladium Toxicity in Animals and in in vitro Test Systems An Overview
575
Author Index
597
Subject Index
623
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