Sivut kuvina

when they go out to spear dugong or hunt pig. A Páráma man speared a dugong with an iron harpoon-head and was carried away by the animal as he hung on to the rope. He was nearly suffocated (short wind he come") and let go the rope, swimming back to the canoe, but the dugong swam and swam until it got stranded on a sandbank and died. It was eaten by sharks and the harpoon-head came off, and was drifted along by the water being kept afloat by the rope, until it was ultimately washed ashore near Kátatai.

The Mawáta people prepared to leave Páráma, they put food in their canoe and started off. Some of them went on shore near Kátatai, among them Kagáru. While there she found the end of the harpoon rope, lifted it up, and saw the iron head: What name (what kind of a) kuior (harpoon head) that? My father he no savy that thing, my mother he no savy, all people belong Mawáta no savy, that's all my eye he look. Proper thing I find him." She unfastened the iron head from the rope and put it into her basket where she carefully hid it, showing it to no one. I give my brother?" she wondered. No, she did not want to give it to her brother. More better I give my husband," meaning a boy, Médi, whom she liked.


On reaching the point near Mawáta on their return journey Kagáru said to another woman, "You go tell him Médi, people go sleep, Médi he come, I want give him good thing, I been find him." Médi came in the night, and Kagáru gave him the iron kuior saying, "You no speak no man." At that time Médi was still too young to spear dugong, so Kagáru said, "You give him kuior along Arúsa," who was his brother. Médi took the kuior and gave it to Arúsa, who was very pleased with it. He did not show it to anybody but kept it well hidden. The people were making ready to go to the reefs, and all drank gámoda together. Arúsa alone could not sit down, but walked about restlessly: Inside me glad now, I kill plenty dugong to-morrow." „He cannot sit down, he shake, no man been find that thing before, he first man." He called Médi and kept him close to him lest he should talk to the people. He told his two wives, Káumági and Amáma, „,I find him good one. To-morrow you hear, I kill him three, four dugong." All the while he laughed to himself, and sitting down a little among the people kept on laughing. The people said, What name (why) you laugh all time, before you no laugh?" He said, "I laugh nothing."


In the morning they all started. Arúsa said to Médi, You carry my thing, amo (rope), wapo (harpoon handle), I glad, good thing I find him." They erected the platforms in a passage called Kóbokopovío close to the Ótamábu reef. He shake, he glad that man: 'Good thing I find him, no more humbug (bad luck)'." The platforms were finished, the sun set, the men ate a little and smoked till the tide was high. Arúsa kept the iron kúior under his arm, holding a wooden one in his hand („he gammon"). He mounted the platform and fastened the right kúior to the rope. The dugong came, and Arúsa was the first man to spear one. He called out for the canoe and caught the animal, taking it to the reef where he tied its tail to a pole stuck into the bottom. One man after another speared a dugong, but their harpoon-heads came off every time. Arúsa took out his kuior himself from the dugong and went up on to the platform again. He saw and speared another dugong, making two now, and tied it up to the pole. The people said,,,Brother, you smoke," but Arúsa answered, "I no want smoke by-and-by." Again he went up on to the platform and saw a dugong coming. He speared it and called out for the canoe, having now caught three dugong. Some men shook their heads, ,,That man he got good luck, I don't

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know what name (why) he all time find him. To-morrow I yarn along that man, who been make kúior."

The people pulled down the platforms, set sail, and returned to Mawáta. Arúsa took care to hide the iron kuior, fearing detection: „Suppose people find out what name (why) I spear him good, by-and-by some man he wild, he poison me." All arrived home. They counted the names of the successful harpooners, "That man he got one, that man he got one, Arúsa he got three." His two wives were very pleased, „Oh, that kúior he make him luck." „He (they) keep inside heart belong him, no speak out; Arúsa, Médi, Kagáru no speak out."


The dugong were cut and distributed among the people. And now the secret of the iron kuior came out. Kaumági took the gábo (the skin and meat underneath the neck and breast of the dugong) and gave it to Kagáru, who had made it a condition that she should have that portion, and she said, "You been find him kúíor, give him along Médi, Médi give him along Arúsa, Arúsa spear him dugong. Belong you meat." This was heard by some women.

The news spread all over the place. Some men told Kagáru's people, „Kagáru been find him good thing, husband belong him he been give him." Kagáru's people went to the others and tried to find out all about the kúior. They said, "Arúsa, where that kúior?“ Arúsa, trying to impose on them, produced the wooden kuior and said, ,,Him he there, I spear him." The people said, "No that one, another one, you show me good, no stow away." „No, I no can show you my thing." Kagáru's people said, "Sister belong me find him, more better you give me fellow," but he persisted, "I cannot give you fellow." They said, "All right, you sit down there, you look me fellow." Some took their stone clubs and some their bows and arrows, meaning to attack the girl Kagáru. They said to her, "What name (why) you give him, that's no you (your) people? You find him that thing, you give (should have given) me straight." Some people warned Kagáru who ran away into another house. Arúsa said, "You fellow come, no good you fellow row, I show you that thing." Producing the iron kúior he said, "Here!" and went on, „Man he no put hand along that thing (touch it), you fellow look along my hand, no fellow catch hold him." Kagáru's people „feel bad inside". Arúsa said, "Belong me now, I stow away proper." He put it back into the basket and hid it, saying, "No good you fight that girl, he been give my brother, he like my brother. Suppose you fellow fight him, I fight you by-and-by, I man all same you." He did not stand up on account of them, but remained sitting while Kagáru's people stood there angry.

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Old Máinou went and spoke to Arúsa, „You give me; you no give along another man, you give me." But Arúsa answered, "I no can give you, I been use him now, I been kill three dugong, belong me now." Máinou turned back to his house saying, „Next time you kill him dugong, you give him one dugong, people belong Kagáru.“

All went to the reef again. Arúsa killed two dugong this time, one of which he gave Kagáru's people saying, „Here, you fellow take him, bring him self along shore. How many people you got, you share out." Máinou said, „Next no row belong you people now." (Saibu,


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278. In Sáibai there lived two men, Áiarpáiar and his younger brother Kóikorpáiar, and the latter was blind. They possessed the first drum which was ever made, their father had made it, and it was of the type called warúpu (without a handle). Áiarpáiar used to work in his garden and on leaving his brother at home he said to him, "You no hit drum, I go long way garden. That drum he long way hear, by-and-by you sing out people (cause people to come). Some Kiwai man, some Bóigu man he come, he kill you." The elder brother hid the drum underneath the thatches of the roof, and then he went away. But when he had gone, his blind brother began to search for the drum groping his way about. A rattle was attached to the drum, and when the boy shook the posts of the house the sound betrayed the place where the drum was hidden. The boy took down the drum and started to beat it, and on hearing the sound, the elder brother thought, "What name (why) be hit him? By-and-by somebody come kill him, take that drum.“ The blind brother sang,

„Áiarpaiar djéipáiar Kóikorpaiar." (Djei, Mawáta hie, means the west wind).

The elder brother returned, and on hearing his footsteps Kóikorpáiar hid the drum. „Oh, what name (why) you hit him that drum?" said Aiarpáiar. "Oh, brother, I no hit that drum, long time I sleep. I think from other island you hear him." "Oh, you gammon, I hear you hit him. No other man hit him, that's you. You look out, by-and-by some man he kill you!" At night when the little brother was sleeping Áiarpáiar again hid the drum, and in the morning he repeated his warning to his brother and went away. But Kóikorpáiar found the drum as on the previous day and beat it. Presently a man named Púipui came and killed him and carried away his head and the drum as well. Áiarpáiar heard how the sound suddenly broke off and thought to himself, "What name he cut him that noise? I think somebody kill him now." He ran home and there he found his brother's body, and he lamented and buried it.


One day he went to Daváne and bade the people there come and take revenge. What name (what is) that noise me hear all time?" they asked him. Oh, that drum," he replied, „Kóikorpáiar hit him, somebody hear, come kill him, take that drum too." Then the people sailed over to Sáibai, and on finding Púipui's abode they killed him and captured his head. They brought Kóikorpáiar's head back. The drum remained in Sáibai. (Námai, Mawáta).


(no. 279–290; cf. Index).

Dancers in one of the ceremonies. Drawn by Námai of Mawáta.


The mogúru which takes place in the dárimo (men's house) is regarded by the Kiwais as their most secret and awe-inspiring ceremony. It is primarily connected with fighting and is thought to incite the participants to become unconquerable warriors, but it is helpful in many other respects as well, as is generally the case with the Kiwai rites. The mogúru comprises two main elements, one of which forms part of the initiation of young men. A wild boar is killed and after it has been elaborately decorated is brought into the dárimo where it becomes the principal feature in the rite. It is placed on a platform close to the central post which is carved and painted in the shape of a man, the grown-up men stand in a line on the floor with their legs apart, and the young men have to crawl


between their legs on to the platform where they pass over the pig on all fours. Just as each one's head is above that of the pig, he is given a certain fighting medicine" to swallow after the pig's head has been touched with the medicine". Among the Kiwais the wild boar is the symbol of fighting, particularly its powerful head which it turns against the pursuers when brought to bay. After this rite the pig is cut up and eaten by the oldest people, some parts of the meat being reserved for purposes of sorcery.

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The other principal part of the mogúru includes certain sexual excesses during which promiscuous intercourse takes place between the sexes. The purpose is to prepare " ,medicine" for the sagopalms, and to a less extent for other plants also, and the people too take a little of the same lifegiving elixir (the semen).

Many minor rites and dances belong to the mogúru.

279. At first the Iása people used to live in holes dug in the ground. One day their great leader Marúnogére said to them, "No good you me (we) stop along ground; that place belong ant. More better you me go outside. Come on, you me cut him post." And they went and cut posts and built a dárimo.

When the house was completed, Marúnogére wanted to hold the mogúru ceremony, but as he did not know what thing to use in performing it he tried a bundle of arrows. The people tied the bundle to the central post in the dárimo, the heads pointing upwards, and beautifully adorned they danced all night to the sound of drums and trumpet-shells. Another night Marúnogére said, "You me start now go kill him people," for he wanted to try the effect of the mogúru. The Iása people set off to fight another village but were themselves badly beaten and some of them killed. They came back wailing over their dead, and Marúnogére said, "No good fashion we been find him now, no good take térepátu (bundle of arrows) make dance, that's why people he lose."


Next Marúnogére tried to make the mogúru with a bunch of coconuts, and when one had been brought into the dárimo, the people tied it to the same post and held a big dance as before. The bundle of arrows was put aside in the house. At daybreak when the dance ended Marúnogére said, "You me (we) to-morrow go fight another place." But instead of killing any of the enemy many of Marúnogére's own men were killed, and the survivors returned home wailing.

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Then Marúnogére said, "That thing he bad, you me (we are) wrong. me take him out that coconut, put him one side where bundle arrow he stop. catch him sting-ray, any kind fish, put him along rope, bring him here." A long string of tish was brought home and hung up on the central post in the dárimo, and sounding their drums and trumpet-shells the people danced all night. The next morning they again went on the war-path but were repelled by the enemy with great loss as on the previous occasions. Oh, that another thing," said Marúnogere, my people he come short (few in numbers) now, I wrong all time." He ordered his people to place the fish where the bundle of arrows and bunch of coconuts were and decided to try another device. He rolled up a tiro (mat of pandanus-leaves) into a bundle and decorated it with a feather head-dress, breast-shell, groin-shell, and other ornaments belonging to a man, and then the people held the same dance. But in the next fight again many of them were killed, and Marúnogére shook his head lamenting, "My people close up finish, bad


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