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(2.) To Tierce, or Third Hour, as sacred to the HOLY SPIRIT, who descended at that hour on WhitsunDay. (3.) To Vespers, or Evensong, as sacred to the Incarnation, because at that hour the Body of JESUS, being taken from the Cross and borne to the tomb, destroyed for ever the gloom and terror of the grave.

As regards the practical use of the Seven Hours of Prayer, the custom of accumulating them had become very general before the Reformation. Matins and Lauds were always said together. Indeed, it is maintained by many writers that it is wrong ritually to separate them. But there are many features which are common to all the Hours, e.g., the introductory versicles. And each Hour is organically complete in itself; consisting of Psalms with their Antiphons (which Psalms make the essence of the Offices), Hymns, Collects, &c., all in due sequence. As, there. fore, Matins and Lauds are structurally quite independent of one another, it follows that when one immediately followed the other (as it always in fact did), there was much repetition. This was the difficulty with which the Reformers had to deal in simplifying the Offices for our Service. All that they did was this. They took a pen and passed it through the repetitions, changed a collect here and there, revised the lectionary, dropped the term Lauds, and our present Matins or Morning Service was complete.

In exactly the same way they treated Vespers and Compline, which they united together in one Office (without altering the sequence and order of the original) under the old English name for Vespers, Evensong.

Thus our two Daily Services are in fact an abridgment of the Four Greater Hours of the Breviary: two going to the Morning Service, and two in due order to the Evening Service. In this way were the Public Offices revised.

In revising the Primer, however, for private use no such abridgment was made. The contents of the Office underwent revision, but its structure was left unchanged. The Seven Hours of Prayer were kept

as they stood. It was evident that the service of the oratory would in many instances demand what, for general use in parish churches, had been found impracticable.

I subjoin in opposite columns a general analysis of the Matins and Lauds of the Breviary. On the left hand column will be seen by the italics what changes have been made in forming the Common Prayer ; on the right hand what alterations (and how few) have been made for the Primer. I ought to add that, in structure, the Officium Parvum B. V. M. of which I spoke above does not differ materially in any respect from the regular Canonical Breviary Hours. Of the difference in substance I will speak more fully presently. MATINS AND LAUDS OF THE BREVIARY.

N.B. Those portions N.B. Those portions which are not retained which are not retained in in the English COMMON the English PRIMER are PRAYER are printed in printed in italics. italics.

MATINS.
Our Father.
O Lord, open thou.
And our mouth.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah (Praise ye the Lord.)

Invitatory.
Venite.
Hymn.

Psalms, with their Antiphons.

MATINS.
Our Father.
O Lord, open thou.
And our mouth.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah.

Invitatory.
Venite.
Hymn.

Psalms, with their Antiphons.

V. R.
Our Father (not aloud).
Absolution.
Benediction 1.2.
Lesson, Part 1.
Responsory. ]
Benediction 2.2
Lesson, Part 2.
Responsory.
Benediction 3.
Lesson, Part 3.

Responsory or
Te Deum. J

V. R.
Our Father.
Absolution.
Benediction 1. )
Lesson, Part 1. }
Responsory.
Benediction 2.7
Lesson, Part 2
Responsory.
Benediction 3.7
Lesson, Part 3
Responsory.
Te Deum.

LAUDS.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah.

Psalms, with Antiphons.

Benedicite.
Chapter.

Lauds.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father,

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah.

Psalms, with Antiphons.

Benedicite.

Chapter (Second Lesson.)

Hymn.

Benedictus, with Antiphon.

Versicles.
Collect for the Day.

Memorials, several in number, consisting each

Hymn.

Benedictus, with Antiphon.

Versicles.
Collect for the Day,

Memorials, several in number, consisting each

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VESPERS.
Our Father.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah.

VESPERS.
Our Father.
O God, make speed.
O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah (Praise ye the Lord.)

Psalms, with their Antiphons.

Chapter (First Lesson).
Hymn.
Magnificat.
Collect.
Memorials.

Psalms, with their Antiphons.

Chapter.
Hymn.
Magnificat.
Collect.
Memorials.

Compline. Turn us, O Gud our Saviour.

And let thine anger cease from us.

O God, make speed.

COMPLINE. Turn us, O God our Saviour.

And let thine anger cease from us.

O God, make speed.

O Lord, make haste.
Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the beginning.

Alleluiah.
Psalms.
Chapter.

O Lord, make haste. Glory be to the Father.

As it was in the begin ning.

Alleluiah.
Psalms.
Chapter (Second Les-

son).
Hymn.
Nunc Dimittis.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Our Father.
Ave Maria.

I believe in God, the Father.

Confession.
Absolution.
Versicles.
Collect for Aid.

Collect for Peace of the Church.

Fidelium animæ.
Let us bless the Lord.
Thanks be to God.

Hymn.
Nunc Dimittis.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Our Father,
Ave Maria.

I believe in God, the Father.

Confession.
Absolution.
Versicles.
Collect for Aid.

Collect for Peace of the Church.

Fidelium animæ.
Let us bless the Lord.
Thanks be to God.

Such then were the changes effected in the Older Offices with a view to their being put into gear for more general and intelligent use in the Public and Private worship of the English Church. It will be noticed that the Primer retains the outline of the original Four Hours without much alteration. And this is the case also in the remaining Minor Hours,Prime, Tierce or Third Hour, Sext or Sixth Hour, None or Ninth Hour. The Primer, however, allows

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