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and kissed him, and said: " Is it not because the Lord hath anointed thee to be prince over his inheritance? And thou shalt reign over the Lord's people, and shalt save them from the hand of their enemies round about. And this shall be the sign that Jehovah hath anointed thee to be prince over his inheritance: When thou art departed from me to-day, then thou shalt find two men by Rachel's sepulchre in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah; and they will say unto thee, The asses which thou wentest to seek are found: and lo, thy father hath left the care of the asses, and sorroweth for you, saying, What shall I do for my son? Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and thou shalt come to the oak of Tabor, and there shall meet thee threc men going up to God to Beth-el, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a skin of wine: and they will salute thee, and give thee two loaves of bread; which thou shalt receive of their hands. After that thou shalt come to Gibeah, where is the garrison of the Philistines and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret,2 and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy: and the Spirit of the Lord will come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man. And let it be, when these signs are come unto thee, that thou do as occasion serve thee; for God is with thee."


And it was so, that when he had turned his back to go from Samuel, God gave him another heart and all those signs came to pass that day. And when they came thither to Gibeah, behold, a company of prophets met him; and the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them. And it came to pass, when all that knew him beforetime saw that, behold, he prophesied among the prophets, then the people said one to another: "What is this that is come unto the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?"

And one of the same place answered and said, "But who is

1 The prophets, here appearing for the first time as an established order in Israel, are religious zealots, whose practices suggest those of the modern dervishes. Such "prophesying" was already found in the old Canaanitish religion, and doubtless began in ecstatic dancing about the altar as an expression of religious feeling. Samuel is shown as a prophet in the later sense, - a revealer of the will of God.

2 psaltery, tabret. See note, p. 273.


their father?" Therefore it became a proverb, "Is Saul also among the prophets?"

And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the high place. And Saul's uncle said unto him and to his servant, "Whither went ye?" And he said, "To seek the asses: and when we saw that they were no where, we came to Samuel." And Saul's uncle said: "Tell me, I pray thee, what Samuel said unto you." And Saul said unto his uncle, "He told us plainly that the asses were found." But of the matter of the kingdom, whereof Samuel spake, he told him not.

Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash: "Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee." And Nahash the Ammonite answered them: "On this condition will I make a covenant with you, that I may thrust out all your right eyes, and lay it for a reproach upon all Israel." And the elders of Jabesh said unto him: "Give us seven days' respite, that we may send messengers unto all the coasts of Israel: and then, if there be no man to save us, we will come out to thee."

Then came the messengers to Gibeah of Saul, and told the tidings in the ears of the people: and all the people lifted up their voices, and wept. And behold, Saul came after the herd out of the field; and Saul said, "What aileth the people that they weep?" And they told him the tidings of the men of Jabesh. And the Spirit of God came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled greatly. And he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, saying: Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done unto his oxen." And the fear of the Lord fell on the people, and they came out with one consent. And they said unto the messengers that came : "Thus shall ye say unto the men of Jabesh-gilead, To-morrow, by that time the sun be hot, ye shall have help." And the messengers came and shewed it to the men of Jabesh; and they were glad. Therefore the men of Jabesh said: "To-morrow we will come out unto you, and ye shall do with us all that seemeth good unto you."


1 who is their father? The question has been explained (1) as meaning, Is prophecy a matter of parentage? (2) as expressing surprise that the son of a well-to-do man of good standing should be found with a band of fanatics men of no 'family.'

2 The episode suggests the story of Cincinnatus.

And it was so on the morrow, that Saul put the people in three companies; and they came into the midst of the host in the - morning watch, and slew the Ammonites until the heat of the day and it came to pass, that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them were not left together.1

And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal; and there they sacrificed sacrifices of peace offerings before the Lord; and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.

The Deliverance from the Philistines (1 Sam. x. 8; xiii. ; xiv. 1-46, 52). [Now Samuel said unto Saul:] "Thou shalt go

1 As the text stands, here follows an allusion to the other story of Saul's establishment as king:- "And the people said unto Samuel: Who is he that said, Shall Saul reign over us? bring the men, that we may put them to death.' And Saul said: 'There shall not a man be put to death this day for to-day the Lord hath wrought salvation in Israel.'"'

2 Another story of deliverance from the Philistines (1 Sam. vii. 2-14) continues the representation (see pp. 224-226 bottom) of Samuel as the real head of Israel:

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And all the house of Israel turned unto the Lord. And Samuel spake unto all the house of Israel, saying: "If ye do return unto the Lord with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods and the Ashtaroth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the Lord, and serve him only: and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Philistines." Then the children of Israel did put away the Baalim and the Ashtaroth, and served the Lord only.

And Samuel said: "Gather all Israel to Mizpeh, and I will pray for you unto the Lord." And they gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there: "We have sinned against the Lord." And Samuel judged the children of Israel in Mizpeh.

And when the Philistines heard that the children of Israel were gathered together to Mizpeh, the lords of the Philistines went up against Israel. And when the children of Israel heard it, they were afraid of the Philistines. And the children of Israel said to Samuel: "Cease not to cry unto the Lord our God for us, that he will save us out of the hand of the Philistines." And Samuel took a sucking lamb, and offered it for a burnt offering wholly unto the Lord: and Samuel cried unto the Lord for Israel; and the Lord heard him. And as Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel: but the Lord thundered with a great thunder on that day upon the Philistines, and discomfited them; and they were smitten before Israel. And the men of Israel went out of Mizpeh, and pursued the Philistines, and smote them, until they came under Beth-car. Then Samuel took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name of it Eben-ezer, saying: "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."

So the Philistines were subdued, and they came no more into the coast of Israel: and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel. And the cities which the Philistines had taken from Israel were restored to Israel, from Ekron even unto Gath; and the coasts thereof did Israel deliver out of the hands of the Philistines. And there was peace between Israel and the Amorites.

down before me to Gilgal: and behold, I will come down unto thee, to offer burnt offerings, and to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do." Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Beth-el, and a thousand were with Jonathan his son in Geba of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.

And Jonathan smote the garrison' of the Philistines that was in Gibeah, and the Philistines heard it said: "The Hebrews have revolted." And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land. And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal. And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, three thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude: and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Beth-aven.

When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait (for the people were distressed), then the people did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in pits. And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were scattered from him. And Saul said: "Bring hither a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings." And he offered the burnt offering. And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him, that he might salute him. And Samuel said: "What hast thou done?" And Saul said: "Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that thou camest not within the days appointed, and that the Philistines gather themselves together at Michmash; therefore said I, The Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal, and I have not made supplication unto the Lord: I forced myself, therefore, and offered a burnt offering." And Samuel said to Saul:

1 It was probably not the garrison, but the Resident, an officer stationed there to collect the tribute.

"Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded thee; for now would the Lord have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever. But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the Lord hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee." 1

1 A second story of Saul's rejection by Samuel is told in 1 Sam. xv.: — And Samuel said unto Saul: "The Lord sent me to anoint thee to be king over his people, over Israel: now therefore hearken thou unto the voice of the words of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid wait for him in the way, when he came up from Egypt. Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling; ox and sheep, camel and ass."

And Saul gathered the people together, and numbered them in Telaim, two hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand men of Judah. And Saul came to a city of Amalek, and laid wait in the valley. And Saul said unto the Kenites: "Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them: for ye shewed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt." So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites. And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah until thou comest to Shur, that is over against Egypt. And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword. But Saul and the people spared Agag, and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings, and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them: but every thing that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly.

Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel, saying: "It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments." And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the Lord all night. And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning, it was told Samuel, saying: "Saul came to Carmel, and behold, he set him up a monument, and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal." And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said unto him: "Blessed be thou of the Lord: I have performed the commandment of the Lord." And Samuel said: "What meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears, and the lowing of the oxen which I hear?" And Saul said: "They have brought them from the Amalekites: for the people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God; aud the rest we have utterly destroyed."

Then Samuel said unto Saul: "Stay, and I will tell thee what the Lord hath said to me this night." And he said unto him, "Say on." And Samuel said: "When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the Lord anointed thee king over Israel? And the Lord sent thee on a journey, and said, Go and utterly destroy the sinners the Amalekites, and fight against them until they be consumed. Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the Lord, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the Lord?" And Saul said unto Samuel: "Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord, and have gone the way which the Lord sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. But the people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the things which should

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