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soon at maturity, and exhibit traces of age at a comparatively early period.

Eight principal roads traverse the island, two lengthwise, and six crosswise. Valetta, the capital, strongly fortified by nature and art, stands upon a peninsula between the two natural harbours, the Grande and the Marso-Muscetto. Three gates open from the fortifications; the Porta Reale, leading to the interior of the island; the Porta Marina, to the large port; and the Porta di Marso, to the port of the same name. The town is intersected by twenty-one streets, ten lengthwise, and eleven transverse, crossing each other at right angles; several of them are spacious and handsome, having foot-pavements. The principal street passes through the centre from the Porta Reale to the Piazza, in which stands the government Palazzo, whence it is prolonged by a steep descent to the Fort St. Elmo. The other streets pass over ground more or less un

Many of them are not carriageable ; in some, flights of steps are cut. The Strada St. Orsola terminates in the Queen's Square, where are several fine buildings; another Piazza (Baracca) on the bastion of St. John, commands an extensive sea view. Malta possesses several public fountains, supplied by the aqueduct Vignacourt, which brings the water from springs at the western side of the island. Among the principal edifices may be specified the church of St. John Baptist, containing the Sarcophagi of the Grand Masters of the Order ; the Jesuits' Church, St. Agostino; the Protestant Church; and the Palazzo Governatore, formerly the residence of the Grand Masters. It contains some good pictures, and an extensive armoury. The palace is surmounted by a tower, formerly the observatory, now used for announcing the arrival of ships. It communicates with the public library, a fine building containing 40,000 volumes, and some antiquities found in the island. There are, besides, an exchange, a university, a theatre, a commercial palace, the union club, &c.

even.

The mean winter temperature of Malta is 13o (somewhat lower than that of Madeira); that of spring, 17°; autumn, 19o. At certain periods, chiefly from the middle of September to the middle of October, and in the spring, it rains with almost tropical violence, mostly in the night. The sirocco, coming directly from Africa, is extremely oppressive and relaxing; it prevails especially in August and September, the ground being at this time parched up for want of rain. There is, moreover, a great deficiency of shaded promenades, which circumstance renders Valetta extremely disagreeable as a summer residence. The winter climate is tolerably equable; south winds sometimes prevail for several successive days. The predominating wind, however, is the north-west, which is agreeable. The air is generally pure and clear, and, except during the occasional prevalence of the northeast wind, the weather from the middle of October to the middle of January is delightful. After this, it becomes unsettled, and in the two following months is often tempestuous and rainy.

Dr. Liddell states the climate of Malta to be more especially suited to chronic bronchitis, asthma, scrofula, dyspepsia, hypochondriasis, and a generally disordered condition of health. It usually agrees well with elderly people.

The accommodation is very good, the houses excellent. Villas, with gardens and orange groves, may also be obtained in the environs. The best parts for a winter residence are those with a southern and eastern aspect, near the Baraccas. Casal Lia, three miles distant, is, according to Dr. Liddell, a well-sheltered residence, adapted for pulmonary invalids, and close to the public garden of St. Antonio.

A recent medical writer on Italian climates in the Lancet, Dr. Burgess, observes—“Malta, which has long been a favourite resort for phthisical patients, stands prominently forward in the army reports as yielding a high mortality among the troops stationed there; nor is this to be wondered at, when we bear in mind that Malta is a rocky, partly undulating island, elevated in the centre, open and exposed on the south and east sides, and consequently the coldness and variableness of the weather, during winter and spring, are experienced to their fullest extent. In autumn, the sirocco becomes frequent; in winter and spring, fresh breezes from every point of the compass are common, which occasionally increase to a heavy gale. Almost every person affected with pulmonary complaints, complained of the depressing effects of the sirocco.”

Dr. Davy remarks, however, with reference to this point, in his work on Malta and the Ionian Islands (1842), that though the troops are subject to tubercles, the natives are comparatively exempt, as also the English residents. He ascribes the prevalence of disease among the troops to irregularities of living, and the frequent vicissitudes of temperature to which they are exposed on sentinel duty, in hot barracks, and guard

rooms.

CHAPTER XI.

ROAD BY ST. GERMANO TO ROME-MONTE CASINO_FROM

ROME TO FLORENCE BY PERUGIA-BOLOGNA-PARMA

MILAN-THE LAKES-ROUTE TO VENICE.

On leaving Naples to return to Rome, the traveller, who has already passed by Terracina and the Pontine marshes, will be gratified by taking the route through Caserta--visiting its palace and modern aqueduct en passantto Capua. The fine amphitheatre stands by the road-side, three miles from the town, and, thougla larger than those of Verona or Nismes, is not nearly in such good preservation, a great part of the outer circle being in ruins. Like the Coliseum, it is constructed of large blocks of travertino, without the use of either mortar or cement, their mere weight being sufficient to keep them together. A little beyond Capua, the road to Rome by St. Germano, the ancient Via Latina, branches off to the right from that by Terracina, and is thirty miles shorter. The country is likewise more beautiful and interesting, and, on approaching St. Germano, is highly picturesque. This town lies at the base of a rocky pinnacle, crowned by a ruined castle, and at the extremity of a fertile plain, enclosed by mountains. High up on the mountain, immediately behind

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it, stands the celebrated Benedictine Abbey of Monte Casino, which forms a striking feature in the distant view, and is a principal inducement for travellers to take this route. You ascend by a steep and stony road (in many parts cut into steps, and only practicable for pedestrians and mules), through immense detached masses of bluish rock, with which the side of the mountain is covered, and between which grow tufts of long rank grass, forming a chaotic and indescribably curious scene. It requires an hour's good walking to reach the abbey, and few scenes can compare with that which is exhibited from the platform. The desolateness and the wild sublimity of the mountains, grouped together in a variety of forms, and enclosing, as in a frame, the plain and town of St. Germano, will leave a lasting impression on the mind. The abbey is a splendid quadrilateral edifice, its several parts being built round five spacious court-yards; the cells are neatly fitted up. There is a collection of pictures, and the library is large, and contains many valuable published works and manuscripts.

The church is richly endowed, and is resplendent with paintings and precious marbles. It contains also some fine specimens of carved wood-work. The number of monks amounts to about forty; and there is a seminary of eighty boys and young men, who are educated for the priesthood. Travellers are boarded and lodged for a few days; some remain for several weeks as inmates of the abbey. Ladies are permitted to see the church, but, as in other monasteries, are not permitted to enter the rest of the building

The view, however, from the summit of the moun

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