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mate, observes—“ The mere knowledge of the temperature of a place does not enable one rightly to judge of the healthiness of its climate; the state of purity and dryness of the air, the water, the soil, the prevailing winds, &c., must be taken into consideration. Hence Venice, though possessing a lower temperature, is not on that account to be regarded as less favourable than southern towns. The low temperature is compensated for by the comparative equality of the weather, the absence of great variations, and by the prevalence of southern winds. The parts of the city exposed to the sea have a much higher temperature than others; as the Riva dei Schiavoni, which in this respect may be likened to the Lung' Arno of Pisa, or the Chiaga of Naples. The advantage that Rome and Pisa have in their higher temperature, Venice has in its sea atmosphere. In the winter months, January and February, and also in November and December, the north-northeast and north-west winds predominate, though often alternating with the sirocco. From March to June the southerly winds preponderate; August, September, and October, are between the two fore-mentioned periods in this respect. The sirocco in winter generally brings rain, the air being thick and damp."

Of the inhabitants of Venice, Dr. Taussig observes that they are cordial and sociable. The tone of speech is soft and agreeable. The lower class are cheerful, and gesticulate a great deal when discoursing. The upper class is more reserved, which depends more upon their diminished fortunes than upon natural hauteur, for there is a kind of equality among all ranks, tempered however, with due respect; the higher orders dispensing with stiffness and formality in their intercourse with inferiors. The Venetians are for the most part of the sanguineous temperament, easily excited, but also easily appeased. The present generation have lost much of the ardour and courage which distinguished their forefathers.

Epidemic fevers do not prevail; but intermittents are not uncommon in spring, and in August, September, and October. They have not, however, the malignant character of agues arising from marsh malaria, and seldom leave as consequences enlargement of the spleen or liver. They are caused by the exhalations from the canals, and more particularly by the great difference of temperature between day and night, acting upon constitutions relaxed by the summer heats, or by other causes. They are more frequent in the islands than in Venice itself. Inflammatory diseases assume a mild character, and are combined with nervous irritability. Nowhere are convulsive affections more common among women; they also not unfrequently occur in men, not only of the upper, but even of the poor and working classes. Among other causes of this great prevalence, may be enumerated the want of occupation, and of sufficient bodily exercise; the free use of coffee, and late hours. In proportion, however, as these are frequent, pulmonary and scrofulous complaints are less so. Pulmonary disease generally assumes a chronic character, and some of these invalids live a long time. Ossification of the arteries, and apoplexy, are not uncommon. The too common tendency is the abuse of alcoholic liquors, which, acting upon irritable temperaments, predispose to disease of the bloodvessels. Herniæ are frequent from the relaxation of the climate, and wounds and ulcers heal less rapidly than on the mainland. *

The sea passage to Trieste occupies about six hours.

The most interesting route from Venice to Innspruck, as well as the most direct, is by the pass of Ampezzo. The road is in excellent condition, but there is as yet no public conveyance. Leaving Mestre on the mainland, you pass through a beautiful and fertile plain, with villas and gardens on either side of the road, especially about Treviso, where the people are goodlooking, many of the women being remarkable for their beauty, which is heightened by their becoming costume. Ceneda, the termination of the first day's journey en voiturier, lies in a picturesque situation at the foot of the Alps, and between gently rising verdant hills, on the highest of which are the remains of a castle. Shortly after leaving this small town, a gradual ascent commences between mountains, wooded at their base, and terminating in lofty snow-covered peaks. From Seravalle to Longarone the road is, for the most

The town of Belluno lies a few miles on the left. After Longarone is a gradual ascent to the next post, Perarolo, which lies at the base of a mountain, from whence the ascent to Venas presents a succession of varied scenery, equal to some of the most picturesque parts of Switzerland. The drive from Venas to Ampezzo, and through the defile, likewise exhibits views of the highest order of sublimity and beauty; the numerous masses of bare rock of various hues, with snow-tipped peaks, forming a series of strik

* Venedig von seite seiner Klincateschen Verhaltuisse, 1847.

part level.

ing contrasts with the wooded acclivities of the mountains. From Ampezzo to Landro, a drive of three hours, the interest of the scenery is scarcely surpassed by that of the most celebrated Alpine passes.

Shortly after leaving the latter town, you emerge upon the beautiful Pusterthal, in the Tyrol, which, from the high state of cultivation, and the neat appearance of the numerous farmhouses and cottages, appears to be the abode of

peace

and contentment. Brunnecken, the chief town of the district, lies in a picturesque position; some miles beyond which, at the entrance of a narrow defile, a new fort, with extensive fortifications along the heights, has lately been constructed by the Austrian government, and would form an insurmountable impediment to the passage of a hostile force.

After a succession of ascents and descents, you arrive at Sterzing, a neat town on the high-road from Verona to Innspruck, and at the foot of the Brenner, which is the lowest, and least interesting, in a scenic point of view, of the passes of the Alps. Before arriving at Innspruck, however, you have to cross the Schönberg, which well deserves its name for the beauty of its scenery, and also from the view presented from its summit of the town, and numerous detached houses scattered along the valley of the Inn, the verdure of which pleasingly contrasts with the dark, rugged, and snow-tipped masses of the Alpine chain, extending from east to west, and forming an apparently impassable barrier.

Innspruck, the capital of the Tyrol, contains about 14,000 inhabitants, and is a handsome clean town, the appearance of which is greatly improved within the last few years. The view along the principal street is striking, most of the houses being whitewashed, several new buildings having lately been erected. The quays along the Inn, as well as the public garden, have likewise been enlarged and embellished. This river is here about half as wide as the Thames at Westminster. From the centre of the bridge a magnificent prospect may be enjoyed up and down the valley, and of the lofty mountain ranges on either side. Innspruck possesses two handsome churches, the Frauenkirche and the Hoffkirche, in which latter is the splendid tomb of the Emperor Maximilian, and colossal bronze figures of several sovereigns of the early ages, among which are Clovis, Godfrey Bouillon, Charles the Bold, Rudolph of Hapsburg, with other well-known historical personages. A statue to the memory of Hofer has recently been placed in the church over his tomb. The museum likewise contains several objects of interest, and will well repay the trouble of a visit.

On leaving Innspruck for Bavaria, the traveller descends the valley to Schwatz-a neat town on the road to Salzburg. The castle of Ambras stands on an elevated position, a few miles from Innspruck, and looks well from a distance, but does not now contain any object of interest, the rich collection of ancient armour, &c., having been removed a few years ago to Vienna, and forms one of the sights of the capital best worth seeing. Hall, celebrated for its salt-works, also lies on this road. From Schwatz an indifferent crossroad, in many parts too narrow to admit of two carriages passing each other, leads to Achenthal and

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