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objectionable characters to resort to Baden; and on that account it is not so much frequented by families of the higher classes as it would otherwise be. A splendid pump-room, with portico, where many of the waters imported from other baths are drunk, has been erected of late years. In the pleasure-ground, during the season, are numerous booths for the sale of prints, trinkets, &c. The town is clean and cheerful-looking; it contains upwards of five thousand inhabitants, and could receive nearly an equal number of visiters at a time. Many new houses and hotels have been built within the last few years, and the accommodations have been altogether greatly improved. The principal hotels are the Badischen, Englischen, Zahringen, and Russichen Hofs. There are likewise several other large hotels, which have baths in the house. The Church of Eng. land service is performed during the season.

As only one good carriage-road passes through the valley, excursions are usually made on foot or on donkeys. The fine oak avenue leading to the village and convent of Lichtenthal, is the most frequented afternoon drive. Among the most interesting objects in the environs may be mentioned the Jagdhaus, the ruined castle of Ibourg, and the castle of Eberstein, overlooking the picturesque valley of the Murg. Many delightful paths have likewise been made

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the hills. One of the pleasantest is that leading to the extensive ruins of the old castle, which forms a prominent object in the view from below, and whence the eye ranges over a beautiful prospect of the pine-covered hills of the Black Forest on the one side; and on the other, of the plains

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extending to the Rhine, beyond which towers the lofty and elegant spire of Strasburg Cathedral.

At Baden, as at every other watering-place out of the season, houses and apartments may be hired at a very low rate. It is not, however, eligible as a winter residence; for though it be in great measure sheltered from cold winds, yet, after rain, the ground remains long wet, and the dews in autumn are generally very heavy. Provisions and other necessaries are likewise very scarce, except during the season, and many of the essential articles of consumption require to be sent from Carlsruhe.

Wildbad is about seven leagues distant from Baden. The drive by the new road, across the mountains and the Murgthal, offers a pleasing diversity of scenery. This bath is greatly improved within the last few years. It lies in one of the most sombre valleys of the Black Forest; and, though there are some agreeable paths among the mountains, would be but a dull place of abode for any length of time, unless seclusion, or the restoring powers of its waters, was sought for. At one extremity of the principal street are the hotels, the new kursaal, and baths, occupying a Place. Behind flows the rapid rivulet Ens, the banks of which for upwards of a mile constitute the most usual promenade. The climate is raw and cold during great part of the year, whilst, from the deficiency of free ventilation, to which narrow valleys between wood-covered mountains are subject, the atmosphere must be considerably charged with moisture for some time after the falling of heavy dew or rain.

The water rises, through a layer of fine sand, to a height of from two to three feet in the basins or piscinæ, in which several persons may bathe at the same time. The natural temperature of the water is 30° R., being that best adapted for bathing. The baths are extremely refreshing and agreeable, and are calculated for the alleviation of several chronic disorders.

Stuttgard, the capital of Wurtemburg, is about four hours' drive from Wildbad, and is pleasantly situated in a valley surrounded by hills, on which the vine is cultivated, and, with the numerous white country-houses in the environs, looks well from a distance. It contains about 30,000 inhabitants, though but little to interest the passing traveller, and offers no inducement for a protracted sojourn. The palace is surmounted by an

. enormous crown in bad taste. The interior is handsomely, but not gaudily, furnished. Since the construction of this palace, the old one, in the centre of the square, has been appropriated to government offices. The palace gardens are extensive, prettily laid out à l'Anglaise, and open to the public; they terminate at Rosenstein, the summer residence of the king, two miles from the town, of which it commands a good view, as well as of the course of the Neckar. The interior is tastefully fitted up. The chalybeate springs of Camerstadt, in the neighbourhood, are frequented by residents of this part of the country; but possess no particular advantage over other baths of the same character, better provided with resources.

Stuttgard is now in railway communication with the lake of Constance by Ulm; and (nearly so) with Carlsruhe and Heilbronn,

CHAPTER XVII.

NASSAU BATHS WIESBADEN - SCHWALBACH - EMS - THE RHINE - AIX-JA-CHAPELLE - SPA-BRUSSELS- ANTWERPROUTE TO CALAIS.

The Duchy of Nassau, though small, is extremely beautiful, comprising a great variety of scenery; while the fertility of its soil in many parts, its extensive woods, its numerous valuable mineral springs, and its vineyards, which produce some of the most esteemed kinds of wine, are never-failing sources of its richness. The most beautiful parts lie in the north about Limburg, the banks of the Lahn, the Rheingau, and some localities of the Taunus Mountains. The air of the duchy is light and salubrious, and many of the inhabitants attain an advanced age. The great majority are Protestants. The labouring classes are sober and hard working : they are all educated so as to be able to read and write; and, though many of the peasantry are extremely poor, there is no appearance of absolute destitution, and begging is very rare.

Wiesbaden, the capital, is encircled by low cultivated hills, behind which, on the north and north-east, rises the range of the Taunus Mountains, clothed with pine and other trees, the dark foliage of which forms a pleasing relief to the verdure of the valley and the white buildings of the town. The old part of the town pre

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sents nothing particularly remarkable; but the appearance of the Wilhelm's Strasse, a handsome row of new houses fronting the promenades, is striking. Many other new streets, as well as isolated public buildings

-among which is the Ducal Palace, in the centre of the town; the Ministerium, or public offices; and the new Catholic Church-have been erected within these few years, and the accommodations for visiters now leave little to be desired.

The Curhaus der Vier Jahrszeiten, one of the most extensive hotels on the continent, forms a corner of the Wilhelm's Strasse, and one side of a square, on the opposite side of which stands the new theatre, a neat building, where there is always a good company of performers during the season; at which period, also, concerts and exhibitions are given, by artists of celebrity from other towns in Germany, or from London. Across the road is a grass enclosure bordered by avenues of limes, and on either side a colonnade for shops. At the extremity stands the Kursaal, an edifice which contains a magnificent saloon for balls and public assemblies, with smaller apartments for refreshment and gaming, which is licensed by government during the season, though the inhabitants of the town are prohibited from risking their money. The visiters for the baths do not generally take an active part in the public balls, which are more particularly attended by the inhabitants and holyday-folks from the neighbouring large towns. The réunions dansantes, which take place twice a week in one of the smaller rooms, are more select, and are generally preceded by a concert. The ground around the Kursaal and colonnades is laid

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