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lation and improper alimentation, would, in most cases, be cured by a dry and sunny clime, aided by a fitting regimen. The dryness and amount of electricity in the air of some southern places of resort, tend greatly to promote nutrition, and a more perfect sanguification, which are generally so faulty in this complaint. It is well known to most practitioners that in Great Britain, where strumous affections are so common, the great majority of these patients get better in the summer, but worse in winter, notwithstanding the most approved methods of treatment; that the more aggravated forms are met with in low, cold, and humid positions, among the poorer classes, who live upon coarse, unwholesome, and scanty food, and who are indifferently protected by their houses and clothing from the vicissitudes of the weather. Among the children who work in the close and impure air of the manufactories at some of our large towns, this disease is almost endemic. Sir James Clark adduces, as a proof of the effects of impure ventilation in producing scrofula, the instance of a school at Norwood, containing six hundred boys, where great mortality had occurred from this disease, which was ascribed to improper food; till Dr. Arnott, on investigating the matter, found the ventilation extremely defective, which being remedied, the scrofula disappeared, and eleven hundred children were subsequently maintained in good health in the same place.

Hence it may be supposed that climate is calculated to exert the greatest influence in its removal. The sea-side, with a southern exposure, is generally beneficial. In that form of the disease, accompanied by general lassitude, torpor and debility, languid circulation and digestion, enlarged glands, yielding of the bones, &c., a somewhat exciting and dry climate, like Nice, Naples, or Malta, would most likely be productive of advantage ; but in young persons of fair florid complexion, and irritable habits, these localities would very probably disagree, and Hyères, Pau, Rome, Pisa, according to circumstances, would be preferable, particularly if there should be cough or other indication of pulmonary disease, in which case Madeira would often be serviceable.

Elderly people who are approaching, or who have already passed the grand climacteric, and experience a failing of the powers of the system, will mostly derive the greatest advantage from mineral waters in the summer months, and an habitual residence in a southern climate in the winter, where they mayenjoy the revivifying effects of the sun's rays, and take daily out-of-door exercise. Rome agrees well with most old people, if not liable to head affections. Florence has also its advantages for those who are not very susceptible to atmospheric vicissitudes, its climate being more bracing than that of Rome. Naples, or Nice, when not found to be too exciting, will be preferable in some instances. Pau might suit several who would rather remain in France. The climate of Tours is likewise good, less rainy, though colder and more variable than that of the south. But most persons, after having resided for a short period at any of the above-mentioned places, would be able to ascertain by their own feelings whether or not the climate agreed with them.

The agency of climate may be beneficially applied to rectify various other conditions of chronically disordered health than those already specified; and the preceding data may perhaps enable the practitioner the better to determine as to how far its sphere might be extended in any given case. Inasmuch, however, as the prevention, where it can be effected, is better than cure, I propose briefly to

I advert to a few of the predisposing causes of disease prevalent among the higher classes of the community, by an early attention to which many of their disastrous results might be obviated, not only without any sacrifice, but with the advantage of increased comfort and wellbeing.





The directly exciting causes depending upon a vitiated state of the atmosphere, and other physical deleterious agencies, would, in many cases, be insufficient for the

production of disease, were it not that the body is frequently rendered more susceptible to be affected by them, from the action of predisposing influences of various kinds, which, being slow and gradual, seldom attracts attention, and their avoidance or removal is consequently too often neglected till the health has become materially impaired. A too sedentary mode of life, and the want of proper daily walking exercise, is a common indirect cause of ill health, by impeding a free circulation; thereby inducing a congestive state of particular organs, with a deficiency of blood in others, and consequently an arrest of, or an abnormal condition of, various secretions. who take regular and sufficient walking exercise are subject to cold feet, which is so common a complaint among females in the higher ranks of life. The prevention of a vicious concentration nervous power upon the brain, is another good effect of walking exercise, which has been already alluded to; and to its habitual practice among the middle and inferior classes, especially in the country, is doubtless in a great measure to be ascribed the freshness

Few persons of complexion by which women in Great Britain are particularly distinguished from those of other countries. The imperfect expansion of the lungs in breathing, which is also a consequence of sedentary habits and tight lacing, not unfrequently predisposes to disease of these organs, the tendency to which has, in many cases, been removed by exercises which more especially bring the muscles concerned in respiration into action, as rowing, the use of dumb-bells, &c. Any circumstances which lower the powers of the system, as dissipation, fatigue, diet of a too exciting or otherwise improper nature, render the body more liable to be affected by deleterious external agencies. Over-anxiety, disappointment, and other distressing moral impressions, act in the same way, and are more instrumental in the production of various diseases than all other causes combined.

“ When the mental or moral equilibrium is impaired," says a medical writer who has well treated of this subject, “ that of the vital actions will also shortly become so; and, truly, there are but few diseases in the actual state of civilisation that are not the reflex of strong moral affections. This is a certain result of their prolonged continuance. Within a given time, depending upon the violence of the attack, and the individual disposition, an aneurism, a liver disease, a cancer, an extravasation upon, or a softening of the brain, the greatest number of nervous disorders, &c., originate more or less directly from some misfortune, experienced it may be long ago; but of which the weight, the remembrance, has suddenly or gradually broke down the springs of vitality.

“No one, therefore, apparently dies from grief, despair, or lost illusions ; it is disease of the stomach, the heart, or other organs, apoplexy, &c., which, by their evident effects, mask the real active, though hidden, source of so many evils. Moral suffering of an aggravated character is then



the starting-point of the greatest number of organic alterations." *

Travelling tends, in some measure, to prevent and to counteract the operation of the above-mentioned causes. The cheering effects of clear skies and sunshine in winter; the interest excited by scenery of a novel and magnificent character, or by works of art, &c., are powerfully calculated to divert the mind from dwelling upon unpleasant or gloomy ideas, and consequently to procure the removal of many diseases, especially when induced by, or connected with, circumstances of a mental nature. On this principle travel and change of air were not unfrequently recommended in the earlier periods of history, and their influence is thus alluded to by Shakspeare with reference to Hamlet's malady

“Haply the seas and countries different,
With variable objects, shall expel
This something settled matter in his heart,
Whereon his brain, still beating, puts him thus

From fashion of himself.” “Journeys,” observes the above-mentioned author, “have been recommended with reason. The continualobligatory action of the muscular system, and the diversion of the thoughts, tend to restore the previous equilibrium between the muscular and sensitive powers. There is, in change of place, and of external impressions, an irresistible power which attracts attention, changes the course of the ideas, relieves pain and ennui, without shock or effort. In general,

, travelling is a means of great utility; like the body, the mind requires a change of place when it is unhinged or fatigued. A change of climate may also be advantageous to weak constitutions, especially to old people, wh remove from a damp and cold atmosphere to a dry and

* Reveillé Parisé. Etudes de l'Homme dans l'Etat de Santé et de Maladie.

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