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as the longevity of its population is concerned. Thus, at Naples the average annual mortality is about one in twentyeight persons of the whole population ; at Florence and Rome it is not much less ; whereas in London it amounts only to one in forty, and, taking the account for the whole of England, to no more than one in sixty ; so that, if these statistics be correct, the advantage of England in this respect is manifest. But it does not follow that those who have the power of choosing the periods of their residence, may not frequently avail themselves of that which is good in both, and derive much gratification, as well as benefit to their health, by a visit to the Continent for a portion of

The comparative greater annual mortality and unhealthiness of a locality is, therefore, no argument against invalids being sent thither with a view to benefit by the climate at the most favourable season; inasmuch as, with a moderate degree of precaution, they need not be exposed to those causes which are principally productive of disease among the permanent residents.

the year.



The semicircular wall of the Alps separating Italy from the east of Europe, is divisible into three sections: the eastern, central, and western. The highest mountains occupy the central division; the lowest, the eastern.

The western range takes a direction from south to north, extending from the coast of the Mediterranean near Nice, and from the Col di Tende to Mont-Blanc, and comprising the Maritime, Cottian, and Grecian Alps. Their altitude varies from 5,000 to 10,000 feet, which increases in the northernmost portion from 9,000 to 13,000 feet above the sea ; that of the principal passes is between 5,000 and 7,000 feet—viz., Col di Tende, 5,600; Mont-Cenis, 6,400; Little St. Bernard, 6,700; all the valleys of these Alps have a transverse direction, and are much shorter than those of the central division. Their rivers empty themselves into the Po. There are no lakes at the base of the western range. The plain of the Po is from 600 to 800 feet above the level of the sea.

The central Alps extend from Mont-Blanc to the Gross Glockner. Their principal direction is from south-southwest, to east-north-east. They comprise the Pennine, the Lepontine, and the Rhetian. Their most elevated points trate deeply into the central Alps. To the west is the great longitudinal valley, the Valteline (Adda); to the east, that of the upper Adige, which is also longitudinal. Reckoning from west to east, the most important valleys are those of Aosta, Lys, Sessia, d'Ossola, Tessin, Misocco, St. Jacques, Bregaglia, Adda, and Upper Adige. With the exception of the two last named, all these valleys are transverse. Their rivers (except the Adige), are tributaries of the Po. At the foot of the central Alps are the lakes, D’orta, Lago Maggiore, Varese, Lugano, Como, and Garda.

00 feet; the height of the principal passes being between 6,000 and 8,000 feet; viz., Great St. Bernard, 7,700; Simplon, 6,200; St. Gotthard, 6,500: Bernardino, 6,600 ; Splugen, 6,500; Stelvio, 8,600; Brenner, 4,300. The two valleys of the Tessin and the Adige pene

are from

000 to

The eastern range comprises the Carnic and the Julian Alps. Their average elevation varies from 4,000 to 6,000 feet, at the western portion; from 2,000 to 4,000 feet at the eastern. Their direction is from north-west to southeast. The longitudinal valley of the Tagliamento is of considerable extent. The other important valleys are the Brenta, and the Lisonzo. The Brenta and three smaller rivers empty themselves into the Adriatic. There are no lakes at the foot of this range.

The length of the chain of the Apennines from the plain of the Po to the southern extremity of Calabria, is about 250 leagues. This chain is divisible into the northern, central, and southern portions; the central portion is the widest and the highest. The northern Apennines take a direction from west-south-west to east-south-east, extending as far as Genoa, and forming a semicircle around its gulf. Their altitude is much less considerable than that of the Alps, and of the central Apennines; the highest summits rarely exceeding 3,500 feet, except at the eastern and western extremities, where some attain the height of 5,000 feet. The rivers which flow from their southern acclivities are the Tauro, the Trebbia, and the Taro: the Magra is the only one of any importance at the western extremity.




The central portion of the chain begins at Pontremoli. Its principal direction is from north-west to south-east. Its altitude varies in the northern parts from 3,000 to 5,000

in the southern part, from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. The most important rivers on the north-eastern side, are the Secchio, the Arno, the Tiber (the source of which is near that of the Arno), which flow in a direction parallel with the chain.

There are likewise isolated mountains and groups, as Mont-Albano, the Pontine chain (extending parallel with the marshes), the Detached Promontory, Monte Circeo, Soracte.

The direction of the southern Apennines diverges somewhat from that of the central chain, being from northnorth-west to south-south-east. Their northernmost extremity has no higher points than 4,500 feet. There is no river of any importance connected with this range.

As respects rain, northern Europe, from the line of the Alps and the Pyrenees, presents a distribution very different from that which occurs in Italy, south of the Apennine range, and on the southern coast of France. In the British isles, the amount of rain is pretty equably distributed throughout all the months of the year; the autumnal months are, however, somewhat more rainy than others. In the northern portion of France, and in Belgium, the difference in this respect between the months is not very marked, though there is more rain in summer, in which this part resembles the plains of Germany.

The Spanish and Grecian peninsulas belong, as respects rain, to the same natural division as the Apennine chain, and the shores of France on the Mediterranean; and consequently, as in the southern part of Italy, the rain is more concentrated upon a certain portion of the year. This period (as also at Palermo) extends from September or October, to April.

The concentration of the quantity of rain upon the winter months, is still more decided at Madeira. The annual amount at Funchal is somewhat greater than at Lisbon, as might be expected in a mountainous island, situate in the Atlantic.* The causes which produce an increase in the quantity of rain, are the proximity of mountains and of the sea.

The influence of the sea acts more by increasing the number of rainy days than on that of the amount of rain. Thus, at Nice the average number of rainy days is only 52; at Palermo, 75; at the foot of the Alps the number of rainy days is much greater than in the plain of the Po. At Brescia there are 126 rainy days; at Verona, 111; whereas the number at Milan is but 72; at Turin, 87; at Venice, 81; at Bologna, 97 in the year. High up in the Alps the number is much more considerable—viz., on the St. Gotthard, from 160 to 211. The amount of rain in summer is less in proportion to the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean. In the plains of Germany (Stuttgard, Augsburg, Berlin, Prague) the annual quantity is considerably less, and approximates to that of southern Italy, viz., 1991, though less rain falls in autumn; whereas at the north base of the Alps it ranges from 25 to 34 cubic inches. Isolated groups

of mountains in Germany produce an increase in the annual amount of rain. At Freudenstadt, in the Black Forest, it is as much as 57 inches. In Holland, on approaching the sea, as also in western France, the amount is greater than in northern France Belgium, and central Germany.t

* See Note on Madeira. † Schouw, Tableau du Climat et de la Vegetation de l'Italie.

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