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Most of the palaces are built around spacious courtyards: some of them are decorated externally with fresco painting, especially those near the Piazza delle Fontane Amorose. The most remarkable are the Palazzi Durazzo, Pallavicini, Brignoli, and Serra, the latter containing a saloon, said to be the richest in Europe with respect to gilding. There are two Palazzi Durazzo; one is now the royal palace, and formerly contained a rich collection of pictures, which has been for the most part transferred by the king to Turin. The celebrated picture by Paul Veronese, of the Magdalen and our Saviour in the house of the Pharisee, went with the others. A few, however, still remain, of which a crucifixion, by Vandyck; a Carmelite friar, by Spagnoletto; and a portrait, by Rembrandt, are among the best. The palace Filippo Durazzo contains among its collection the Tribute Money, by Guercino ; Grecian Charity, a Sibyl, and a Sleeping Cupid, by Guido; some portraits, by Vandyck; and Philip of Spain, by Rubens. In the Brignoli are some fine family portraits by Vandyck, especially a Marquis Brignoli on horseback; Christ driving the Buyers and Sellers from the Temple, by Guercino; the Madonna, Saviour, and St. John, by the same painter; as also a fine Cleopatra, and the Assumption, by Correggio.

The Doria Palace fronts the harbour, and forms a prominent feature in the view from the sea; it is now, however, untenanted, and in a neglected state. The port is, perhaps, the most spacious in the Mediterranean. A magnificent marble terrace, extending the whole length of the houses, and overlooking the harbour, has just been completed.

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Compared with those of Rome and Venice, the churches of Genoa are not remarkable for exterior beauty or interior decoration. The best worth visiting are the cathedral, St. Annunciata, and St. Maria Carignano; from the summit of the latter there is a good view of the town, port, and of the sea. The Albergo dei Poveri, a workhouse on a large scale, is a fine establishment. Visiters are admitted to see the various works in progress. The hospital Pamatone is an extensive building: the staircase and some of the wards are adorned with statues, larger than life, of some of the Genoese nobles, and others, who have been benefactors to the establishment.

The Opera-house is a handsome structure, and the corps dramatique tolerably good,

Genoa, and the numerous villas covering the hills around it, are seen to the greatest advantage from the entrance to the harbour. The view is superb, and second only to that of the bay of Naples. A good view of the city and harbour may also be enjoyed from the garden of the Villa Negri. In some of the arbours mirrors are placed so as to reflect the objects beneath, which produces a pleasing effect. The Genoese are mostly good-looking ; several of the women are handsome, and wear long veils, resembling the Spanish mantilla, fastened to their hair with gold or silver pins; but French fashions have now very generally superseded this becoming costume. The higher classes possess, for the most part, but scanty information, few being addicted to intellectual pursuits, and appear to care for little else than the pleasures of the hour. There is but little society, and not much inducement

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for the majority of travellers to make a prolonged sojourn. Genoa is likewise deficient in promenades; that at the upper part of the town is extremely circumscribed in extent, but commands a good view of the bay and environs.

The climate is one of the worst in Italy; there is often much rain in winter. The changes of temperature are great and sudden, the hills behind the town not being sufficiently high to shelter it from the north and east winds, which blow down with considerable force from the higher mountains.—For a somewhat more detailed account of the climate, my work on Nice may be referred to.

Steamboats leave for Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, &c., three or four times a week; the voyage to the former town occupying eight or nine hours; that to Marseilles, twenty or twenty-four; to Nice ten hours. Railroad communication is nearly completed between Genoa and Turin. The courier leaves daily for Pietro-Santo, whence there are carriages in readiness for Pisa or Lucca.

Between Genoa and Chiavari, the scenery resembles that on the Savona side. Beyond Recco, at the top of the hill, the road passes through a path whence there is a splendid view of the bay, encircled by mountains. Before arriving at Chiavari, two other grottoes (cut through rocks of marble, and within fifty yards of each other) are passed, the intermediate part being built up with masonry.

Chiavari is a pretty town on the shore, having a population of 4000 inhabitants. About four miles further on lies Lestri, in a charming position, close to the sea, and a good halting-place. Beyond

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this, the road winds inland, and crossing the Bracco, the highest pass of the Appenines, descends to Borghetto, a poor-looking town, whence a level country is traversed as far as the hill above Spezzia, from which point the magnificent bay, one of the finest natural harbours in the world, encircled by high mountains, is seen expanded beneath, forming a coup d'æil rarely equalled in beauty. Leaving Spezzia, the traveller is ferried across the Magra, which after heavy rains frequently overflows its wide bed so as to interrupt the communication, and arrives at Sarzana, the last town on the Genoese territory.*

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* A bridge

projected across the Magra. A steamboat is likewise talked of from Genoa to the bay of Spezzia, to perform the journey within a short distance of Sarzana, in four hours.

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CHAPTER VI.

BATHS OF LUCCA-PISA AND ITS CLIMATE-LEGHORN-THE

MAREMMA-BATHS OF MONTE CATINI.

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AFTER a few miles' drive along a plain, passing the Modenese custom-house, the traveller arrives at Carrara, which lies at the foot of a steep hill in a picturesque position, enclosed by sterile mountains with snow-tipped summits, and is celebrated for the marble quarries which supply the studii of Rome and Florence with the materiel whence emanate those creations of the chisel which excite the admiration of the spectator. A good deal of the marble is likewise worked on the spot, in chimney-pieces and other decorative objects. The studii on the road-side are often visited en passant. Crossing the bill, whence an extensive tract of country is displayed, the traveller descends to Massa, the environs of which, abounding in vines, oranges, &c., constitute a complete garden. The town itself contains nothing remarkable except the ducal palace, a large structure in the square. The climate is mild, but no other inducement is offered for the sojourn of strangers. Some miles farther on, Tuscany is entered at PietroSanto (leaving Viareggio, a place of resort in summer for sea-bathing, on the right), and, crossing another steep hill, the fertile plain is traversed which extends to Lucca.

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