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trast to the tranquillity of Pisa. It has a population of upwards of 60,000, including the families of foreign merchants, and others not natives of Tuscany. The streets are wide and well-built, some of them being intersected by canals, as at Venice. From the spacious square a street of shops, displaying the merchandise from various countries, leads to the harbour, which is one of the most capacious and well-protected in the Mediterranean. As Leghorn is a free port, all articles of foreign importation may be obtained as reasonably as in their respective countries. Except the Jews' synagogue, and the English cemetery, there are few objects particularly worthy of notice. The climate is cold and variable in winter, and exceedingly hot in summer-at which time, on account of the neighbouring sea-marshes, it is a good deal infested with mosquitoes—several of the villas on the adjacent hills (Montenero) are, however, tolerably cool as summer residences. From the end of August to the middle of October there are usually a good many visiters at Leghorn for sea-bathing. Steamers leave four or five times a week for Civita Vecchia (fourteen hours), Naples (thirty hours), Genoa (eight or nine hours), and for Marseilles direct (about thirty hours).

Near Leghorn is a cold sulphurous spring, termed Acqua Puzzolente—where there is an establishment for bathing, and drinking the water.—It is highly spoken of in rheumatic and cutaneous affections. A road, traversed by a diligence, runs along the coast to Piombino and Grosseto, the chief town in the Tuscan Maremme; whence it is to be continued to Civita Vecchia Although much has been done by means of drainage and

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cultivation of this extensive tract of land, it is still very unhealthy in the summer months, at which period a large proportion of the inhabitants migrate to the mountainous regions, returning in the autumn. According to Professor Savi of Pisa, the malaria of the Maremma, is not occasioned solely by stagnating water on the land exposed to the sun's heat, but also from dry soil impregnated with saline principles, whenever heavy rains succeed to the summer heats. The quantity of sea-weed collected along the shores, when saturated with rain water, is likewise productive of noxious emanations; the prevalence of the siroccal wind passing over the Mediterranean ; the consequent greater

2 humidity of the air, and the drinking of impure waterare so many additional causes of the cachectic aspect of the inhabitants, and of the pernicious fevers to which they are subject.

From Leghorn to Florence, about four hours are required by rail, the road passing through the richest part of the duchy. Corn, grapes, and olives are cultivated in the same field; the vines, gracefully festooned from tree to tree, produce a pleasing effect. The soil yields two and sometimes three crops in the year. The peasantry appear cheerful; but in the towns, though no abject poverty is seen, the people are not so prosperous as before the late political disturbances of the peninsula. Many of the women in the villages are engaged in the manufacture of the straw-hats exported from Leghorn; they are mostly good-looking, and with the exception of the large, flexible, broad-brimmed straw hats, their style of dress is not unlike that of the lower classes in England.

The road from Lucca through Pistoia to Florence is likewise agreeably diversified with farms and cultivated lands; neat villages and towns. Near Pistoia are the baths of Monte Catini, which are a good deal frequented by the Florentines. The Grand Duke usually passes a portion of the season at his residence here. The baths lie in the Val di Nievole, one of the most fertile districts of Tuscany, encircled by hills, the acclivities of which are enlivened by numerous villas. There are four principal springs, each of which has its establishment for bathing and drinking. The approach to three of these, viz., Leopold, Bagno Regio, and Tettuccio, is by a fine avenue of planes and acacias. They are elegant structures, with commodious bathing cabinets, and requisite apparatus for douching, vapour baths, &c. There is an hospital for poor patients, to whose cases the waters are considered adapted. The temperature of the Leopold springs is 27° R. Between these and the Bagno Regio springs, the ground is disposed as a garden: the latter have a temperature of 20° Adjoining is the Tettuccio spring, which is principally employed for drinking, the water being also exported. The fourth spring, Riufresca, rises a short distance from the former ones. portion of the saline substance differs somewhat in these various springs. This is for the most part muriate of soda, with fractional portions of other salts. As compared with the quantity contained in sea-water, the proportion may be stated as follows :-Sea-water, 394 grains in 12 oz.; Leopold springs, 144; Bagno Regio, 88; Tettuccio, 48; and the Toretta (a new spring), 108 grains. The Riufresca spring contains

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about half the quantity of saline substance as the Tettuccio, and also the smallest proportion of carbonic acid gas. The amount of gas in the Leopold is twelve cubic inches in a hundred ounces of water.

The Leopold spring is chiefly employed in the form of bath, in cases of rheumatism and cutaneous diseases, as also in those of the joints, neuralgia, sciatica, and paralysis. The Bagno Regio is employed in the same class of cases, being preferred according to individual indications. The Tettuccio is mildly aperient and de-obstruent. It is used in disorders of the digestive apparatus, and is said to be highly efficacious in cases of obstinate diarrhoea and dysentery ; the action of the Riufresca is alterative and cooling, whence its name. This spring has been employed since the fourteenth century.

CHAPTER VII.

FLORENCE-ITS ENVIRONS AND CLIMATE-SIENNA.

FLORENCE lies at the north-eastern extremity of the Val d'Arno, an extensive and fertile plain, enclosed between the Appenines in these directions, and opening out towards the south and west. It is a cheerful looking city, encircled by high walls, and contains about 120,000 inhabitants. The principal streets are wide, clean, and paved throughout with flag-stones. Immediately over the left bank of the river, to the east, it is bounded by the hill of St. Miniato, crowned by a church and convent. The river flows through the town and the plain to Pisa, beyond which it empties itself in the sea. The quays are spacious and handsome, and are termed, as at Pisa, the Lung' Arno. The river is crossed within the city by four stone bridges. The Santa Trinità is regarded as a model of lightness and architectural beauty, and is ornamented at its corners with statues illustrative of the seasons. The old bridge was erected in the middle of the fourteenth century-a bridge having existed at this part from the time of the ancient Romans. By a decree issued in 1594, the shops on this bridge were reserved for goldsmiths, who have continued to occupy them; their work is not, however, remarkable for fineness of

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