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And upon the third, the last cited text, "ye are the temple of the living God," he says: Where God dwells, there is a temple. God dwells in good men by his spirit. They therefore are the temple of God. Nor is it without reason added living.' For the gods of the heathen were dead men.'
19. The commonness of spiritual gifts, and the ends and uses of them appear from many texts.
1.) Eph. i. 13. In whom "ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise:" or, with that Holy Spirit, which had been promised.
Upon which text Mr. Locke remarks in these words: The Holy Ghost was neither pro'mised, nor given to the heathens, who were apostates from God, and enemies, but only to the 'people of God. And therefore the converted Ephesians having received it, might be assured thereby, that they were now the people of God, and might rest satisfied in this pledge of it.'
2.) Eph. ii. 18. "For through him we both have access by one spirit unto the Father." For through him we are all encouraged in our access to the Father, and are persuaded of our 'acceptance with him: the like miraculous gifts, which can come from God only, having been 'bestowed equally upon Jews and Gentiles.
3.) Eph. iv. 30. "And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption:" or rather, wherewith ye were sealed in the day of redemption.
The miraculous gifts and powers bestowed upon the Christian church, in its early days, are enumerated in several places. Rom. xii. 6-8. 1 Cor. xii. 1-11. 28-30. xiii. 1, 2. xiv. Eph. iv. 11, 12. And see Eph. v. 18-20. Col. iii. 16. 1 Thess. v. 19-21.
These gifts and powers, bestowed upon the apostles, and others, soon after our Lord's ascension, vindicated them, and justified their preaching in his name, and enabled them to do it with
The pouring out of such gifts upon Cornelius, and his company, in an extraordinary manner, immediately from heaven, satisfied the apostles, that Gentiles might be received into the church, as God's people, upon faith in Jesus Christ, without taking upon them the observation of the rituals of the law of Moses. Acts x. 44-48. xi. 15-18.
And gifts of the spirit were bestowed upon many with the imposition of the hands of the apostles. Which afforded great comfort to them, as it satisfied them, that they were received by God, as his people and children. This appears in several texts. Some more of which shall be here alleged.
4.) Rom. i. 11. "For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end you may be established." Comp. xv. 29.
5.) Rom. v. 5. "And hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given to us."
6.) Rom. viii. 15—17. For ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry: Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirits, that we are the children of God. And if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ." See also ver. 23. And compare Gal. iv. 5-7.
7.) 1 Cor. vi. 11. "And such were some of you. But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Spirit of our God." That
is, ye have been cleansed, and sanctified by the doctrine of Christ, and have been fully assured ' of your acceptance with God, by the spiritual gifts conferred upon you.'
8.) 2 Cor. i. 21, 22. "Now he which establisheth us with you, in Christ, and has anointed us, is God. Who has also sealed us, and given the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts.
9.) 2 Cor. xi. 4. For, if he that cometh to you, preacheth another Jesus, whom we have not preached: or, if ye receive another Spirit, which ye have not received: or another gospel, which ye have not accepted, ye might well bear with him."
'inferri sinat, ne Deus ille, qui inhabitat, inquinatam sedem 'offensus derelinquat.'
OÙ EXETE ATO Bε8.] Spiritus ille a Deo est multo magis quam splendor ille, qui apparebat interdum inter Cherubinos. Constructio est Græca, quæ, relativo pronomini dat casum præcedentem. Grot. in loc.
Vos euin estis templum Dei vivi."] Templum est, ubi
Deus habitat. In piis habitat Deus per Spiritum Sanctum. Sunt igitur templum Dei. Idem sensus 1 Cor. iii. 17. et vi. 19. Nec frustra addidit wyros, quia dii gentium erant homines mortui. Grot. in loc.
Sic et dona illa Dei, puta prophetiæ, sanationes, linguæ, ejectiones dæmonum, certos reddebant credentes, de paternâ Dei in se benevolentiâ. Grot. in Eph. 1. 13.
By" another spirit" the apostle cannot mean another intelligent agent: but must mean greater and more excellent spiritual gifts, than those which had been imparted to the Corinthians by himself. Mr. Locke's paraphrase is in these words: Or, if you have received from him (the intruder) other, or greater gifts of the Spirit, than those you have received from me.' See 1 Cor. xii.
10.) Gal. iii. 2. "This only would I learn of you. Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?" This is paraphrased by Mr. Locke after this manner. This one thing I desire to know of you. Did you receive the miraculous gifts of the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the gospel preached to you ?”
11.) Ver. 5. "He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?" Here again Mr. Locke's paraphrase is this; The gifts of the Holy Ghost that have been conferred upon you, have they not been conferred upon you as Christians, professing faith in Jesus Christ, and not as observers of the law? And hath not he, who has conveyed these gifts to you, and done miracles among you, done it as a preacher and professor of the gospel??
By all ich texts we see, how common spiritual gifts were in the churches of Christ. St. Paul, in Eph. 13. cited just now, useth the expression, "that holy Spirit of promise." Our Lord's own words a... And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you," Luke xxiv. 49. Again, "He commaded them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father: Whish, said he, ye have heard of me," Acts i. 4. And see ch. ii. 33.
Indeed the promise of the spirit was made to all believers in general, and not to apostles only: though to them especially, and in a greater measure, than to others. The promise of the spirit is delivered by Jesus himself, by his forerunner, and by the ancient prophets, as the great blessing of the evangelical dispensation, or the privilege of the times of the Messiah.
Says our Lord's forerunner, "I baptize you with water-He shall baptize with the Holy Ghost, and with fire," Matt. iii. 11. Comp. Acts i. 5. ch.. xi. 16. Our Lord says, John vii. 38, 39. "He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers. of living water"— And, adds the evangelist: And, adds the evangelist: "This he spake of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive." And Mark xvi. 17, 18. "These signs shall follow them that believe." In my name shall they cast out dæmons. They shall speak with new tongues. They shall take up serpents. And if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them. They shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. For the promises of the Old Testament, I need. now refer only to Acts ii. 16-18. And St. Peter, directing and comforting those who were much affected with his first discourse after Christ's ascension," said unto them: Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins. And he shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is to you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call," ch. ii. 38, 39. Again: "And we are his witnesses of these things. And so also is the Holy Ghost, which God has given: to them that obey him," ver. 32..
20. I shall here put together some of those texts, which contain exhortations to such as were partakers of the Holy Ghost, or had been favoured with spiritual gifts.
1.) Eph. iv. 30. "And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption." Or, "with which ye were sealed in the day of redemption." This text. was quoted before, upon another account.
Here may be a reference to Is. Ixiii. 10. " By the spirit of God" the apostle means those powers and gifts with which those Christians had been sealed; and by which they might be known, both to themselves and others, to be the people of God. See Eph. i. 13, 14. In the preceding and following verses the apostle cautions the Ephesians to avoid every thing, by which God might be offended, and provoked to withhold his gracious influences, or to withdraw from them the gifts that had been bestowed upon them. "Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth-- Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil-speaking, be put away from you, with all malice."
• H wysupa trepov haμbavete, i un λabETE. Aut si is vobis potiora dona Spiritus conferre potuit, quam nos per ma◄ nuum impositionem vobis contulimus. Grot. in loe.
2.) Eph. v. 18, 19. "And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess: but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing, and making melody in your heart to the Lord." That is, be careful not to be drunk with wine, in which ⚫ men are too liable to exceed. But, when you are disposed to be cheerful, gratify and entertain yourselves and others, with a free exercise of the spiritual gifts wherewith God has blessed you.' Comp. Col. iv. 16.
3.) 1 Thess. v. 19-22. "Quench not the Spirit. Despise not prophesyings. Prove all things. Hold fast that which is good. Abstain from all appearance of evil."
Quench not, nor damp the spiritual gifts, with which you have been favoured, either by a
neglect of any of them, or by an irregular exercise of them, or by the indulgence of any sin. • And especially, do not despise, but cherish, and highly esteem the gift of prophesying, or 'speaking by inspiration for the instruction and edification of the church. And be sure that you take heed to, and examine what is proposed to you in your public assemblies. Embrace whatever is right and good, and reject every thing that is evil.'
The comment of Grotius upon those words, " Quench not the spirit," is to this purpose. By the Spirit" are meant the gifts of healing, and of tongues, which are fitly, compared to fire. And therefore may be said to be "stirred up," as in 2 Tim. i. 6. and on the other hand to be extinguished. They are stirred up by prayer, giving of thanks, and a continued regular practice of piety. And are extinguished by the contrary. For rod, under the evangelical dispensation, does not vouchsafe, or at least continue those guts to any but such as believe, and live piously. See Mark xvi. 17.
And Wolfius says, that' by "the Spirit," undoubtedly, are meant gifts of the Spirit, who is sometimes compared to fire, as 2 Tim. i. 6.
The apostle having delivered that direction, "Quench not the Spirit," relating to spiritual gifts in general, adds a particular caution, "Despise not prophesyings," because, though it was the most useful, and valuable gift of all, some, as it seems, were apt to prefer "speaking with tongues," as a more showy gift. This may be collected from what he writes, 2 Cor. xiv. And see particularly ver. 39.
"Abstain from all appearance of evil." Many understand this to be a direction, relating to practice in life, agreeably to our version; that Christians should not only abstain from what is really, and manifestly evil, but also from every thing that has but the appearance of being evil. And so Grotius understood this clause. But to me it seems, that this last clause is to be understood in connection with the former part, "prove all things:" and that it is intended to direct the right exercise of the judgment. Christians should examine all things proposed to them, embracing what is right, and rejecting every thing that is wrong. So this exhortation was understood by Pelagius. And Grotius himself interprets the former expressions, "prove all things, and hold fast that which is good," in the like manner.
4.) 1 Tim. iv. 14. " Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery."
5.) 2 Tim. i. 6. "Wherefore I put thee in remembrance, that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands."
I take no notice of any other texts of this kind. But it is well known, that the twelfth and fourteenth chapters of the first epistle to the Corinthians contain many directions for regulating the exercise of spiritual gifts, with which that church abounded. It is sufficient for me to refer to them. There are likewise in other epistles of the New Testament divers exhortations to
* Το πνεύμα μη σβεννυτε.] Spiritus hic sunt dona sanationum et linguarum, quae sicut in ignis formâ data erant, ita igni recte comparantur, ac proinde dicuntur, et suscitari.' 2 Tim. i. 6. et contra exstingui. Suscitantur' precibus, gratiarum actione, ac perpetuo studio pietatis: extinguuntur per contraria. Nam in Novo Testamento, maxime post constitutas ecclesias, Deus illa dona non vult dare aut servare, nisi credentibus, et pie viventibus. Vide Marc. xvi. 17 Grot. in loc.
Quod ad rem spectat, To ex omnia sunt dona spiritus S. qui cum igne solet comparari, quo sensu Paulus 2 Tim. i. 6. avaZwrupa sa xapioμà les jubet. Wolf. Curæ in 1 Th. v. 19.
ε Απο παντος είδες πονηρε απέχετε.] Christiani non a rebus malis tantum, sed ab iis, quæ speciem habent mali, abstinere debent. Exemplum vide 1 Cor. viii. 10. Grot. in 1 Thess. v. 21.
Tantum, ut probetis, si legi non sunt contraria, quæ dicuntur: si quid tale fuerit, refutate. Pelag. in 1 Thess. v. 21, 22. Ap. Hieron. Opp. T. V. p. 1082.
• Πάντα δοκιμαζόντες, το καλον κατέχετε. Hoc pertinet ad dixxpiσIS @VEUμaTwv. 1 Cor. xii. xiv. Sic 1 Joh. iv. 1. AcxiμaZETE TA пVEUμATα-Ergo wavra, omnia, hic restringendum ex antecedente ad ea quæ dicuntur ab eis, qui se prophetas dictitant. Grot. ad ver. 20.
Christians in regard to the gifts, with which they were favoured: as Rom. xii. S--8. 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11.
21. 1 Thess. i. 5. "For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance"-- ver. 6. " And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost."
The explication of this text shall be taken from Dr. Benson's paraphrase on the epistle. In as much as the gospel, preached by us, did not come unto you in word only; but was accompanied also with a miraculous power, and with our imparting unto you the Holy Spirit, and with full and abundant conviction to your minds.'
And we can bear witness to your amiable behaviour. For you became imitators of us, and of the Lord Jesus Christ: in that you steadily adhered to the truth, amidst great difficulties and discouragements, after you had received the gospel, in much affliction, with the joy, 'which ariseth from your having the Holy Spirit.' The same learned writer, in his note upon the fifth verse, says: By power I understand the power of working of miracles, exerted by the apostle, or his assistants. And by the Holy Ghost, or Holy Spirit, I understand the gift of the Spirit, as imparted to the Thessalonians.'
22. Heb. ix. 14. "How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God?"
Dr. Whitby, in his Annotations upon Heb. v. 5. says, that Christ was by his death consecrated to his priesthood, and dates the commencement of our Lord's priesthood at his resurrection. This sentiment has been much improved by the late Mr. Thomas Moore in his discourse concerning the priesthood of Christ. I may refer to one place particularly, where he says, The time, when Jesus was called to, and invested with the order of priesthood, was at • his resurrection from the dead.' Which he argues from Heb. v. 10. compared with Acts xiii. 33. See him p. 11, 12, 13.
That may be the key to this text. However, there are some other interpreters, who have well explained it, as we shall see presently, though they have not so distinctly settled the date of Christ's priesthood.
"How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience?”
When our Lord offered himself to God, or presented himself before God, he was risen from the dead, and had obtained everlasting life," to die no more," as St. Paul says, Rom. vi. 9, 10. And in Ps. cx. 4. the only place in the Old Testament, where Christ's priesthood is spoken of, it is said: "The Lord has sworn, and will not repent: thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec." This the writer of the epistle to the Hebrews often observes, and insists · much upon. As Heb. vii. 21. where the text of the Psalm is quoted, see also ver. 11. And at ver. 24, 25. "But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost, that come unto God by him seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them." And ver. 15, 16, of the same chapter: "For that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life." And ch. v. 9. "And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation to them that obey him." And ver. 12, of this ch. ix. just before the text, which we are now considering, he speaks of Christ's "having obtained eternal redemption for us." And ver. 15.--" that they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance." And in 1 Cor. xv. 45, "the last Adam," meaning the Lord Jesus, is said to be "a quickening Spirit."
The meaning of this text therefore seems to be this: That Christ being now" entered ⚫ into heaven itself," ch. ix. 24. that is, the true holy of holies, by his own never-dying spirit, or by "the power of an endless life," ch. vii. 16. he "offered himself to God," or presented himself before God, having been innocent, and unspotted in his whole life on earth, and being "now" made perfect, and higher than the heavens." Ch. v. 9. and vii. 26, 28.
Which is very agreeable to the annotations of Grotius upon this verse."
• Oblatio autem Christi hic intelligitur illa, quæ oblationi legali in adyto facta respondet. Ea autem est non oblatio VOL. V.
in altari crucis facta, sed facta in adyto cœlesti. Facta autem ibi est, per Spiritum æternum,' aut, ut ante dixit vii. 16. 3 H
There are some others likewise, who have so pertinently criticised upon this text, that I am willing to transcribe their remarks below, for the sake of intelligent readers.*
23. Heb. x. 28, 29. "He that despised Moses' law, died without mercy, under two or three witnesses. Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who has trodden under foot the Son of God, and has counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and has done despite unto the spirit of grace?"
The case here supposed is that of apostasy from the Christian faith. The persons intended are such as those spoken of ch. vi. 4. "Who had tasted of the heavenly gift, and were partakers of the Holy Ghost." And one of the aggravations of their apostasy is, that "they had done despite to the spirit of grace:" or rejected, and cast reproach upon that great evidence of the truth of the Christian religion, the miraculous gifts, which God had most graciously bestowed upon themselves and others. So' Grotius. And Limborch expresseth himself to the like purpose. 24. 1 John v. 5-10. "Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth, that Jesus is the Son of God? This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ, not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit truth. For there are three that bear witness, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood. these three agree in one. If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater for this is the witness of God, which he has testified of his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the witness in himself. He that believeth not God, hath made him a liar, because he believeth not the record, that God gave of his Son."
I have quoted this passage according to the Alexandrian, and other ancient manuscripts, and the citations in ancient writers, without regarding any modern printed copies: which, indeed, deserve not any regard.
Some have paraphrased the former part of ver. 6. in this manner. Now that this Jesus Christ was a real man, and died, we have the utmost testimony. For I myself, when he expired on the cross, saw his side pierced with a spear, and blood and water gush out at the wound: which are two determining proofs that he really died.' Supposing, that here is a reference to what is related in St. John's gospel, xix. 34, 35.
But that is manifestly a weak and arbitrary interpretation. St. John is not here observing the proofs of our Lord's real humanity, but of his being the Son of God, the Messiah.
To me it seems, that the water, an emblem of purity, [Ezek. xxxvi. 25.] denotes the innocence of our Lord's life, which was without spot, and exemplary: and the reasonableness, ex
'per vim vitæ indissolubilis,' quia spiritus ejus jam non erat vivens tantum, ut in vitâ hac terrenâ, sed in æternum corpus sibi adjunctum 'vivificans.' 1 Cor. xv. 45-Ata hic sume, ut supra ver. 12. pro præpositione cum, quomodo et Hebræum a poni solet. Intelligitur hinc dignitas oblationis, quod eam fecit is, qui jam spiritu et corpore erat immortalis. Sanguini autem purgatio ista tribuitur, quia per sanguinem, id est, mortem Christi, secutâ ejus excitatione et evectione, gignitur in nobis fides. Rom. iii. 25.Cum dicit auwuor, respicit legem victimarum Lev. xxii. 20.-In victimis legalibus nulJum debebat esse corporis vitium: in Christi vitâ nihil fuit vitiosum. Et ideo spiritu illo æterno statim donatus est. Grot. Annot. in Heb. ix. 14.
* Ος δια πνευματος αιωνιε.] Qui a mortuis suscitatus, cum spirituali et immortali corpore (quod antequam in cœleste tabernaculum ingrederetur, accepit) omnis infirmitatis et patibilitatis labe, quæ mortali naturæ inhærent, purgatum semetipsum obtulit Deo, sedens ad dexteram majestatis ejus in coelis. Brenius in loc.
Christum autem, cujus sanguinem opponit sanguini taurorum et hircorum, describit, quod per spiritum æternum seipsum Deo immaculatum obtulerit.' Christo jam e mortuis suscitato tribuit ' spiritum æternum: quia post resuscitationem anima ejus non amplius est anima vivens, sed spiritus vivificans. 1 Cor. xv. 45. diciturque habere vitam indissolubilem, supra, vii. 16. et in æternum manere. ver. 24. Vivit ergo in omnem æternitatem, ut sit æternus Pontifex. Christus nimirum sanguinem suum, tamquam victima, in cruce effudit,
et cum isto sanguine, id est, virtute illius sanguinis, jam e mortuis suscitatus, et spiritus vivificus ac æternus, seipsum in cœlis obtulit Deo, id est, coram Deo pro nobis comparuit.
Dicitur autem hic se obtulisse immaculatum,' non tantum respectu vitæ suæ, quam hic in terris degit, quâtenus sine ullâ peccati labe vixit. 1 Pet. ii. 22. 2 Cor. v. 21. sed et respectu status illius cœlestis, quo nunc fruitur, ab omni infirmitate, cui hic in terris in statu humiliationis obnoxius fuit, adeo ut nihil in ipso, ut æternus sit Pontifex, desiderari possit. Vid. cap. vii. 26. Ph. Limborch in Ep. ad Heb. cap. ix. 14.
. Και το πνεύμα της χαριτος ενυβρισας: “ et spiritui gratize contumeliam fecerit.'] Spiritum illum, quem summo Dei beneficio acceperat, contumeliâ afficiens: nullius pretii æstimans tantum donum, quo se ipse ait privatum. Grot. in loc.
c Tertium. 'Et spiritum gratiæ contumelià affecit. Spiritus gratiæ est spiritus ille, qui in initio prædicationis evangelii datus fuit credentibus, ad confirmationem divinitatis evangelii: nimirum dona illa extraordinaria spiritus sancti, quæ passim in Actis et epistolis Apostolorum in credentes. effusa legimus. Qui vocatur spiritus gratiæ, tum quia ex gratiâ divinâ credentibus datus est; tum quia per illum obsignata fuit divinitas doctrinæ Jesu Christi, in quâ maxima et excellentissima Dei gratia patefacta est. Limb. in Ep. ad Heb. p. 667.
And yet it is followed by the late Mr. Wetstein: Probavit se non phantasma, sed verum hominem esse, qui ex spiritu, sanguine, et aquâ seu humore constaret. Joh. xix. 34, 35. J. J. Wetstein in loc. p. 721.