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subsequent to the religious revolution of the sixteenth cen*tury, religion became less directly social in its action; and if the action and interference of what is now called the State in every department of social life is continually extending, this may not inaptly be said to be due to the fact that it has largely taken up the direct social work and direction from which the Church found herself perhaps compelled to recede, in order to concentrate her efforts more intensely on the promotion of more purely and strictly religious influences. It is impossible to study the available sources of information about the period immediately preceding the change without recognising that, so far from the Church being a merely effete or corrupt agency in the commonwealth, it was an active power for popular good in a very wide sense. At any rate, whatever view we may take of the results of the Reformation, to understand rightly the conditions of religious thought and life on the eve of the religious revolution is a condition of being able really to read aright our own time and to gauge the extent to which present tendencies find their root or their justification in the past.

INDEX.

Abbots, display in elections of, 114
Abraham, religious play, 281
Adrian VI., Pope, 139
Aggeus, Augustine, 272
Aldine press, at Venice, 141
Aldus, printer, 142, 147
Alexander VI„ Pope, 91
Alms, 116

Alton, foundation for obits at, 355-

Amberbach, printer, 146
Amyas Chantry, 354
Andronicus, 22
Angels, devotion to, 270
Anti-clerical spirit, 101, 105
Antoninus, St., Archbishop of Flor-
ence, 85

*' Apology " of Sir Thomas More, 64, 65, 102, 108, 127
Archaeology, pagan and Christian, 182

Architecture, pre-Reformation activity
in, 8-9, 288 el seq. ; decline of the
art, 289

Aretino, 21

Art, great activity of, prior to Re-
formation, 9-10
Arundel, Archbishop, 208
Ashley, Mr. W. J., cited, 333, 339
Augmentation, Court of, 338

Badsworth, chantry foundation at,

Baigent, Mr. F. T., 327, note
Baker, mediaeval fresco painter, 10
Baptism, 199

Barbaras, Hermolaus, 27, 29, note
Barnes, Friar, 79, 104,105, 120, 197-
198

Basle, printing-press at, 146
Baynard's Castle, meeting at, 62
Beccles, foundation at, 359
Becket, Thomas, 388
Bede-roll, 295, 299
Benedict XII., 92

Benedictine Order, average of gra-
duates at Oxford, 39

Benefices, 50, 94, 96, note, 311

Benefit of clergy, 50

Bequests, mediaeval, 343 et seq.

Bere, Abbot, of Glastonbury, 36, and
note

Berthelet, publisher, 65, note, 66,
87, note, 90, note, 95, note, 98, 121,
note, 262

Bible, the Bishops', 218

Bible, Erasmus' translation, 148 et
seq.

Bible, English, hostility to, 208;
evidence of Catholic acceptance,
209, 213-214, 218; supposed early
Catholic version, 209, 213, 218;
persecutions for possession ex-
amined, 212, and note, 213 ; trans-
lations authorised, 213-214, 218-
219 ; not prohibited, 218, 243-244;
absence of popular demand for,
220-221; Tyndale's version and
Luther's share in it, 222 et seq.;
useless without interpretation, 243

Bishops, and ordination, 131; and
spiritual jurisdiction, 135; obstacles
to Reformation, 390

Blackfriars, meetings at, 61

Bombasius, Paul, 31, and note

Bond, William, 74, 268

Boniface VIII., Pope, 88

Books, heretical, prohibited, 189-191;
More on heretical, 193, et seq.

Books, earliest printed, largely re-
*ligious, 277
Bourbon, Duke of, 203
Boyer, Sebastian, Court physician,
141

Brentano, Mr., cited, 319-320
Brethren of St. John's, 329; and Hospital, 330
Brettun, William, 272, and note
Brewer, Mr., cited, 129-130,187, 220,

246

Brotherhoods, Parish, 305
Brunfels, Otto, 171
Brygott, Richard, prior of Westacre,

Bucer, 189
Burials, 49

Burnet, historian, cited, 4 Bury St. Edmunds, chantries at, 360 Butley, Priory of, 40

Calendar of papers, domestic and
foreign, of reign of Henry VIII., 3

Cambray, Bishop of, 140

Cambridge, portions of Prior Selling's
library at, 30; monastic students
at, 40; petition of scholars to the
king, 43

Camptggio, Cardinal, 158, 159, 160

Canterbury, Archbishop of, on clerical
immunity, 62

Canterbury, entertainment of Em-
peror Manutl at Christchurch, 20;
Selling and Hadley, monks of
Chiistchurch, 22 et seq.; Canter-
bury College at Oxford, 25, and
note; St. Augustine's and the lite-
rary movement, 37

Caraffa, Cardinal, afterwards Paul
IV., 93, 95. 38S

Carmelites, origin, 104; responsi-
bility for Lutheranism, 173

Caxton, 243, note

Chalcocondylas, Demetrius, 22, 26

Chantries, 109, 352, 353

Chapels of ease, 363

Chaplains, evil effects of their posi-
tion, 122-123

Charnock, Prior, 36

Chaucer cited, 365

Children, and idols, 257; religious
instruction of, 274, 275-276

Christchurch, see Canterbury

Christianity and the classical revival,
179-182

Chrysoloras, Manuel, Greek scholar,
21, and note

Chrysostom, St., cited, 108

Church, position of, prior to Refor-
mation, 1, 130, 187; need of re-
form in, 5 sei-! attitude to
learning, 14, 19, 32-36, 38; hosti-
lity to " New Learning" explained,
\6,etseq., 18; limits of jurisdiction,
47; and disputations entailed,
ibid.; State right to regulate tem-
poralities of, 48 et seq.; king as
supreme head, 59, 99; rights, 59;
what constitutes, 63; riches coveted,
67 ; Pope as head, J^etseq. ; Papal
Commission appointed to save,
93; evils in, and how caused, 94;
abuses pointed out by Commission,
95, note, 96, note, 97, note; limila-
taiions of king's Headship, 99-100;
controversy on riches of, 109;
Erasmus' attitude to, 148 el seq. ,
176 - 178; Erasmus regarded as
an enemy to, 154-156; Lutheran
tenets concerning, 171: need of
Reform obscured by Reformation,
175; attack on, 191; attitude to
vernacular Bibles, 208 et seq., 216-
219; but hostility to denied, 213-
214, 217-218, 221 ; religious teach
ing prior to Reformation, 245 et
seq.; charges against on points of
worship, 258, 266-267» bequests
to, 343 et !suggested disposal
of wealth of, 390; abuses in, 365 Church of Christ, sermon on, 80

Church-building, activity of, 287;
contributions of people towards be-
quests for, 287, and note, 344;
decoration, 288, 292

Church House, 300

Churchyards, trees and grass in, 55

Cicero, and the classical revival, 179-
182

Ciceroniana of Erasmus, 179
Clark,Dr. John, English Ambassador,
84

Classical revival, Erasmus on, 179;absurdities of, 179-180
! Claymond, John, Greek scholar, 37,
I note, 38, note

Clement, John, 34, note Clement, Pope, 97, note Clergy, alleged encouragement of
ignorance, 2, 245; mortuary dues,
49, 123-127; "benefit," 50 ; rights
and duties, 56, 59-64; ordinations,
57, 131-135 ; exemptions, 57; im-
munity, 60 et seq. ; not the Church,
63; position as individuals, 64;
attack on their temporalities, 91;
laity's grievance against, 101 et
seq.; and its causes, 106, 122;
defended by More, 106-107 i alleged
mercenary spirit, 109; and idle
laxity of living, 113; prayers, 116;
alms, 116-118; fasting and mortifi-
cation, 118; charges of corruption,
120; lack of definite work, 121,
note; in households of laity, 122;
tithe exactions, 125; faults, 126-
128; alleged immorality, 128-129;
charge of simony, 129; Mr.
Brewer cited on, 129-130; igno-
rance of, 133; hostility to verna-
cular scriptures examined, 208 et
seq., 214, 217; and reasons for
not encouraging, 213, 215; extent
and character of their religious
teaching, 247 et seq. ; books used
by for teaching, 271 et seq.; chantry
clergy, 352, 357-360, 364 , pilgrim-
ages and relics maintained by, 365;
and motives for, 371, 374
"Clericus," 67

Cloth, clerical, State's right to legis-
late on, 55

Cochlseus, John, 223, 224, note

Colet, Dean, 6, 18, 27, and note, 31,
note, 132, 141, 145, 148 Commerce, progress not due to Re-
formation, 7

Commissioners, royal, 334, 338 Compostella, pilgrimages to, 366 Concordat, between Leo X. and
Francis I., 69

Concubines, alleged licences for, 128 Confession, 199, 248, 253 Congregation, denoting church, 153,
note, 231-234

Conscience, examinations of, 252

Constantine, donation to Pope, 85 Constantine, scholar, 22 Constantine, George, 196

Constantinople, effect of fall of, 22
Constitution, Provincial, 209-211,

214, 247
Contarini, Cardinal, 95, 97, note
Convocation, grant of Headship of
Church to the king, 99 ; enactment
regarding ordination, 131-132;powers of legislation transferred to
the Crown, 135; draws up list of
heretical books, 190
Corpus Christi, feast of, 328; proces-
sion of guilds, 329; at Corunna,
366-367 Council of Trent, 5, 97, note, 386
Courts, ecclesiastical, subject to Pope,
72 Coverdale, Myles, 91, 228 Cranmer, and the English Bible, 208,

218; on hearing mass, 286
Creeping to the Cross, 266
Criticism in the Church, 137, 151
Croke, Richard, 33, note, 90, note
Cross, honour to on Good Friday,

266 Crowley, quoted, 336 Crucifix, reverence of image of, 254-

255, 264, 269; not an idol, 258
Crumwell, Thomas, 100, 135
Curates and mortuaries, 123-125 ; and

tithes, 125
Cuthbert (Tunstall), Bishop, 194

Dalton, John, of Hull, will of, 344

Dead, prayers for, 341, 352

De Athegua, George, Bishop, 157,

and note
De Burgo, John, 272
Dee, Dr., supplication to Queen

Mary, 44
Defence of Peace, 91, 92, note
Degree, advantage of, to religious, 41
De Melton, William, Chancellor of

York, 131
De Ribbe, M. Charles, on wills, 342,

note Determinations of the Universities,

90, note
Deventer, school, 138-139
De Worde, Wynkyn, 74, 131, 243,

note, 251, and note, 262, 275
Digon, John, Canterbury monk, 38,

and note

- Dislike of clergy, alleged, 101;reasons for, 112, 122
Dispensations, 94

Dives et Pauper, 250, 262, 311, 312
Division between spirituality and

temporality, Saint-German's work

on, 102 et seq., 108, 112, 123
Divorce question, the, and its share

in the Reformation, 184, and note
Doctors of Divinity, Erasmus's satire

on, 177
Dollinger, Dr., cited, 20
Dominicans, the, and Erasmus, 165;

responsibility for Lutheranism, 173
Dorpius, Marten, 149-150
Dues of clergy, 49 Dunstan's, St., Canterbury, 304;

parish accounts, 305
Dialogue of Saint-German, epetseq.,

102, 123; of More, 231, 237,255

Ecclesiastical authority, alleged
discontent of laity under, I, 101,
184, et seq., 366; limits of, 47

Ecclesiastical discipline, inquiry into,
385 .

Ecclesiastics, attitude to revival of
learning, 33-35, 38; resistance to
encroachment, 47, 49; Erasmus'
satire on, 177 et seq.; attitude to
English Bible, 208 et seq.; alleged
encouragement of ignorance, 2,245

Edgworth, Roger, preacher, 15, 42,
188, 215, 239, 240, note, 257, 316

Education, fostered by monasteries,
41

Encomium Moria, of Erasmus, 142,
177, et seq.; 378

Erasmus, attitude to Reformation, 6,
19; made responsible for "New
Learning," 14, note ; but attitude to
defined, 18, 19; his chief support
in England, 35 ; position and views,
137; considered a Reformer, 138,
157, 159-160; birth and education,
•38-139; joins order of St. Augus-
tine, 139; ordained, ibid.; unfitness
for religious life, ibid.; hostility
to religious orders, 139, 159, 165,
177; denounces enticing of youths
into cloister, 140; leaves the
religious life, 140-141; takes
pupils, 141 ; at Oxford, ibid.

Erasmus—
In London, 141 ; visits Italy, ibid.;
his Adagia, ibid.; visits Venice,
ibid. ; returns to London, 142; his
Encomium Aforia, 142, 177 et seq.,
378; at Cambridge, 142-143 ; testimony to Archbishop Warham's
kindness, 143; praise of English
ecclesiastics, 144, note; amounts
received from English friends, 145;
again leaves England, 146; settles
at Basle, ibid.; superintends Fro-
ben's press, 146; death, 147; atti-
tude to Church, 148 et seq., 176-
177; translation of New Testa-
ment, 148, et seq.; attacks on, 153
et seq.; regarded as an enemy to
the Church, 154-156: opposition
to his revival of Greek, 156-157;
defends himself to the Pope, 158,
160-161; disclaims connection with
Luther, 159-161, 164, 172-175;
opposition to national churches,
161, note; attitude to Luther, 163,
'72, 173-175! attacks Luther,
164; replies to von Hutten's at-
tacks, 165 et seq.; attitude to the
Pope, 167-168, and note, 170, 171-
172, 174; attacks Lutheran mo-
tives, 169-170; letter to Bishop
Marlianus on attitude to Luther,
174; general attitude to religious
movement of his age, 177 et seq.;
and to the classical revival, 179;
on pilgrimages and relics, 365, 367,
378; on devotion to saints, 379 et
seq.

Eton College Chapel, wall paintings
of, 10

Evensong, said before noon, 118
Exemptions of clergy, 57, 68

Fairs, 333 et seq.; at Winchester,
333

Faith, The Olde, of Great Brilaynt
and the New Learning of England,
16, and note

Fasting, 118

Ferguson, Mr., quoted on architec-
tural art, 289

Fineux, Chief-Justice, tries John
Savage, 52 et seq.; opinion on
SDiritual courts, 62; 306

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